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[PMID]:29190758
[Au] Autor:Schneider CR; Zaval L; Weber EU; Markowitz EM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The influence of anticipated pride and guilt on pro-environmental decision making.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188781, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The present research explores the relationship between anticipated emotions and pro-environmental decision making comparing two differently valenced emotions: anticipated pride and guilt. In an experimental design, we examined the causal effects of anticipated pride versus guilt on pro-environmental decision making and behavioral intentions by making anticipated emotions (i.e. pride and guilt) salient just prior to asking participants to make a series of environmental decisions. We find evidence that anticipating one's positive future emotional state from green action just prior to making an environmental decision leads to higher pro-environmental behavioral intentions compared to anticipating one's negative emotional state from inaction. This finding suggests a rethinking in the domain of environmental and climate change messaging, which has traditionally favored inducing negative emotions such as guilt to promote pro-environmental action. Furthermore, exploratory results comparing anticipated pride and guilt inductions to baseline behavior point toward a reactance eliciting effect of anticipated guilt.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tomada de Decisões
Monitoramento Ambiental
Culpa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188781


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[PMID]:28418818
[Au] Autor:Rand K; Vallis M; Aston M; Price S; Piccinini-Vallis H; Rehman L; Kirk SFL
[Ad] Endereço:a Healthy Populations Institute , Dalhousie University , Halifax , Canada.
[Ti] Título:"It is not the diet; it is the mental part we need help with." A multilevel analysis of psychological, emotional, and social well-being in obesity.
[So] Source:Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being;12(1):1306421, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1748-2631
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this research, we explored the psychological, emotional, and social experiences of individuals living with obesity, and perceptions of health care providers. We conducted a theoretical thematic analysis using two theoretical frameworks applied to transcripts from a previous qualitative study. Themes from a mental well-being framework were subsequently categorized under five environmental levels of the Social-Ecological Model (SEM). Key mental well-being themes appeared across all levels of the SEM, except the policy level. For the individual environment, one main theme was food as a coping mechanism and source of emotional distress. In the interpersonal environment, two themes were (a) blame and shame by family members and friends because of their weight and (b) condemnation and lack of support from health professionals. In the organizational environment, one main theme was inadequate support for mental well-being issues in obesity management programmes. In the community environment, one major theme the negative mental well-being impact of the social stigma of obesity. An overarching theme of weight stigma and bias further shaped the predominant themes in each level of the SEM. Addressing weight stigma and bias, and promoting positive mental well-being are two important areas of focus for supportive management of individuals living with obesity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Psicológica
Emoções
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
Saúde Mental
Obesidade/psicologia
Meio Social
Estresse Psicológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Dieta
Feminino
Culpa
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Análise Multinível
Obesidade/terapia
Preconceito
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Vergonha
Estigma Social
Apoio Social
Programas de Redução de Peso
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170419
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/17482631.2017.1306421


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[PMID]:28391816
[Au] Autor:Akhavan A; Moradi MH; Vand SR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: amir.akhavan@aut.ac.ir.
[Ti] Título:Subject-based discriminative sparse representation model for detection of concealed information.
[So] Source:Comput Methods Programs Biomed;143:25-33, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7565
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of machine learning approaches in concealed information test (CIT) plays a key role in the progress of this neurophysiological field. In this paper, we presented a new machine learning method for CIT in which each subject is considered independent of the others. The main goal of this study is to adapt the discriminative sparse models to be applicable for subject-based concealed information test. METHODS: In order to provide sufficient discriminability between guilty and innocent subjects, we introduced a novel discriminative sparse representation model and its appropriate learning methods. For evaluation of the method forty-four subjects participated in a mock crime scenario and their EEG data were recorded. As the model input, in this study the recurrence plot features were extracted from single trial data of different stimuli. Then the extracted feature vectors were reduced using statistical dependency method. The reduced feature vector went through the proposed subject-based sparse model in which the discrimination power of sparse code and reconstruction error were applied simultaneously. RESULTS: Experimental results showed that the proposed approach achieved better performance than other competing discriminative sparse models. The classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the presented sparsity-based method were about 93%, 91% and 95% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using the EEG data of a single subject in response to different stimuli types and with the aid of the proposed discriminative sparse representation model, one can distinguish guilty subjects from innocent ones. Indeed, this property eliminates the necessity of several subject EEG data in model learning and decision making for a specific subject.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inteligência Artificial
Eletroencefalografia
Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
Revelação da Verdade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Mapeamento Encefálico
Crime
Eletrodos
Culpa
Voluntários Saudáveis
Seres Humanos
Aprendizagem
Modelos Lineares
Aprendizado de Máquina
Distribuição Aleatória
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Razão Sinal-Ruído
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170411
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28369117
[Au] Autor:Chen C; Chen J; He G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Social Work and Social Administration, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, P.R. China.
[Ti] Título:Immorally obtained principal increases investors' risk preference.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0175181, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Capital derived from immoral sources is increasingly circulated in today's financial markets. The moral associations of capital are important, although their impact on investment remains unknown. This research aims to explore the influence of principal source morality on investors' risk preferences. Three studies were conducted in this regard. Study 1 finds that investors are more risk-seeking when their principal is earned immorally (through lying), whereas their risk preferences do not change when they invest money earned from neutral sources after engaging in immoral behavior. Study 2 reveals that guilt fully mediates the relationship between principal source morality and investors' risk preferences. Studies 3a and 3b introduce a new immoral principal source and a new manipulation method to improve external validity. Guilt is shown to the decrease the subjective value of morally flawed principal, leading to higher risk preference. The findings show the influence of morality-related features of principal on people's investment behavior and further support mental account theory. The results also predict the potential threats of "grey principal" to market stability.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Criminoso
Culpa
Investimentos em Saúde/ética
Revelação da Verdade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Renda
Masculino
Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170404
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0175181


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[PMID]:28290062
[Au] Autor:Winter D; Bohus M; Lis S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. Dorina.Winter@zi-mannheim.de.
[Ti] Título:Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.
[So] Source:Curr Psychiatry Rep;19(3):17, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1535-1645
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia
Emoções
Motivação
Autoimagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico
Feminino
Culpa
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Autoavaliação
Vergonha
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11920-017-0771-0


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[PMID]:28247936
[Au] Autor:Peskin H
[Ad] Endereço:Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California, 530 Bush St., San Francisco, CA 94108, USA.
[Ti] Título:Uses of guilt in the treatment of dehumanization.
[So] Source:Int J Psychoanal;98(2):473-489, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1745-8315
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:It is likely that under the impact of impending Nazism, aggression theory in late Freud, as presented in Civilization and its Discontents (1930), left the entirety of guilt to self-punishment, thus retracting his view that love functions in the superego as remorse and restitution. This change however, essentially withdraws provision for treating victims of abuse, violence and terror. This paper proposes a paradigm shift that reframes Freud's late instinct theory into a theory of dehumanization by recovering reparative and relational components of guilt. This reframe has major implications for the position taken with regard to the role of witnessing and the moral imperative in recovery from dehumanizing experience, which orthodox psychoanalytic theory has essentially bypassed. It is propose that victim treatment, as case examples illustrate, reformulates guilt as drawing on the life instincts to revivify victims' humanity through analytic witnessing and acknowledgment. Indeed, unless breaches of humanity are confronted by a witness, the life instincts stay merely rhetorical, if not contradictory, by leaving the death instincts to grow unseen and, thus, unopposed. A two-fold formulation of guilt may better address and redress disorders of dehumanization, whereby 'death guilt' (under the sway of aggression) signifies the orthodox, irrevocable guilt of self-reproach for the bad we may have done, and 'life guilt' (under the sway of a moral imperative) the redeemable guilt for the good we have still to do.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agressão/psicologia
Desumanização
Culpa
Amor
Teoria Psicanalítica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170724
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170724
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170302
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1745-8315.12628


  7 / 3968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28247431
[Au] Autor:Sakrisvold ML; Granhag PA; Mac Giolla E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
[Ti] Título:Partners under Pressure: Examining the Consistency of True and False Alibi Statements.
[So] Source:Behav Sci Law;35(1):75-90, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1099-0798
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:How to discriminate between honest and deceptive alibi statements holds great legal importance. We examined this issue from the perspective of group deception. Our goals were to (a) compare the consistency between the statements of guilty and innocent suspects and those of their respective alibi witnesses, and (b) to examine the moderating role of object-salience on the level of consistency between their statements. Pairs of truth-tellers provided honest testimonies. Pairs of liars were divided into perpetrators and alibi witnesses. Statements of lying pairs were considerably more consistent than the statements of truth-telling pairs. In addition, both truth-tellers and liars showed lower levels of within-group consistency when recalling less salient details about an event. However, truth-tellers' consistency levels were considerably more affected by salience than were liars' consistency levels. These findings contribute to deception theory and have important implications for the real-life task of distinguishing between true and false alibi statements. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Direito Penal
Decepção
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Comportamento Criminoso
Feminino
Culpa
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Noruega
Polícia
Distribuição Aleatória
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170622
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170622
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170302
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/bsl.2275


  8 / 3968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28233336
[Au] Autor:Price HL; Dahl LC
[Ad] Endereço:Psychology, Okanagan College, 1000 KLO Rd, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1Y 4X8, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Investigator Sensitivity to Alibi Witness Inconsistency after a Long Delay.
[So] Source:Behav Sci Law;35(1):60-74, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1099-0798
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In two studies, mock investigators conducted a computer-based investigation of a crime involving an alibi witness who varied in the consistency of his statements taken 5 years apart. Investigators showed evidence of skepticism of alibi witness statements in which major contradictions (activity, location) were present, and some skepticism of statements in which minor (activity) details were contradictory. Entirely consistent statements were judged favorably, and reduced perceptions of suspect guilt (Study 2). The age of the alibi witness did not impact judgments of suspect guilt when children (6 years) and adults (25 years) were compared (Study 1, N = 254), or when children of different ages were compared (6, 8, 11 years; Study 2, N = 234). The present data suggest that investigators were relatively more sensitive to considerations of accuracy than honesty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Direito Penal/métodos
Criminologia/métodos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia
Polícia/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Criança
Crime
Decepção
Feminino
Culpa
Seres Humanos
Julgamento
Masculino
Distribuição Aleatória
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170622
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170622
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170225
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/bsl.2276


  9 / 3968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28232639
[Au] Autor:Baer TE; Feraco AM; Tuysuzoglu Sagalowsky S; Williams D; Litman HJ; Vinci RJ
[Ad] Endereço:Divisions of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, tamara.baer@childrens.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Título:Pediatric Resident Burnout and Attitudes Toward Patients.
[So] Source:Pediatrics;139(3), 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1098-4275
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Burnout occurs in up to 75% of resident physicians. Our study objectives were to: (1) determine the prevalence of burnout, and (2) examine the association between burnout and self-reported patient care attitudes and behaviors among pediatric residents. METHODS: A total of 258 residents (53% response rate) from 11 pediatric residency programs completed a cross-sectional Web-based survey. Burnout was measured with 2 items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Patient care attitudes and behaviors were measured with 7 questions from a standardized qualitative survey. χ and logistic regression tested the association between burnout and self-reported patient care attitudes and behavior. RESULTS: A total of 39% of respondents (mean age, 29.4 years ± 2.3 SD; 79% female; 83% white; 35% postgraduate year [PGY] -1, 34% PGY-2, and 31% PGY-3), endorsed burnout. Residents with burnout had significantly greater odds ( < .01) of reporting suboptimal patient care attitudes and behaviors, including: discharging patients to make the service more manageable (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-11.1), not fully discussing treatment options or answering questions (aOR 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7-7.1), making treatment or medication errors (aOR 7.1; 95% CI, 2.0-25.8), ignoring the social or personal impact of an illness (aOR 9.6; 95% CI, 3.2-28.9), and feeling guilty about how a patient was treated (aOR 6.0; 95% CI, 1.6-22.1). CONCLUSIONS: Burnout is highly prevalent among pediatric residents and is associated with self-reported negative patient care attitudes and behaviors. Residency programs should develop interventions addressing burnout and its potential negative impact on patient care.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Esgotamento Profissional/complicações
Internato e Residência
Pediatras/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia
Comunicação
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Culpa
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos
New England/epidemiologia
Alta do Paciente
Relações Médico-Paciente
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170225
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 3968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28193554
[Au] Autor:Hurst M; Dittmar H; Banerjee R; Bond R
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: m.hurst@sussex.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:"I just feel so guilty": The role of introjected regulation in linking appearance goals for exercise with women's body image.
[So] Source:Body Image;20:120-129, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6807
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Appearance goals for exercise are consistently associated with negative body image, but research has yet to consider the processes that link these two variables. Self-determination theory offers one such process: introjected (guilt-based) regulation of exercise behavior. Study 1 investigated these relationships within a cross-sectional sample of female UK students (n=215, 17-30 years). Appearance goals were indirectly, negatively associated with body image due to links with introjected regulation. Study 2 experimentally tested this pathway, manipulating guilt relating to exercise and appearance goals independently and assessing post-test guilt and body anxiety (n=165, 18-27 years). The guilt manipulation significantly increased post-test feelings of guilt, and these increases were associated with increased post-test body anxiety, but only for participants in the guilt condition. The implications of these findings for self-determination theory and the importance of guilt for the body image literature are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ansiedade/psicologia
Imagem Corporal/psicologia
Exercício/psicologia
Metas
Culpa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Autonomia Pessoal
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170529
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170529
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170215
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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