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[PMID]:28470439
[Au] Autor:Clement S; Bollinger R
[Ad] Endereço:John Templeton Foundation, West Conshohocken, PA, USA. sclement@templeton.org.
[Ti] Título:Accelerating Progress: A New Era of Research on Character Development.
[So] Source:J Youth Adolesc;46(6):1240-1245, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1573-6601
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Adolescent character development is a high priority for educators, policymakers, and front-line youth workers. To meet this growing demand, and as exemplified in the five articles in this special section, character development scholars are drawing from a range of academic disciplines to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the science of character development. These articles highlight important trends in character research, including the co-development of a subset of character strengths, the articulation of developmental trajectories of character, the use of advanced methodological approaches, and the implications for education. Studies such as these are critically important for establishing the research base that will be used to design the character development programs of tomorrow.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento do Adolescente
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente
Caráter
Desenvolvimento Moral
Desenvolvimento da Personalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Seres Humanos
Grupo Associado
Pesquisa
Comportamento Social
Meio Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10964-017-0681-9


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[PMID]:29308863
[Au] Autor:Dukanac V; Dzamonja-Ignjatovic T; Milanovic M; Popovic-Citic B
[Ti] Título:Differences in temperament and character dimensions in adolescents with various conduct disorders.
[So] Source:Vojnosanit Pregl;73(4):353-9, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0042-8450
[Cp] País de publicação:Serbia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Background/Aim: Adolescence is characterized both by a large developmental potential and by an increased risk for emergence of different forms of psychopathology. International classifications of mental disorders recognize the psychopathology of adolescence at the age of 15−18 through the categories of conduct disorders and some forms of addiction: chemical and non-chemical. The aim of this research was to analyse the personality structure among four groups of adolescents manifesting different types of conduct disorder based on Cloninger's Psychobiological theory of personality. Methods: The research sample consisted of 140 respondents at the age of 16−18, divided into five groups: 30 respondents manifesting socialized conduct disorder, 20 adolescents in conflict with the law, 30 respondents manifesting abuse of psychoactive substances, 30 respondents with the problem of the Internet addiction and 30 from general population. The Belgrade Adolescent Personality Inventory (BAPI) questionnaire was used for the purpose of assessment of personality. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), followed by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences between the given groups of adolescents. Results: The results of MANOVA show differences in the personality structure among the groups, both in the dimensions of temperament, F (20,418.84) = 2.71, p < 0.001, Wilks's lambda 0.67, and in the dimensions of character, F (12,344.24) = 3.27, p < 0.001, Wilks's lambda is 0.75. Socialized conduct disorder is characterized by low selfdirectedness and average cooperativeness. Adolescents in conflict with the law have the lowest persistence, together with low self-directedness and cooperativeness. Adolescents abusing psychoactive substances have low harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Adolescents with Internet addiction are characterized by high novelty seeking (impulsivity and curiosity), low self-directedness and the lowest cooperativeness. Conclusion: The results show that the dimensions of personality can play an important role in etiopathogenesis of various disorders in adolescents.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Caráter
Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia
Temperamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Inventário de Personalidade
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180109
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2298/VSP141007022D


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[PMID]:27779626
[Au] Autor:Docherty AR; Moscati A; Peterson R; Edwards AC; Adkins DE; Bacanu SA; Bigdeli TB; Webb BT; Flint J; Kendler KS
[Ad] Endereço:Departments of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
[Ti] Título:SNP-based heritability estimates of the personality dimensions and polygenic prediction of both neuroticism and major depression: findings from CONVERGE.
[So] Source:Transl Psychiatry;6(10):e926, 2016 10 25.
[Is] ISSN:2158-3188
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Biometrical genetic studies suggest that the personality dimensions, including neuroticism, are moderately heritable (~0.4 to 0.6). Quantitative analyses that aggregate the effects of many common variants have recently further informed genetic research on European samples. However, there has been limited research to date on non-European populations. This study examined the personality dimensions in a large sample of Han Chinese descent (N=10 064) from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology study, aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for recurrent major depression among a rigorously ascertained cohort. Heritability of neuroticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was estimated to be low but statistically significant at 10% (s.e.=0.03, P=0.0001). In addition to EPQ, neuroticism based on a three-factor model, data for the Big Five (BF) personality dimensions (neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness) measured by the Big Five Inventory were available for controls (n=5596). Heritability estimates of the BF were not statistically significant despite high power (>0.85) to detect heritabilities of 0.10. Polygenic risk scores constructed by best linear unbiased prediction weights applied to split-half samples failed to significantly predict any of the personality traits, but polygenic risk for neuroticism, calculated with LDpred and based on predictive variants previously identified from European populations (N=171 911), significantly predicted major depressive disorder case-control status (P=0.0004) after false discovery rate correction. The scores also significantly predicted EPQ neuroticism (P=6.3 × 10 ). Factor analytic results of the measures indicated that any differences in heritabilities across samples may be due to genetic variation or variation in haplotype structure between samples, rather than measurement non-invariance. Findings demonstrate that neuroticism can be significantly predicted across ancestry, and highlight the importance of studying polygenic contributions to personality in non-European populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Caráter
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética
Herança Multifatorial/genética
Neuroticismo
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Estudos de Coortes
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia
Feminino
Variação Genética/genética
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Determinação da Personalidade
Fenótipo
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/tp.2016.177


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[PMID]:28636575
[Au] Autor:Eric AP; Eric I; Curkovic M; Dodig-Curkovic K; Kralik K; Kovac V; Filakovic P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Osijek, J. Huttler 4, 31000 Osijek, Croatia, ana5ek@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:The temperament and character traits in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder with and without suicide attempt.
[So] Source:Psychiatr Danub;29(2):171-178, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0353-5053
[Cp] País de publicação:Croatia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk. The specificity of this research is in the assessment of personality features during the acute phase of illness immediately after suicide attempt which resulted in psychiatric inpatient treatment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 119 unrelated Caucasian participants with MDD-severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms (MDD) and BD-severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms (BD-sDE). Both groups of patients with MDD and BD-sDE were divided into the suicide attempters and non-suicidal group. The diagnoses of the severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD; F32.2) and bipolar disorder (BD-sDE; F31.4) were made according to ICD-10 (WHO 1992) diagnostic criteria. Methods of suicide attempts were also assessed according to ICD-10 and a self-report questionnaire, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was applied. RESULTS: The participants who exhibited suicide attempt had significantly higher scores on harm-avoidance (HA) (p<0.001), significantly lower score on persistence (PS) (p=0.037) and lower score, however not statistically significant, on novelty-seeking (NS) (p=0.319) regarding temperament dimensions. In character dimensions, the patients with suicidal attempt had significantly lower scores on self-directedness (SD) (p<0.001) and significantly lower scores on cooperativeness (CO) (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients who had suicide attempt may have some significantly different personality traits than non-suicidal patients with mood disorders. The combination of high harm-avoidance (HA) and low self-directedness (SD) may be specific for depressive episode while the combination of high HA, novelty-seeking (NS), and self-transcendence (ST) with low SD may be related to suicide attempts during the depressive episode in bipolar disorder. The novelty-seeking (NS), self-transcendence (ST) and self-directedness (SD) may be specific for suicidal group of bipolar patients.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia
Caráter
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia
Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia
Croácia
Estudos Transversais
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores de Risco
Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
Temperamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170622
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28477758
[Au] Autor:Bioy A
[Ad] Endereço:Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté, esplanade Erasme, Pôle AAFE, 21000 Dijon, France. Electronic address: Antoine.bioy@u-bourgogne.fr.
[Ti] Título:[Adaptation strategies faced with chronic pain].
[Ti] Título:Stratégies d'adaptation face à la douleur chronique..
[So] Source:Soins;62(815):36-37, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:0038-0814
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:fre
[Ab] Resumo:Chronic pain constitutes a challenge for patients. It makes them uneasy with regard to their personality, their corporality and their life balance, and leaves long-lasting effects on their experience as a patient. The development of adaptation strategies and resources to deal with chronic pain is therefore essential.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Psicológica
Dor Crônica/enfermagem
Dor Crônica/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Caráter
Seres Humanos
Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo
Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
Papel do Doente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170508
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28291977
[Au] Autor:Raketic D; Barisic JV; Svetozarevic SM; Gazibara T; Tepavcevic DK; Milovanovic SD
[Ad] Endereço:Specialized Hospital for Addiction Diseases in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
[Ti] Título:Five-Factor Model Personality Profiles: The Differences between Alcohol and Opiate Addiction among Females.
[So] Source:Psychiatr Danub;29(1):74-80, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0353-5053
[Cp] País de publicação:Croatia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The prevalence of female alcohol and substance abusers has markedly increased. The main objective of this research was to explore personality profiles among females who had alcohol and opiate dependence. AIM: The aim of the study is to analyse if there is differences in personality profiles of females addicted to alcohol and opiates. We hypothesized that there might be significant differences in personality profiles among subgroups of women who present with alcohol and opiate use disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Of 157 consecutive women with diagnosis of alcohol/opiate addiction, 62 fulfilled following inclusion criteria: age 19-45 years, abstinence from alcohol and opiates for at least 10 days prior to enrollment. Alcohol-dependent group consisted of 30 females, while opiate-dependent group consisted of 32 females. The control group involved 30 age-matched randomly chosen healthy women. The data were collected using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The multiple stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine relations between personality traits and the probability of belonging to one of the study groups. RESULTS: Significant differences in the NEO-PI-R scores were observed between groups for all main personality traits except for Openness to Experience. Compared with controls, substance-dependent women scored significantly higher on Neuroticism and lower on Conscientiousness. Opiate-dependent females scored the highest on Neuroticism and on Extraversion and lowest on Agreeableness and on Conscientiousness. Alcohol-dependent females scored higher on Conscientiousness and lower on Neuroticism compared to opiate-dependent women. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study confirmed significant characteristics in personality profiles among females with alcohol and opiate dependence, as well as the difference between these two groups of substance abusers and their healthy controls. The distinct personality characteristics among different groups of substance addicted women should be taken into account when creating the most effective program of prevention and therapeutic approaches in this specific cohort.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alcoolismo/epidemiologia
Alcoolismo/psicologia
Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia
Dependência de Heroína/psicologia
Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Caráter
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Fatores Sexuais
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 2307 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28291974
[Au] Autor:Jaksic N; Margetic BA; Marcinko D
[Ad] Endereço:National Center for Psychotrauma, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia, nenad_jaksic@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:Comorbid Depression and Suicide Ideation in Patients with Combat-Related PTSD: The Role of Temperament, Character, and Trait Impulsivity.
[So] Source:Psychiatr Danub;29(1):51-59, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0353-5053
[Cp] País de publicação:Croatia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: War veterans with PTSD have a high chance of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) at some point, while they can also exhibit increased suicidal tendencies. The primary goal of this research was to investigate whether personality dimensions, including temperament, character, and trait impulsivity, were associated with comorbid MDD, as well as with suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients suffering from combat-related PTSD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 148 Croatian male war veterans (mean age 49.53 years) treated for PTSD at the National Center for Psychotrauma, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Zagreb. Fifty-one (34%) of them met ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for current or lifetime MDD, while 97 (66%) were diagnosed with PTSD alone. All the participants were assessed with the M.I.N.I. diagnostic interview and they completed the following battery of self-report instruments: the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). RESULTS: Comparisons between the two clinical groups showed that PTSD+MDD patients were more suicidal and differed with regard to temperament dimensions Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence, character dimension Self-Directedness, and trait impulsivity. In three multivariate regression analyses, it was revealed that character dimension Cooperativeness as well as trait impulsivity were unique predictors of suicidal ideation, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographics, length of treatment and comorbid depression. CONCLUSIONS: Combat-related PTSD patients with comorbid depression exhibit increased suicide thoughts and different personality profiles in comparison with those suffering from PTSD alone. Character dimension Cooperativeness and trait impulsivity seem to be uniquely predictive of suicide ideation in this population. Elucidation of individual psychological factors that increase the risk of MDD and suicidal tendencies in war veterans with PTSD may facilitate more effective prevention and treatment methods.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Caráter
Distúrbios de Guerra/psicologia
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia
Comportamento Impulsivo
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
Ideação Suicida
Veteranos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Comorbidade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Inquéritos e Questionários
Temperamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28279310
[Au] Autor:Falk Ö; Sfendla A; Brändström S; Anckarsäter H; Nilsson T; Kerekes N
[Ad] Endereço:CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: orjan.falk@neuro.gu.se.
[Ti] Título:Personality and trait aggression profiles of male and female prison inmates.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;250:302-309, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population. The majority of offenders scored distinctively high on trait aggression. There were moderate to strong associations between the personality dimensions and each of the subscales of LHA (Aggression, Self-directed Aggression and Antisocial behavior). These associations were stronger in the female offender sample. Trait aggression could be best explained by a model, which included male gender, younger age, high novelty seeking temperament and low character maturity. Our results suggest that therapies aiming at strengthening self-governance and increasing cooperativeness (focusing on character maturity) may alleviate aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agressão/psicologia
Inventário de Personalidade
Personalidade
Prisioneiros/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Caráter
Criminosos/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
Fatores Sexuais
Inquéritos e Questionários
Temperamento
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170311
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 2307 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28263656
[Au] Autor:Marmarosh CL; Thompson B; Hill C; Hollman S; Megivern M
[Ad] Endereço:George Washington University.
[Ti] Título:Therapists-in-training experiences of working with transfer clients: One relationship terminates and another begins.
[So] Source:Psychotherapy (Chic);54(1):102-113, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1939-1536
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Data from interviews with 12 graduate-level trainees about their experiences of working with clients who had been transferred to them from another therapist were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Trainees reported a range of helpful and hindering aspects about the transfer experience related to the client (e.g., client had experienced a prior termination and transfer, client had severe character pathology), the prior therapist (e.g., prior therapist prepared client for transfer, prior therapists did not process their termination with client), themselves (e.g., participant was open to addressing grief, participant was fearful of rejection), supervision (e.g., the supervisor provided important feedback on dealing with loss, the supervisor failed to address the unique nature of transferring), training (e.g., there was not adequate readings on termination and transfer, there was no readings on transfers), and clinic practices (e.g., meeting with the prior therapist and current therapist facilitated process, having clients end treatment with debt hindered the development of the new relationship). Participants also provided recommendations for improving the transfer process. Implications of these findings for clinical practice, training, and research are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Apego ao Objeto
Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
Transferência de Pacientes
Relações Profissional-Paciente
Psicoterapia/educação
Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Psicológica
Adulto
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Caráter
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Entrevista Psicológica
Masculino
Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia
Satisfação do Paciente
Processos Psicoterapêuticos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; WEBCASTS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170307
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/pst0000095


  10 / 2307 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28221054
[Au] Autor:Alves H; Koch A; Unkelbach C
[Ad] Endereço:Social Cognition Center Cologne, University of Cologne.
[Ti] Título:The "common good" phenomenon: Why similarities are positive and differences are negative.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Gen;146(4):512-528, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1939-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Positive attributes are more prevalent than negative attributes in the social environment. From this basic assumption, 2 implications that have been overlooked thus far: Positive compared with negative attributes are more likely to be shared by individuals, and people's shared attributes (similarities) are more positive than their unshared attributes (differences). Consequently, similarity-based comparisons should lead to more positive evaluations than difference-based comparisons. We formalized our probabilistic reasoning in a model and tested its predictions in a simulation and 8 experiments (N = 1,181). When participants generated traits about 2 target persons, positive compared with negative traits were more likely to be shared by the targets (Experiment 1a) and by other participants' targets (Experiment 1b). Conversely, searching for targets' shared traits resulted in more positive traits than searching for unshared traits (Experiments 2, 4a, and 4b). In addition, positive traits were more accessible than negative traits among shared traits but not among unshared traits (Experiment 3). Finally, shared traits were only more positive when positive traits were indeed prevalent (Experiments 5 and 6). The current framework has a number of implications for comparison processes and provides a new interpretation of well-known evaluative asymmetries such as intergroup bias and self-superiority effects. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Caráter
Relações Interpessoais
Conformidade Social
Meio Social
Justiça Social
Percepção Social
Fatores Sociológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Simulação por Computador
Feminino
Generalização (Psicologia)
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Modelos Psicológicos
Desejabilidade Social
Valores Sociais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xge0000276



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BIREME/OPAS/OMS - Centro Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde