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[PMID]:28470439
[Au] Autor:Clement S; Bollinger R
[Ad] Endereço:John Templeton Foundation, West Conshohocken, PA, USA. sclement@templeton.org.
[Ti] Título:Accelerating Progress: A New Era of Research on Character Development.
[So] Source:J Youth Adolesc;46(6):1240-1245, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1573-6601
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Adolescent character development is a high priority for educators, policymakers, and front-line youth workers. To meet this growing demand, and as exemplified in the five articles in this special section, character development scholars are drawing from a range of academic disciplines to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the science of character development. These articles highlight important trends in character research, including the co-development of a subset of character strengths, the articulation of developmental trajectories of character, the use of advanced methodological approaches, and the implications for education. Studies such as these are critically important for establishing the research base that will be used to design the character development programs of tomorrow.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento do Adolescente
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente
Caráter
Desenvolvimento Moral
Desenvolvimento da Personalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Seres Humanos
Grupo Associado
Pesquisa
Comportamento Social
Meio Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10964-017-0681-9


  2 / 852 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29260228
[Au] Autor:Kirkland KB
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medicine, Section of Palliative Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
[Ti] Título:Walking the Shoreline: Erosion, Regrowth, and Professional Formation.
[So] Source:JAMA;318(23):2297-2298, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Educação Médica/ética
Empatia
Relações Médico-Paciente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Desenvolvimento Moral
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.18040


  3 / 852 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541173
[Au] Autor:Agar N; McDonald J
[Ti] Título:Human Enhancement and the Story of Job.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):449-458, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article explores some implications of the concept of transformative change for the debate about human enhancement. A transformative change is understood to be one that significantly alters the value an individual places on his or her experiences or achievements. The clearest examples of transformative change come from science fiction, but the concept can be illuminatingly applied to the enhancement debate. We argue that it helps to expose a threat from too much enhancement to many of the things that make human lives valuable. Among the things threated by enhancement are our relationships with other human beings. The potential to lose these relationships provides a compelling reason for almost all humans to reject too much enhancement.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Logro
Relações Interpessoais
Desenvolvimento Moral
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Medicina nas Artes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001122


  4 / 852 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541171
[Au] Autor:Sandberg A; Fabiano J
[Ti] Título:Modeling the Social Dynamics of Moral Enhancement: Social Strategies Sold Over the Counter and the Stability of Society.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):431-445, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:How individuals tend to evaluate the combination of their own and other's payoffs-social value orientations-is likely to be a potential target of future moral enhancers. However, the stability of cooperation in human societies has been buttressed by evolved mildly prosocial orientations. If they could be changed, would this destabilize the cooperative structure of society? We simulate a model of moral enhancement in which agents play games with each other and can enhance their orientations based on maximizing personal satisfaction. We find that given the assumption that very low payoffs lead agents to be removed from the population, there is a broadly stable prosocial attractor state. However, the balance between prosociality and individual payoff-maximization is affected by different factors. Agents maximizing their own satisfaction can produce emergent shifts in society that reduce everybody's satisfaction. Moral enhancement considerations should take the issues of social emergence into account.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Moral
Valores Sociais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Altruísmo
Simulação por Computador
Comportamento Cooperativo
Teoria do Jogo
Seres Humanos
Relações Interpessoais
Princípios Morais
Satisfação Pessoal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001109


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[PMID]:28541169
[Au] Autor:Specker J; Schermer MHN
[Ti] Título:Imagining Moral Bioenhancement Practices: Drawing Inspiration from Moral Education, Public Health Ethics, and Forensic Psychiatry.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):415-426, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this article, we consider contexts or domains in which (future) moral bioenhancement interventions possibly or most likely will be implemented. By looking closely at similar or related existing practices and their relevant ethical frameworks, we hope to identify ethical considerations that are relevant for evaluating potential moral bioenhancement interventions. We examine, first, debates on the proper scope of moral education; second, proposals for identifying early risk factors for antisocial behaviour; and third, the difficult balancing of individual freedom and third party concerns in (forensic) psychiatry. In imagining moral bioenhancement in practice, we observe that unlike other forms of enhancement, moral enhancement fundamentally asks how the interests and preferences of the individual and the interests of others should be weighed (in view of public safety and managing public risk). Highly diverse domains such as education, mental health, and the judicial domain might be involved, and moral bioenhancement might challenge existing institutional settings. Given these highly varied contexts and domains, it appears unlikely that there will be a distinct set of practices that will be referred to as "moral bioenhancement."
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Desenvolvimento Moral
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Psiquiatria Legal
Liberdade
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001080


  6 / 852 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541167
[Au] Autor:Wiseman H
[Ti] Título:Would We Even Know Moral Bioenhancement If We Saw It?
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):398-410, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The term "moral bioenhancement" conceals a diverse plurality encompassing much potential, some elements of which are desirable, some of which are disturbing, and some of which are simply bland. This article invites readers to take a better differentiated approach to discriminating between elements of the debate rather than talking of moral bioenhancement "per se," or coming to any global value judgments about the idea as an abstract whole (no such whole exists). Readers are then invited to consider the benefits and distortions that come from the usual dichotomies framing the various debates, concluding with an additional distinction for further clarifying this discourse qua explicit/implicit moral bioenhancement.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Moral
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Ética Médica
Seres Humanos
Julgamento
Saúde Mental
Paternalismo
Valores Sociais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001067


  7 / 852 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541166
[Au] Autor:Rakic V
[Ti] Título:Moral Bioenhancement and Free Will: Continuing the Debate.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):384-393, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article continues and expands differences I have with Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu concerning issues of moral bioenhancement and free will. They have criticized my conception of voluntary moral bioenhancement, claiming that it ignores the extent to which freedom is a matter of degree. Here, I argue that freedom as a political concept (or as one that is analogous to a political concept) is indeed scalar in nature, but that freedom of the will is to be understood as a threshold concept and therefore not as subject to degree. Consequently, I contend, by asserting that freedom is a matter of degree, that Persson and Savulescu have not undermined my arguments favoring voluntary moral enhancement. In addition, I add three further arguments against compulsory moral bioenhancement.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Liberdade
Desenvolvimento Moral
Autonomia Pessoal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Dissidências e Disputas
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001043


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[PMID]:28541165
[Au] Autor:Hauskeller M
[Ti] Título:Is It Desirable to Be Able to Do the Undesirable? Moral Bioenhancement and the Little Alex Problem.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):365-376, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:It has been argued that moral bioenhancement is desirable even if it would make it impossible for us to do what is morally required. Others find this apparent loss of freedom deplorable. However, it is difficult to see how a world in which there is no moral evil can plausibly be regarded as worse than a world in which people are not only free to do evil, but also where they actually do it, which would commit us to the seemingly paradoxical view that, under certain circumstances, the bad can be better than the good. Notwithstanding, this view is defended here.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Redução do Dano
Desenvolvimento Moral
Status Moral
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Liberdade
Seres Humanos
Literatura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S096318011600102X


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[PMID]:28253882
[Au] Autor:Friedrich O; Hemmerling K; Kuehlmeyer K; Nörtemann S; Fischer M; Marckmann G
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Ethics, History and Theory of Medicine at Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU), Lessingstr. 2, 80336, Munich, Germany. orsolya.friedrich@lrz.uni-muenchen.de.
[Ti] Título:Principle-based structured case discussions: do they foster moral competence in medical students? - A pilot study.
[So] Source:BMC Med Ethics;18(1):21, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6939
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that medical students' moral competence decreases throughout medical school. This pilot study gives preliminary insights into the effects of two educational interventions in ethics classes on moral competence among medical students in Munich, Germany. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, medical students were tested using Lind's Moral Competence Test (MCT) prior to and after completing different ethics classes. The experimental group (EG, N = 76) participated in principle-based structured case discussions (PBSCDs) and was compared with a control group with theory-based case discussions (TBCDs) (CG, N = 55). The pre/post C-scores were compared using a Wilcoxon Test, ANOVA and effect-size calculation. RESULTS: The C-score improved by around 3.2 C-points in the EG, and by 0.2 C-points in the CG. The mean C-score difference was not statistically significant for the EG (P = 0.14) or between the two groups (P = 0.34). There was no statistical significance for the teachers' influence (P = 0.54) on C-score. In both groups, students with below-average (M = 29.1) C-scores improved and students with above-average C-scores regressed. The increase of the C-Index was greater in the EG than in the CG. The absolute effect-size of the EG compared with the CG was 3.0 C-points, indicating a relevant effect. CONCLUSION: Teaching ethics with PBSCDs did not provide a statistically significant influence on students' moral competence, compared with TBCDs. Yet, the effect size suggests that PBSCDs may improve moral competence among medical students more effectively. Further research with larger and completely randomized samples is needed to gain definite explanations for the results.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Educação de Graduação em Medicina
Ética Médica/educação
Desenvolvimento Moral
Ética Baseada em Princípios
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
Competência Profissional
Estudantes de Medicina
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Currículo
Avaliação Educacional
Teoria Ética
Feminino
Alemanha
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Princípios Morais
Projetos Piloto
Resolução de Problemas
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170304
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12910-017-0181-1


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[PMID]:27042859
[Au] Autor:Wang X; Lei L; Yang J; Gao L; Zhao F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology and the Center of Internet + Social Psychology, Renmin University of China, No. 59 Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100872, China.
[Ti] Título:Moral Disengagement as Mediator and Moderator of the Relation Between Empathy and Aggression Among Chinese Male Juvenile Delinquents.
[So] Source:Child Psychiatry Hum Dev;48(2):316-326, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1573-3327
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The link between empathy and aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the relation between empathy and aggression and examined both the mediating and moderating effects of moral disengagement on this relation among Chinese male juvenile delinquents. Three hundred and fifty-seven male juvenile delinquents from one Chinese juvenile correctional facility completed the interpersonal reactivity index, the moral disengagement scale and the aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that moral disengagement partially mediated the influence of empathy on aggression. Moreover, moral disengagement moderated the relation between empathy and aggression. Specifically, there was a significant negative relation between empathy and aggression at low levels of moral disengagement. However, at high levels of moral disengagement, the relation between empathy and aggression was non-significant. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agressão
Empatia
Relações Interpessoais
Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia
Princípios Morais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
China
Cumplicidade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Desenvolvimento Moral
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160405
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10578-016-0643-6



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