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Registro de Ensaios Clínicos
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[PMID]:29318278
[Au] Autor:Atri A; Frölich L; Ballard C; Tariot PN; Molinuevo JL; Boneva N; Windfeld K; Raket LL; Cummings JL
[Ad] Endereço:Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco.
[Ti] Título:Effect of Idalopirdine as Adjunct to Cholinesterase Inhibitors on Change in Cognition in Patients With Alzheimer Disease: Three Randomized Clinical Trials.
[So] Source:JAMA;319(2):130-142, 2018 01 09.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Importance: New therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer disease (AD) are needed. Objective: To assess whether idalopirdine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 receptor antagonist, is effective for symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate AD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three randomized clinical trials that included 2525 patients aged 50 years or older with mild to moderate AD (study 1: n = 933 patients at 119 sites; study 2: n = 858 at 158 sites; and study 3: n = 734 at 126 sites). The 24-week studies were conducted from October 2013 to January 2017; final follow-up on January 12, 2017. Interventions: Idalopirdine (10, 30, or 60 mg/d) or placebo added to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (donepezil in studies 1 and 2; donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in study 3). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point in all 3 studies: change in cognition total score (range, 0-70; a lower score indicates less impairment) from baseline to 24 weeks measured by the 11-item cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog); key secondary end points: Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change Scale and 23-item Activities of Daily Living Inventory scores. Dose group efficacy required a significant benefit over placebo for the primary end point and 1 or more key secondary end points. Safety data and adverse event profiles were recorded. Results: Among 2525 patients randomized in the 3 trials (mean age, 74 years; mean baseline ADAS-Cog total score, 26; between 62% and 65% of participants were women), 2254 (89%) completed the studies. In study 1, the mean change in ADAS-Cog total score between baseline and 24 weeks was 0.37 for the 60-mg dose of idalopirdine group, 0.61 for the 30-mg dose group, and 0.41 for the placebo group (adjusted mean difference vs placebo, 0.05 [95% CI, -0.88 to 0.98] for the 60-mg dose group and 0.33 [95% CI, -0.59 to 1.26] for the 30-mg dose group). In study 2, the mean change in ADAS-Cog total score between baseline and 24 weeks was 1.01 for the 30-mg dose of idalopirdine group, 0.53 for the 10-mg dose group, and 0.56 for the placebo group (adjusted mean difference vs placebo, 0.63 [95% CI, -0.38 to 1.65] for the 30-mg dose group; given the gated testing strategy and the null findings at the 30-mg dose, statistical comparison of the 10-mg dose was not performed). In study 3, the mean change in ADAS-Cog total score between baseline and 24 weeks was 0.38 for the 60-mg dose of idalopirdine group and 0.82 for the placebo group (adjusted mean difference vs placebo, -0.55 [95% CI, -1.45 to 0.36]). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in between 55.4% and 69.7% of participants in the idalopirdine groups vs between 56.7% and 61.4% of participants in the placebo groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with mild to moderate AD, the use of idalopirdine compared with placebo did not improve cognition over 24 weeks of treatment. These findings do not support the use of idalopirdine for the treatment of AD. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01955161, NCT02006641, and NCT02006654.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico
Benzilaminas/uso terapêutico
Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico
Indóis/uso terapêutico
Antagonistas da Serotonina/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes por Quedas
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia
Benzilaminas/administração & dosagem
Benzilaminas/efeitos adversos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Método Duplo-Cego
Quimioterapia Combinada
Feminino
Galantamina/uso terapêutico
Seres Humanos
Indanos/uso terapêutico
Indóis/administração & dosagem
Indóis/efeitos adversos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Piperidinas/uso terapêutico
Rivastigmina/uso terapêutico
Antagonistas da Serotonina/administração & dosagem
Antagonistas da Serotonina/efeitos adversos
Falha de Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 ((2-(6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl)-(3-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)benzyl)amine); 0 (Benzylamines); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Indans); 0 (Indoles); 0 (Piperidines); 0 (Serotonin Antagonists); 0D3Q044KCA (Galantamine); 8SSC91326P (donepezil); PKI06M3IW0 (Rivastigmine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180311
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180311
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180111
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.20373


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[PMID]:29505513
[Au] Autor:Zou YQ; Li XB; Yang ZX; Zhou JM; Wu YN; Zhao ZH; Liu XZ; Hu CL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, the 476 Hospital of Fuzhou General Hospital.
[Ti] Título:Impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function: Study protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(1):e9316, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Conflict findings of the impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function are reported. No systematic review has been performed to solve the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane library, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials or cohort studies assessing the short-term or long-term cognitive function of elderly patients (over 60 years) receiving major surgeries and inhalational anesthetics (desflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane, and nitrous oxide) during surgery. Two reviewers will independently screen study eligibility, extract information from eligible studies, and appraise study quality. The impact of inhalational anesthetics will be assessed through: incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction at 1 week, 3 months, 1 year, and over 1 year after surgery; incidence of post-operative delirium; test of postoperative cognitive function. RESULTS: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this systematic review will be the first to evaluate existing research on the incidence of postoperative cognitive function after inhalational anesthetics. Our study will assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The review will be finished in December 2017, and the result will be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated through conference posters or abstracts. REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017056675 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anesthetics, Inhalation)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180306
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009316


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[PMID]:29431328
[Au] Autor:Vokina VA; Sosedova LM; Filippova TM
[Ti] Título:[The study of neurotoxicity of toluene in conditions of experimental modeling of prenatal hypoxic damage of the brain].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(9):895-9, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:There was executed the study of the impact of toluene on indices of behavior, cognitive capabilities and bioelectric activity of the brain in white rats with normal course of the period of antenatal development and against background ofprenatal hemic hypoxia Prenatal hypoxia was modeled in pregnant female rats by subcutaneous injection of sodium nitrite in a dose of 50 mg/kg at from the 10 to the 19 day of gestation. At the age of 3 months the males from the obtained offspring were exposed to inhalation exposure of toluene (150 ppm, 4 weeks). After exposure to toluene in animals there was evaluated the pattern of individual behavior, indices of cognitive capabilities and also bioelectric activity of the brain. There were revealed such common consistencies of transformations in the behavior of exposed to toluene animals with normal and impaired embryogenesis as disturbed motor activity, reduction of exploratory behavior and cognitive functions, impaired bioelectric potentials of the brain. Features of changes in behavior and EEG indices in toluene-exposed rats with prenatal hypoxia are characterized by inhibition of motor activity, increased anxiety and latency of main peaks of auditory and visual evoked potentials. Prenatal hypoxic damage of the central nervous system was shown to be an aggravating factor in toluene intoxication in rats.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal
Encéfalo
Cognição
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia
Tolueno/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos
Cognição/fisiologia
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Feminino
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia
Neurotoxinas/farmacologia
Gravidez
Ratos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Neurotoxins); 3FPU23BG52 (Toluene)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29394257
[Au] Autor:Yamaguchi K; Okada K
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate School of Education, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Comparison among cognitive diagnostic models for the TIMSS 2007 fourth grade mathematics assessment.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0188691, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A variety of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) have been developed in recent years to help with the diagnostic assessment and evaluation of students. Each model makes different assumptions about the relationship between students' achievement and skills, which makes it important to empirically investigate which CDMs better fit the actual data. In this study, we examined this question by comparatively fitting representative CDMs to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 assessment data across seven countries. The following two major findings emerged. First, in accordance with former studies, CDMs had a better fit than did the item response theory models. Second, main effects models generally had a better fit than other parsimonious or the saturated models. Related to the second finding, the fit of the traditional parsimonious models such as the DINA and DINO models were not optimal. The empirical educational implications of these findings are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição
Matemática
Modelos Psicológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188691


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[PMID]:29278027
[Au] Autor:Madhavadas S; Subramanian S; Kutty BM
[Ad] Endereço:1 Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bangalore, India.
[Ti] Título:Environmental enrichment improved cognitive deficits more in peri-adolescent than in adult rats after postnatal monosodium glutamate treatment.
[So] Source:Physiol Int;104(4):271-290, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:2498-602X
[Cp] País de publicação:Hungary
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Exposure to enriched environment (EE) is known to promote sensory, cognitive, and motor stimulation with intensified levels of novelty and complexity. In this study, we investigated the positive regulatory effect of short-term exposure to EE on establishing functional recovery in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Unless treated, MSG rats exhibited peripheral insulin resistance, cognitive deficits, and a reduction in the total hippocampal volume with decreased neuron count in the DG, CA3, and CA1 subfields. These MSG rats were exposed to short-term EE for 15 days for a period of 6 h/day, beginning either at 45 or at 75 days of age. EE exposure has improved insulin sensitivity, yielded a significant increase in total hippocampal volume along with increase in neuron number in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus in both age groups. However, as assessed by radial arm maze task, which relies upon the positive reinforcement to test spatial memory, and the Barnes maze task, which utilizes an aversive learning strategy, a complete recovery of cognitive function could be achieved in 2-month-old rats only and not among 3-month-old rats, thus highlighting the importance of critical window period for EE interventions in restoring the memory functions. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of EE paradigm in prevention of cognitive disorders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia
Cognição
Meio Ambiente
Hipocampo/fisiopatologia
Estimulação Física/métodos
Glutamato de Sódio
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipocampo/patologia
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
W81N5U6R6U (Sodium Glutamate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1556/2060.104.2017.4.7


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[PMID]:29278026
[Au] Autor:Tokodi M; Csábi E; Kiricsi Á; Kollár E; Molnár AH; Rovó L; Bella Z
[Ad] Endereço:1 Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head-Neck Surgery, University of Szeged , Szeged, Hungary.
[Ti] Título:The effect of nasal provocation with a single-dose allergen on the physical and cognitive performance of patients with ragweed allergy.
[So] Source:Physiol Int;104(4):334-343, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:2498-602X
[Cp] País de publicação:Hungary
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose This study aims to compare the impact of active allergic rhinitis on physical and cognitive abilities of trained allergic athletes to untrained allergic patients. Methods Cognitive, respiratory, and fitness functions were assessed before and after allergen exposure. Participants in both groups were provoked intranasally with ragweed allergen. Results The group of athletes revealed significantly higher average values in peak inspiratory flow and fitness index before and after provocation. In neuropsychological assessments, athletes performed significantly better after allergen provocation in complex working memory capacity. Due to single acute allergen exposure, the size of the nasal cavity and nasal inspiratory peak flow significantly decreased in both groups. The physical performance of both groups did not change after provocation. Executive functions and complex working memory capacity of athletes significantly improved resulting from provocation. Conclusions A single-shot allergen in high dose might cause an increase in mental concentration, which was more pronounced in the group of athletes. This study indicates that acute exposure to allergen cannot affect the physical performance and may result in increased mental focus in patients with allergy notwithstanding the declining respiratory functions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alérgenos/administração & dosagem
Antígenos de Plantas/administração & dosagem
Desempenho Atlético
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos
Testes de Provocação Nasal/métodos
Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos
Rinite Alérgica/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Esquema de Medicação
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Allergens); 0 (Antigens, Plant); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (ragweed pollen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1556/2060.104.2017.4.6


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[PMID]:29268129
[Au] Autor:Cen J; Guo H; Hong C; Lv J; Yang Y; Wang T; Fang D; Luo W; Wang C
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Immuno-Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.
[Ti] Título:Development of tacrine-bifendate conjugates with improved cholinesterase inhibitory and pro-cognitive efficacy and reduced hepatotoxicity.
[So] Source:Eur J Med Chem;144:128-136, 2018 Jan 20.
[Is] ISSN:1768-3254
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A novel series of tacrine-bifendate (THA-DDB) conjugates (7a-e) were synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-Alzheimer's agents. These compounds showed potent cholinesterase and self-induced ß-amyloid (Aß) aggregation inhibitory activities. A Lineweaver-Burk plot and molecular modeling study showed that these compounds can target both catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The cytotoxicity of the conjugate 7d against PC12 and HepG2 cells and hepatotoxicity against human hepatocyte cell line (HL-7702) were found to be considerably less compared to THA. Moreover, treatment with 7d did not exhibit significant hepatotoxicity in mice. Finally, in vivo studies confirmed that 7d significantly ameliorates the cognitive performances of scopolamine-treated ICR mice. Therefore, 7d has high potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and warrants further investigation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compostos de Bifenilo/química
Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia
Inibidores da Colinesterase/química
Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos
Tacrina/análogos & derivados
Tacrina/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia
Animais
Compostos de Bifenilo/toxicidade
Linhagem Celular
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
Colinesterases/metabolismo
Desenho de Drogas
Células Hep G2
Seres Humanos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/patologia
Masculino
Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
Células PC12
Ratos
Tacrina/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0G32E321W1 (bifendate); 4VX7YNB537 (Tacrine); EC 3.1.1.7 (Acetylcholinesterase); EC 3.1.1.8 (Cholinesterases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28455103
[Au] Autor:Williams CAL; Panerai RB; Robinson TG; Haunton VJ
[Ad] Endereço:University of Leicester, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester, UK. Electronic address: calw1@student.le.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of neurovascular coupling responses to cognitive examination in healthy controls: A feasibility study.
[So] Source:J Neurosci Methods;284:57-62, 2017 Jun 01.
[Is] ISSN:1872-678X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that paradigms from the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III), including those that had not been studied using TCD previously (novel) versus those which had been (established), would elicit changes in CBF velocity (CBFv). NEW METHOD: Healthy subjects were studied with bilateral transcranial Doppler (TCD), beat-to-beat blood pressure (Finapres), continuous electrocardiogram (ECG), and end-tidal CO (nasal capnography). After a 5-min baseline recording, cognitive tests of the ACE-III were presented to subjects, covering attention (SUB7, subtracting 7 from 100 sequentially), language (REP, repeating words and phrases), fluency (N-P, naming words), visuospatial (DRAW, clock-drawing), and memory (MEM, recalling name and address). An event marker noted question timing. RESULTS: Forty bilateral data sets were obtained (13 males, 37 right-hand dominant) with a median age of 31 years (IQR 22-52). Population normalized mean peak CBFv% in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres, respectively, were: SUB7 (11.3±9.6%, 11.2±10.5%), N-P (12.7±11.7%, 11.5±12.0%), REP (12.9±11.7%, 11.6±11.6%), DRAW (13.3±11.7%, 13.2±15.4%) and MEM (13.2±10.3%, 12.0±10.1%). There was a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant CBFv responses (p<0.008), but no difference between the amplitude of responses. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: For established paradigms, our results are in excellent agreement to what has been found previously in the middle cerebral artery. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive paradigms derived from the ACE-III led to significant lateralised changes in CBFv that were not distinct for novel paradigms. Further work is needed to assess the potential of paradigms to improve the interpretation of cognitive assessments in patients at risk of mild cognitive impairment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia
Cognição/fisiologia
Acoplamento Neurovascular/fisiologia
Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
Estudos de Viabilidade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
Masculino
Projetos Piloto
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29381739
[Au] Autor:Smith EE; Muzikansky A; McCreary CR; Batool S; Viswanathan A; Dickerson BC; Johnson K; Greenberg SM; Blacker D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Impaired memory is more closely associated with brain beta-amyloid than leukoaraiosis in hypertensive patients with cognitive symptoms.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191345, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for subcortical ischemic changes and is also a risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. We used neuroimaging to investigate the pathological basis of early cognitive symptoms in patients with hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cohort study 67 patients age >60 years with hypertension and Clinical Dementia Rating scale score of 0.5 without dementia, and without history of symptomatic stroke, underwent MRI for measurement of subcortical vascular changes and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB-PET) to detect beta-amyloid deposition. These imaging measures were related to neuropsychological tests of memory, executive function and processing speed. RESULTS: Mean age was 75.0 (standard deviation, SD, 7.3). Mean neuropsychological Z scores were: episodic memory -0.63 (SD 1.23), executive function -0.40 (SD 1.10), processing speed -0.24 (SD 0.88); 22 of the 67 subjects met criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the remaining 45 subjects had subjective cognitive concerns only. In multivariable models adjusting for age and years of education, each 0.1 unit increase in mean cortical PiB-PET binding was associated with 0.14 lower mean Z score for episodic memory (95% CI -0.28 to -0.01). This means that for every 0.1 unit increase in mean cortical PiB-PET, episodic memory was 0.14 standard deviations lower. White matter hyperintensity volume, silent brain infarcts and microbleeds were not associated with neuropsychological test scores. CONCLUSIONS: Episodic memory was prominently affected in hypertensive participants with MCI or subjective cognitive concerns, and was associated with PiB-PET binding. This suggests a prominent role for Alzheimer pathology in cognitive impairment even in hypertensive participants at elevated risk for vascular cognitive impairment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Cognição
Hipertensão/complicações
Hipertensão/fisiopatologia
Leucoaraiose/complicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Hipertensão/diagnóstico
Hipertensão/metabolismo
Masculino
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amyloid beta-Peptides)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191345


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[PMID]:27777275
[Au] Autor:Tamborello FP; Trafton JG
[Ad] Endereço:Cogscent, LLC, Houston, TX.
[Ti] Título:Human Error as an Emergent Property of Action Selection and Task Place-Holding.
[So] Source:Hum Factors;59(3):377-392, 2017 05.
[Is] ISSN:1547-8181
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation. It drew on theoretical constructs such as associative spreading activation for prospective memory, explicit rehearsal strategies as a deliberate cognitive operation to aid retrospective memory, and decay. RESULTS: The model replicated the 30% effect of interruptions on postcompletion error in Ratwani and Trafton's Stock Trader task, the 45% interaction effect on postcompletion error of working memory capacity and working memory load from Byrne and Bovair's Phaser Task, as well as the 5% perseveration and 3% omission effects of interruption from the UNRAVEL Task. CONCLUSION: Error classes including perseveration, omission, and postcompletion error fall naturally out of the theory. APPLICATION: The model explains post-interruption error in terms of task state representation and priming for recall of subsequent steps. Its performance suggests that task environments providing more cues to current task state will mitigate error caused by interruption. For example, interfaces could provide labeled progress indicators or facilities for operators to quickly write notes about their task states when interrupted.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição
Simulação por Computador
Memória de Curto Prazo
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Internet
Software
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; S
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0018720816672529



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