Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : F01.658 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:28466068
[Au] Autor:McMurray MS; Conway SM; Roitman JD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.
[Ti] Título:Brain Stimulation Reward Supports More Consistent and Accurate Rodent Decision-Making than Food Reward.
[So] Source:eNeuro;4(2), 2017 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2373-2822
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Animal models of decision-making rely on an animal's motivation to decide and its ability to detect differences among various alternatives. Food reinforcement, although commonly used, is associated with problematic confounds, especially satiety. Here, we examined the use of brain stimulation reward (BSR) as an alternative reinforcer in rodent models of decision-making and compared it with the effectiveness of sugar pellets. The discriminability of various BSR frequencies was compared to differing numbers of sugar pellets in separate free-choice tasks. We found that BSR was more discriminable and motivated greater task engagement and more consistent preference for the larger reward. We then investigated whether rats prefer BSR of varying frequencies over sugar pellets. We found that animals showed either a clear preference for sugar reward or no preference between reward modalities, depending on the frequency of the BSR alternative and the size of the sugar reward. Overall, these results suggest that BSR is an effective reinforcer in rodent decision-making tasks, removing food-related confounds and resulting in more accurate, consistent, and reliable metrics of choice.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/fisiologia
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia
Reforço (Psicologia)
Recompensa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia
Estimulação Elétrica
Alimentos
Masculino
Motivação/fisiologia
Ratos Long-Evans
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29231006
[Au] Autor:Sun ZW; Shi TT; Fu PX
[Ad] Endereço:Beijing Ankang Hospital, Beijing 101300, China.
[Ti] Título:[Characteristics of Schizophrenia Patients' Homicide Behaviors and Their Correlations with Criminal Capacity].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(1):32-35, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristics of schizophrenia patients' homicide behaviors and the influences of the assessments of criminal capacity. METHODS: Indicators such as demographic and clinical data, characteristics of criminal behaviors and criminal capacity from the suspects whom were diagnosed by forensic psychiatry as schizophrenia ( =110) and normal mental ( =70) with homicide behavior, were collected by self-made investigation form and compared. The influences of the assessments of criminal capacity on the suspects diagnosed as schizophrenia were also analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant statistical differences between the schizophrenic group and the normal mental group concerning age, gender, education and marital status ( >0.05). There were significant statistical differences between the two groups concerning thought disorder, emotion state and social function before crime ( <0.05) and there were significant statistical differences in some characteristics of the case such as aggressive history ( <0.05), cue, trigger, plan, criminal incentives, object of crime, circumstance cognition and self-protection ( <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that thought disorder, emotion state, social function, criminal incentives, plan and self-protection before crime of the schizophrenic group were positively correlated with the criminal capacity ( <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The relevant influences of psychopathology and crime characteristics should be considered comprehensively for improving the accuracy of the criminal capacity evaluation on the suspects diagnosed as schizophrenia with homicide behavior.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agressão/psicologia
Crime
Homicídio/psicologia
Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criminosos
Psiquiatria Legal
Seres Humanos
Motivação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.01.008


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[PMID]:29206357
[Au] Autor:Semitala FC; Camlin CS; Wallenta J; Kampiire L; Katuramu R; Amanyire G; Namusobya J; Chang W; Kahn JG; Charlebois ED; Havlir DV; Kamya MR; Geng EH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.
[Ti] Título:Understanding uptake of an intervention to accelerate antiretroviral therapy initiation in Uganda via qualitative inquiry.
[So] Source:J Int AIDS Soc;20(4), 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1758-2652
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: The Streamlined Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Strategy (START-ART) study found that a theory-based intervention using opinion leaders to inform and coach health care providers about the risks of treatment delay, provision of point of care (POC) CD4 testing machines (PIMA) and reputational incentives, led to rapid rise in ART initiation. We used qualitative research methods to explore mechanisms of provider behaviour change. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 24 health care providers and nine study staff to understand perceptions, attitudes and the context of changes in ART initiation practices. Analyses were informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: Rapid dissemination of new practices was enabled in the environmental context of an existing relationship based on communication, implementation and accountability between Makerere University Joint AIDS Program (MJAP), a Ugandan University-affiliated organization that provided technical oversight for HIV service delivery at the health facilities where the intervention was implemented, and a network of health facilities operated by the Uganda Ministry of Health. Coaching carried out by field coordinators from MJAP strengthened influence and informal accountability for carrying out the intervention. Frontline health workers held a pre-existing strong sense of professional identity. They were proud of attainment of new knowledge and skills and gratified by providing what they perceived to be higher quality care. Peer counsellors, who were not explicitly targeted in the intervention design, effectively substituted some functions of health care providers; as role models for successful ART uptake, they played a crucial role in creating demand for rapid ART initiation through interactions with patients. Point of care (POC) CD4 testing enabled immediate action and relieved providers from frustrations of lost or delayed laboratory results, and led to higher patient satisfaction (due to reduced costs because of ability to initiate ART right away, requiring fewer return trips to clinic). CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative data revealed that a multicomponent intervention to change provider behaviour succeeded in the context of strong institutional and individual relationships between a University-affiliated organization, government facilities, and peer health workers (who acted as a crucial link between stakeholders) and the community. Fostering stable institutional relationships between institutional actors (non-governmental organization (NGOs) and ministry-operated facilities) as well as between facilities and the community (through peer health workers) can enhance uptake of innovations targeting the HIV cascade in similar clinical settings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico
Pessoal de Saúde
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
Feminino
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Motivação
Grupo Associado
Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Uganda
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jia2.25033


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[PMID]:29205970
[Au] Autor:Xu WJ; Ji P
[Ad] Endereço:Criminal Police Brigade of Liyang Public Security Bureau, Liyang 213300, China.
[Ti] Título:[Retrospective Analysis of 17 Family Homicide Cases].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;32(6):431-433, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To summarize the characteristics of family homicide cases and to provide reference for the analysis and prevention of such cases. METHODS: Seventeen solved family homicide cases in Liyang from 2004 to 2014 were investigated. The original registration information, record of scene investigation, corpse inspection report and case situation were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The characteristics of the 17 family homicides cases showed that most victims were female and most suspects were male, and spouse infidelity and suspected spouse infidelity have higher proportion in the motives for the killings. Murders by patients with psychosis, camouflage murders and murder-suicides occupied a certain proportion in the family homicide cases. CONCLUSIONS: The family homicide cases are correlated with the family factors such as extramarital sexual intercourse and murder by patients with psychosis. Some suspects suicided after murder. The tools for committing crimes have the features of simplicity, randomness and easy source availability.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Homicídio
Motivação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cadáver
Vítimas de Crime
Família
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Transtornos Psicóticos
Estudos Retrospectivos
Suicídio
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2016.06.009


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[PMID]:29188668
[Au] Autor:Xie X; Dong XD
[Ad] Endereço:Criminal Science Office, Suixi Public Security Bureau, Huaibei 235100, China.
[Ti] Título:[Analysis of Forensic Characteristics about 23 Family Homicide Cases].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;32(4):264-265, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To provide references for forensic analysis of family homicides cases by analyzing the situations of scene, injuries and individual which were related to the family homicide cases in a county. METHODS: The data of 23 family homicide cases from 2004 to 2013 were collected. The basic situation of individual involved, the relationship between dead and suspect, the cause of death, the motive, the location, time and tools of the crime and the behavior of the suspect after crime etc. were analyzed. RESULTS: The characteristics of the 23 family homicides cases showed that couple relationship was the most common relationship; passion killing was the most common motive; local materials were mostly used as the tools for committing crimes; most crimes were committed in residences; most time of crime was night. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of family homicide cases should be based on the scene investigation, the examination of the body and combined with the investigation of the situation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Homicídio
Motivação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Morte
Família
Ciências Forenses
Seres Humanos
Estudos Retrospectivos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2016.04.007


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[PMID]:28452692
[Au] Autor:An R; Sturm R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
[Ti] Título:A Cash-back Rebate Program for Healthy Food Purchases in South Africa: Selection and Program Effects in Self-reported Diet Patterns.
[So] Source:Am J Health Behav;41(2):152-162, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-7359
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: A South African insurer launched a rebate program for healthy food purchases for its members, but only available in program-designated supermarkets. To eliminate selection bias in program enrollment, we estimated the impact of subsidies in nudging the population towards a healthier diet using an instrumental variable approach. METHODS: Data came from a health behavior questionnaire administered among members in the health promotion program. Individual and supermarket addresses were geocoded and differential distances from home to program-designated supermarkets versus competing supermarkets were calculated. Bivariate probit and linear instrumental variable models were performed to control for likely unobserved selection biases, employing differential distances as a predictor of program enrollment. RESULTS: For regular fast-food, processed meat, and salty food consumption, approximately two-thirds of the difference between participants and nonparticipants was attributable to the intervention and one-third to selection effects. For fruit/ vegetable and fried food consumption, merely one-eighth of the difference was selection. The rebate reduced regular consumption of fast food by 15% and foods high in salt/sugar and fried foods by 22%- 26%, and increased fruit/vegetable consumption by 21% (0.66 serving/day). CONCLUSIONS: Large population interventions are an essential complement to laboratory experiments, but selection biases require explicit attention in evaluation studies conducted in naturalistic settings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
Promoção da Saúde/métodos
Dieta Saudável
Seguro Saúde
Motivação
Recompensa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Seleção Tendenciosa de Seguro
Masculino
Meia-Idade
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5993/AJHB.41.2.6


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[PMID]:29480833
[Au] Autor:Goel S; Angeli F; Singla N; Ruwaard D
[Ad] Endereço:School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
[Ti] Título:Measuring the reasons that discourage medical students from working in rural areas: Development and validation of a new instrument.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(2):e9448, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The sharply uneven distribution of human resources for health care across urban and rural areas has been a long-standing concern globally. The present study aims to develop and validate an instrument measuring the factors deterring final year students of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) in 3 northern states of India, from working in rural areas.The medical student's de-motivation to work in rural India (MSDRI) scale was developed using extensive literature review followed by Delphi technique. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed in terms of content validity, construct validity, data quality and reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to identify the primary deterrents.Thirty-three items were generated from literature search followed by Delphi exercise. After assessing psychometric properties, the final instrument included 29 items whereas the EFA and CFA highlighted 5 main factors, namely lack of professional challenge, social segregation, socio-cultural gap, hostile professional environment, and lack of financial incentives as underpinning students' demotivation towards working in rural areas.The MSDRI instrument is the first valid and reliable measure for identifying deterring factors for MBBS students to work in rural areas of India. The use of it may be very helpful for policymakers as well as healthcare organizations in formulating effective measures to encourage medical students to work in rural areas, which suffer from a chronic shortage of medical personnel.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Escolha da Profissão
Motivação
Saúde da População Rural/recursos humanos
Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Técnica Delfos
Análise Fatorial
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Índia
Masculino
Projetos Piloto
Psicometria
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
População Rural
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009448


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[PMID]:28423994
[Au] Autor:Schüttoff U; Pawlowski T
[Ad] Endereço:a Faculty of Economics and Social Science, Institute of Sports Science , University of Tübingen , Tübingen , Germany.
[Ti] Título:Seasonal variation in sports participation.
[So] Source:J Sports Sci;36(4):469-475, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1466-447X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Motivação
Estações do Ano
Esportes/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Metabolismo Energético
Feminino
Alemanha
Guias como Assunto
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Análise de Regressão
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Esportes/fisiologia
Organização Mundial da Saúde
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170421
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/02640414.2017.1316864


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[PMID]:29424500
[Au] Autor:Buduk-ool LK; Khovalyg AM
[Ti] Título:[Peculiarities of the psychological status of first-year students in terms of university education].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(6):568-72, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Peculiarities There was performed the study of the mental status of first-year students enrolled in the Tuvan state University. There were detected levels of reactive and personal anxiety, adaptive capacity, the level of social and psychological adaptation and aggression. Adaptation potential in students is within limits of the satisfactory one, there was no detected person with poor adaptive capacity and failure of adaptation, that indicates to the genetically fixed ability of the students' body to adapt to living conditions. In a state of psychological adjustment there was revealed the more higher level of anxiety in Tuvan students, which is caused by the poor living conditions. More satisfactory condition is typical for the social and psychological adaptation, since in all students values of test scales are within normal limits.There were shown gender differences in adaptation and psychological status of students. Boys have more lower indices of indirect and verbal aggression, anger, resentment, suspicion, guilt. Girls are characterized by higher hostility, at that it even exceeds standard values. In the group of students with a high personal anxiety no differences in adaptive capacities were found, and in students with moderate personal anxiety there were significantly more boys with stress adaptation than girls. Analysis of the socio-psychological adaptation of first-year students shows that in all students values of the test scales are normal, but in young men, indices are higher that indicates to a more successful socialization in the environment of the university. Correlation analysis of indices of aggressiveness and socio-psychological adaptation revealed weak negative relationships between index of aggressiveness with maladaptiveness, non-acceptance of others, emotional comfort in boys. In girls "aggressiveness" positively correlates with the such indices as acceptance of others and adaptation. Factor analysis in young men revealed the first factor, labeled as maladjustment because it included indirect aggression, maladaptiveness, self-rejection, emotional discomfort and external control. In girls first factor combines indices: adaptability, self-acceptance, adaptation (integral), self-acceptance, emotional comfort, the desire to dominate and this factor was labeled as adaptation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Psicológica
Ansiedade/psicologia
Motivação
Ajustamento Social
Estudantes/psicologia
Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Relações Interpessoais
Masculino
Federação Russa
Fatores Sexuais
Meio Social
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29406665
[Au] Autor:Kleier JA; Mites-Campbell M; Henson-Evertz K
[Ti] Título:Children's Exposure to Secondhand Smoke, Parental Nicotine Dependence, and Motivation to Quit Smoking.
[So] Source:Pediatr Nurs;43(1):35-9, 2017 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0097-9805
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:More than 600,000 people die each year as a result of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS); 28% of those deaths are children. Most exposure for children occurs in the home and is due to a parent smoking. Parental awareness and understanding of the exposure to SHS and the risk that parental smoking brings to the child may be an effective impetus for smoke avoidance and parental tobacco cessation. This descriptive, correlational study used data provided by a convenience sample of 184 smoking parental-figures, representing 376 children, recruited in community settings. Seven research questions were posed regarding the exposure of children to parental figures who smoke, the degree of the parents' dependence on nicotine, and their level of motivation to stop smoking. Comparisons were made between income levels and ethnic/racial groups. Children's exposure to SHS was low; Asian children had the highest likelihood of exposure. The areas of most frequent exposure were multiunit residential communities and in a vehicle. Parents' dependence on nicotine was moderately high, and parental motivation to quit smoking was high. However, parents who were the most dependent on nicotine were the least motivated to quit. Nurses working with both adult and pediatric populations should address the opportunities for exposure to SHS for their patient population. Community health nurses should specifically target workplaces, businesses, and communities with high numbers of Asian residents for public health education related to childhood exposure to SHS.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos
Asma/etiologia
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
Motivação
Pais/psicologia
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
Tabagismo/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Criança
Feminino
Florida
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Nicotina/efeitos adversos
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Tobacco Smoke Pollution); 6M3C89ZY6R (Nicotine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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