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Pesquisa : F01.752.747.189.508 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 1413 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28236719
[Au] Autor:van Loon M; de Bruin A; Leppink J; Roebers C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, and Swiss Graduate School of Cognition, Learning, and Memory, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland; Department of Educational Development and Research and School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Ma
[Ti] Título:Why are children overconfident? Developmental differences in the implementation of accessibility cues when judging concept learning.
[So] Source:J Exp Child Psychol;158:77-94, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0457
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Children are often overconfident when monitoring their learning, which is harmful for effective control and learning. The current study investigated children's (N=167, age range 7-12years) judgments of learning (JOLs) when studying difficult concepts. The main aims were (a) to investigate how JOL accuracy is affected by accessibility cues and (b) to investigate developmental changes in implementing accessibility cues in JOLs. After studying different concepts, children were asked to generate novel sentences and then to make JOLs, select concepts for restudy, and take a final test. Overconfidence for incorrect and incomplete test responses was reduced for older children in comparison with younger children. For older age groups, generating a sentence led to greater overconfidence compared with not being able to generate a sentence, which indicates that older children relied more on accessibility cues when making JOLs. This pattern differed in the youngest age group; younger children were generally overconfident regardless of whether they had generated sentences or not. Overconfidence was disadvantageous for effective control of learning for all age groups. These findings imply that instructions to encourage children to avoid metacognitive illusions need to be adapted to children's developmental stage.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Formação de Conceito
Sinais (Psicologia)
Ilusões/psicologia
Julgamento
Aprendizagem
Rememoração Mental
Metacognição
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores Etários
Atenção
Criança
Cultura
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Teste de Realidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170226
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28054817
[Au] Autor:Sabo JS; Giner-Sorolla R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Kent.
[Ti] Título:Imagining wrong: Fictitious contexts mitigate condemnation of harm more than impurity.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Gen;146(1):134-153, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1939-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Over 5 experiments, we test the fictive pass asymmetry hypothesis. Following observations of ethics and public reactions to media, we propose that fictional contexts, such as reality, imagination, and virtual environments, will mitigate people's moral condemnation of harm violations, more so than purity violations. That is, imagining a purely harmful act is given a "fictive pass," in moral judgment, whereas imagining an abnormal act involving the body is evaluated more negatively because it is seen as more diagnostic of bad character. For Experiment 1, an undergraduate sample (N = 250) evaluated 9 vignettes depicting an agent committing either violations of harm or purity in real life, watching them in films, or imagining them. For Experiments 2 and 3, online participants (N = 375 and N = 321, respectively) evaluated a single vignette depicting an agent committing a violation of harm or purity that either occurred in real life, was imagined, watched in a film, or performed in a video game. Experiment 4 (N = 348) used an analysis of moderated mediation to demonstrate that the perceived wrongness of fictional purity violations is explained both by the extent to which they are seen as a cue to, and a cause of, a poor moral character. Lastly, Experiment 5 (N = 484) validated our manipulations and included the presumption of desire as an additional mediator of the fictive pass asymmetry effects. We discuss implications for moral theories of act and character, anger and disgust, and for media use and regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Delusões
Imaginação
Julgamento
Meios de Comunicação de Massa
Princípios Morais
Opinião Pública
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Ira
Caráter
Sinais (Psicologia)
Cultura
Teoria Ética
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Teste de Realidade
Responsabilidade Social
Jogos de Vídeo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xge0000251


  3 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27444616
[Au] Autor:Garrison JR; Bond R; Gibbard E; Johnson MK; Simons JS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK; Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, UK.
[Ti] Título:Monitoring what is real: The effects of modality and action on accuracy and type of reality monitoring error.
[So] Source:Cortex;87:108-117, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1973-8102
[Cp] País de publicação:Italy
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reality monitoring refers to processes involved in distinguishing internally generated information from information presented in the external world, an activity thought to be based, in part, on assessment of activated features such as the amount and type of cognitive operations and perceptual content. Impairment in reality monitoring has been implicated in symptoms of mental illness and associated more widely with the occurrence of anomalous perceptions as well as false memories and beliefs. In the present experiment, the cognitive mechanisms of reality monitoring were probed in healthy individuals using a task that investigated the effects of stimulus modality (auditory vs visual) and the type of action undertaken during encoding (thought vs speech) on subsequent source memory. There was reduced source accuracy for auditory stimuli compared with visual, and when encoding was accompanied by thought as opposed to speech, and a greater rate of externalization than internalization errors that was stable across factors. Interpreted within the source monitoring framework (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993), the results are consistent with the greater prevalence of clinically observed auditory than visual reality discrimination failures. The significance of these findings is discussed in light of theories of hallucinations, delusions and confabulation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Delusões/psicologia
Alucinações/psicologia
Transtornos da Memória/psicologia
Teste de Realidade
Fala/fisiologia
Pensamento/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Adolescente
Adulto
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Testes Neuropsicológicos
Estimulação Luminosa
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160723
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26982620
[Au] Autor:Wang B; Sun B
[Ad] Endereço:a Institute of Economic Psychology, Department of Psychology, School of Social Development , Central University of Finance and Economics , Beijing , China.
[Ti] Título:Post-encoding emotional arousal enhances consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory.
[So] Source:Q J Exp Psychol (Hove);70(3):461-472, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1747-0226
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The current study examined whether the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory extends to reality-monitoring source memory and, if so, whether the effect depends on emotionality of learning stimuli and testing format. In Experiment 1, participants encoded neutral words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. Then they watched a neutral, positive, or negative video. The 24-hour delayed test showed that emotional arousal had little effect on both item memory and reality-monitoring source memory. Experiment 2 was similar except that participants encoded neutral, positive, and negative words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. The results showed that positive and negative emotional arousal induced after encoding enhanced consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli. Experiment 3, identical to Experiment 2 except that participants were tested only on source memory for all the encoded items, still showed that post-encoding emotional arousal had little effect on consolidation of reality-monitoring source memory. Taken together, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli and regardless of testing format of source memory (conjunction test vs. independent test), the facilitatory effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory does not generalize to reality-monitoring source memory.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Nível de Alerta/fisiologia
Emoções/fisiologia
Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia
Memória Episódica
Teste de Realidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Análise de Variância
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Recognição (Psicologia)/fisiologia
Aprendizagem Verbal
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170317
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170317
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160317
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26678872
[Au] Autor:Liverani MC; Manuel AL; Nahum L; Guardabassi V; Tomasetto C; Schnider A
[Ad] Endereço:a Laboratory of Cognitive Neurorehabilitation, Medical School , University of Geneva , Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:[Formula: see text]Children's sense of reality: The development of orbitofrontal reality filtering.
[So] Source:Child Neuropsychol;23(4):408-421, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1744-4136
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Orbitofrontal reality filtering denotes a memory control mechanism necessary to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. In adults, it is mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex and subcortical connections and its failure induces reality confusion, confabulations, and disorientation. Here we investigated for the first time the development of this mechanism in 83 children from ages 7 to 11 years and 20 adults. We used an adapted version of a continuous recognition task composed of two runs with the same picture set but arranged in different order. The first run measures storage and recognition capacity (item memory), the second run measures reality filtering. We found that accuracy and reaction times in response to all stimulus types of the task improved in parallel across ages. Importantly, at no age was there a notable performance drop in the second run. This means that reality filtering was already efficacious at age 7 and then steadily improved as item memory became stronger. At the age of 11 years, reality filtering dissociated from item memory, similar to the pattern observed in adults. However, performance in 11-year-olds was still inferior as compared to adults. The study shows that reality filtering develops early in childhood and becomes more efficacious as memory capacity increases. For the time being, it remains unresolved, however, whether this function already depends on the orbitofrontal cortex, as it does in adults, or on different brain structures in the developing brains of children.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/fisiologia
Memória/fisiologia
Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
Teste de Realidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tempo de Reação
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09297049.2015.1120861


  6 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28569722
[Au] Autor:Class M
[Ti] Título:The Visceral Novel Reader and Novelized Medicine in Georgian Britain.
[So] Source:Lit Med;34(2):341-369, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0278-9671
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The article introduces "the visceral novel reader" as a diachronic, context-sensitive mode of novelistic reception, in which fact and fiction overlap cognitively: the mental rehearsal of the activity of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching while reading novels and, vice versa, the mental rehearsal of novels in the act of perceiving the real world. Located at the intersection of literature, medicine and science, "the visceral novel reader" enhances our understanding of the role that novels played in the dialectic construction of erudition in English. In Georgian Britain, reading practices became a testing ground for the professionalization of physicians, natural philosophers, and men of letters. While it was in the professionals' common interest to implement protocols that taught readers to separate body from mind, and fact from fiction, novels came to stand for "debased" (visceral) reading. Novels inverted these notions by means of medicalization (regimentation, somatization, and individuation) and contributed to the professional stratification of medicine and literature.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Delusões/história
Fantasia
Imaginação
Literatura Moderna
Medicina na Literatura
Leitura
Teste de Realidade
Transtornos Somatoformes/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
História do Século XV
História do Século XVI
História do Século XVIII
História do Século XIX
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170602
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/lm.2016.0017


  7 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28032579
[Au] Autor:Kállai J
[Ad] Endereço:Pecsi Tudomanyegyetem, Altalanos Orvostudomanyi Kar, Magatartastudomanyi Intezet, Pecs, Hungary, E-mail: janos.kallai@aok.pte.hu.
[Ti] Título:[Magical and physical reality].
[So] Source:Psychiatr Hung;31(4):301-312, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0237-7896
[Cp] País de publicação:Hungary
[La] Idioma:hun
[Ab] Resumo:In the postmodern countries the computer generated virtual reality provides new perceptual domains wherein the evaluation of real and unreal contents generates an essential challenge for both children and adults. The expectances to perceive unreal content which is contradictory with the common sense experiences become seductive for most of people. The time in front of the screen that emits the magic reality gradually rises. The sudden advance in generation of alternative realities demands that we have to recall the basic principles of psychological reality testing and the involving mechanism that produces a distinction between phantasy and reality for both healthy and pathological mind. Frame of reference usually restrains the thinking. This review contains two parts, the first is focuses on the historical aspect of magical and physical reality and the second one, that will be published in a next issue, will present an evaluation of the boundary between self and another person in point of view of the psychopathological phenomenon. This analysis will focus on how the boundary of the self behaves in physically real and magic computer generated environment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teste de Realidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fantasia
Seres Humanos
Magia
Transtornos Mentais
Pensamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161230
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27890277
[Au] Autor:Rouet-Goral É
[Ad] Endereço:Unité des troubles du comportement alimentaire, Clinique des maladies mentales et de l'encéphale, centre hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 1, rue Cabanis, Paris 75014, France. Electronic address: TCA@ch-sainte-anne.fr.
[Ti] Título:[Nursing care of body image disorders].
[Ti] Título:Prise en charge infirmière des troubles de l'image corporelle..
[So] Source:Soins Psychiatr;37(307):44-46, 2016 Nov - Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0241-6972
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:fre
[Ab] Resumo:Anorexia causes body image disorders. The re-appropriation and acceptance of the body and its changes require specific care. Mirrors, 'morphing' software, photography, videography and the trying on of clothes in a store are tools which can help the patient reconstruct themselves.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anorexia Nervosa/enfermagem
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/enfermagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Relações Interpessoais
Distorção da Percepção
Fotografia
Teste de Realidade
Valores Sociais
Gravação em Vídeo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170324
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170324
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161129
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27505456
[Au] Autor:Marmarosh CL
[Ad] Endereço:Professional Psychology Program, George Washington University.
[Ti] Título:Can we collaborate? Mistakes made when group and individual therapists ignore multiple realities.
[So] Source:Psychotherapy (Chic);53(3):320-4, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1939-1536
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Often, group therapists collaborate with individual therapists in conjoint treatment. Many of these patients start in individual therapy and are referred to the group to help facilitate the treatment and address interpersonal and relational issues that either cannot or will not be addressed in the individual work. Although this has the potential to foster incredible growth for patients, it may also cause problems in treatment when collaboration between therapists falls apart. The current paper will examine mistakes made when multiple realities about a patient are ignored during the pregroup screening and preparation, and feedback from group treatment is not integrated into individual therapy. Clinical examples will be used with specific recommendations for combined treatment planning and interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Tomada de Decisões
Erros Médicos
Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia
Psicoterapia de Grupo
Psicoterapia
Teste de Realidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Terapia Combinada
Conflito (Psicologia)
Mecanismos de Defesa
Feminino
Processos Grupais
Seres Humanos
Seleção de Pacientes
Relações Profissional-Paciente
Psicoterapia Múltipla/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170313
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170313
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160810
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/pst0000067


  10 / 1413 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27319070
[Au] Autor:Lüthi U
[Ti] Título:[Michael Schmieder: "The dignity of dementia patients is inviolable"].
[Ti] Título:Michael Schmieder: "Die Würde der Demenz- kranken ist unantastbar"..
[So] Source:Krankenpfl Soins Infirm;109(5):36-7, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0253-0465
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:ger
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/enfermagem
Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente/ética
Pessoalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Ética em Enfermagem
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/ética
Fantasia
Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/ética
Seres Humanos
Casas de Saúde/ética
Teste de Realidade
Meio Social
Suíça
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160620
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160620
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160621
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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