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[PMID]:29447157
[Au] Autor:Collins KA; Clément R
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0189570, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic) are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly). It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1) perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2) understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman). In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Linguística
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Conscientização
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189570


  2 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28471335
[Au] Autor:Gobin RL; Freyd J
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Psychology , University of Oregon , Eugene , Oregon , USA.
[Ti] Título:Do Participants Detect Sexual Abuse Depicted in a Drawing? Investigating the Impact of Betrayal Trauma Exposure on State Dissociation and Betrayal Awareness.
[So] Source:J Child Sex Abus;26(3):233-245, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1547-0679
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An inability to identify betrayal may increase risk for victimization. Harm perpetrated by close others early in life may impair the ability to identify betrayal and develop trust. Dissociation may facilitate impaired betrayal awareness. The present study examined the impact of high betrayal trauma on state dissociation and betrayal awareness in a college sample (N = 216). Self-report measures were used to assess trauma history and state dissociation. Awareness for betrayal was measured using a drawing depicting an ambiguous interpersonal interaction between an adult and a child. We hypothesized that high betrayal trauma would be associated with both more state dissociation and lower awareness for betrayal. Participants with histories of high betrayal trauma reported high levels of state dissociation. Contrary to our second hypothesis, high betrayal trauma did not directly predict impaired betrayal awareness. State dissociation contributed significantly to betrayal awareness. Implications of findings for theory and practice are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia
Conscientização
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia
Confiança/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10538712.2017.1283650


  3 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29412561
[Au] Autor:Primeau D
[Ti] Título:How Small Organizations Handle HIPAA Compliance.
[So] Source:J AHIMA;88(4):18-21, 2017 04.
[Is] ISSN:1060-5487
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Administração da Prática Médica/organização & administração
Medição de Risco
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conscientização
Segurança Computacional/legislação & jurisprudência
Fiscalização e Controle de Instalações
Fidelidade a Diretrizes
Técnicas de Planejamento
Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência
Medidas de Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:H
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180208
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29206977
[Au] Autor:Brandão D; Ribeiro O; Martín I
[Ad] Endereço:Research and Education Unit on Ageing (UNIFAI/ICBAS-UP), Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Porto, Porto.
[Ti] Título:Underuse and Unawareness of Residential Respite Care Services in Dementia Caregiving: Constraining the Need for Relief.
[So] Source:Health Soc Work;41(4):254-262, 2016 Nov 20.
[Is] ISSN:0360-7283
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article describes an analysis of the use of residential respite care services and the factors that influence the use of such services among informal caregivers of people with dementia. The authors studied a sample of 223 caregivers participating in a community-based intervention project in northern Portugal. Participants provided information on their overall caregiving situation and on their use or willingness to use respite care services. Results showed that fewer than 6 percent of caregivers accessed the services and that although most caregivers were not familiar with these services, they recognized their importance and strongly considered the possibility of using them. Part-time care, lower levels of gratification, higher burden, and the care receiver's attendance of day center supported the willingness to use residential respite services. The limited offer, not knowing about the services, and cultural issues related to the family duties within the caregiving role can explain the low use of these services. Social work professionals have an important role in promoting residential respite care services, and thereby helping to reduce caregiving overload.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conscientização
Cuidadores/psicologia
Demência/enfermagem
Cuidados Intermitentes/utilização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Portugal
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/hsw/hlw041


  5 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29206949
[Au] Autor:Wan ESF; Ma JLC; Lai KYC; Lo JWK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry, and Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin.
[Ti] Título:The Subjective Experiences of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of Chinese Families in Hong Kong: Co-Construction of Meanings in Multiple Family Groups.
[So] Source:Health Soc Work;41(3):164-172, 2016 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:0360-7283
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The subjective experiences of Chinese children in Hong Kong with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are underexplored. This article reports the results of a qualitative study that aims to understand the subjective experiences of children with ADHD in Hong Kong, taken from among a clinical sample of Chinese families with children struggling with ADHD who have participated in cross-disciplinary research of multiple family groups (MFG). The participating children revealed the subjective experiences of their struggle with the disorder in response to their parents' concern at a "press conference," one of the MFG activities, which underscored the importance of developing a new social work model to meet the multiple psychosocial service needs of these families. The article concludes with the discussion of the implications for the new model.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia
Família/psicologia
Relações Pais-Filho
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Psicológica
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico
Conscientização
Criança
Feminino
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
Hong Kong
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Estigma Social
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/hsw/hlw023


  6 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29251977
[Au] Autor:Jarmolowicz DP; Bruce AS; Glusman M; Lim SL; Lynch S; Thelen J; Catley D; Zieber N; Reed DD; Bruce JM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Applied Behavioral Science and Problem Gambling Research and Education Support System.
[Ti] Título:On how patients with multiple sclerosis weigh side effect severity and treatment efficacy when making treatment decisions.
[So] Source:Exp Clin Psychopharmacol;25(6):479-484, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1936-2293
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are available for individuals suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS), many patients fail to take their recommended medications. Unlike medications that provide immediate relief from existing symptoms, DMTs decrease the probability of future symptoms (i.e., a probabilistic benefit) while concurrently carrying an appreciable risk of immediate side effects (i.e., a probabilistic cost). Prior research has shown that both the probability of reducing disease progression and the probability of experiencing side effects impact patients' likelihood of taking a hypothetical DMT. The role that side effect severity plays in treatment decisions remains unexplored. The present study examined how probability of medication efficacy and side effect severity impact patients' likelihood of taking hypothetical DMTs. Patients' likelihood of taking a DMT systematically decreased as medication efficacy decreased and side effect severity increased. Because side effect severity appears to impact decision-making processes in unique ways, the present results suggest that providers should present information on severe (which are typically rare) and mild to moderate side effects (which are more common) separately. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conscientização
Tomada de Decisões
Adesão à Medicação/psicologia
Motivação
Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia
Esclerose Múltipla/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Análise de Variância
Área Sob a Curva
Avaliação da Deficiência
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Probabilidade
Inquéritos e Questionários
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180224
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180224
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/pha0000152


  7 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29229593
[Au] Autor:Craig R; Holt T; Rees JL
[Ad] Endereço:Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Botnar Research Centre, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK.
[Ti] Título:Acute rotator cuff tears.
[So] Source:BMJ;359:j5366, 2017 12 11.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem
Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem
Lesões do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doença Aguda
Conscientização
Diagnóstico Diferencial
Gerenciamento Clínico
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Debilidade Muscular/etiologia
Dor/etiologia
Manguito Rotador/patologia
Manguito Rotador/cirurgia
Lesões do Manguito Rotador/epidemiologia
Lesões do Manguito Rotador/patologia
Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia
Lesões do Ombro/complicações
Lesões do Ombro/patologia
Lesões do Ombro/cirurgia
Ultrassonografia/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.j5366


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[PMID]:29304118
[Au] Autor:Nagano Y; Yako-Suketomo H; Natsui H
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sports Wellness Sciences, Japan Women's College of Physical Education, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190397, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%). However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiologia
Conscientização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores de Risco
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190397


  9 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28470554
[Au] Autor:Adam KCS; Vogel EK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave., Chicago, IL, 60637, USA. kadam1@uchicago.edu.
[Ti] Título:Confident failures: Lapses of working memory reveal a metacognitive blind spot.
[So] Source:Atten Percept Psychophys;79(5):1506-1523, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1943-393X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Working memory performance fluctuates dramatically from trial to trial. On many trials, performance is no better than chance. Here, we assessed participants' awareness of working memory failures. We used a whole-report visual working memory task to quantify both trial-by-trial performance and trial-by-trial subjective ratings of inattention to the task. In Experiment 1 (N = 41), participants were probed for task-unrelated thoughts immediately following 20% of trials. In Experiment 2 (N = 30), participants gave a rating of their attentional state following 25% of trials. Finally, in Experiments 3a (N = 44) and 3b (N = 34), participants reported confidence of every response using a simple mouse-click judgment. Attention-state ratings and off-task thoughts predicted the number of items correctly identified on each trial, replicating previous findings that subjective measures of attention state predict working memory performance. However, participants correctly identified failures on only around 28% of failure trials. Across experiments, participants' metacognitive judgments reliably predicted variation in working memory performance but consistently and severely underestimated the extent of failures. Further, individual differences in metacognitive accuracy correlated with overall working memory performance, suggesting that metacognitive monitoring may be key to working memory success.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção/fisiologia
Julgamento/fisiologia
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
Metacognição/fisiologia
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conscientização/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Individualidade
Masculino
Distribuição Aleatória
Pensamento/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13414-017-1331-8


  10 / 17310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29304181
[Au] Autor:Lemos Teixeira D; Larraín R; Melo O; Hötzel MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Ciencias Animales, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
[Ti] Título:Public opinion towards castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190671, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent publications have shown that citizens in developing nations are gaining interest in farm animal welfare. The aims of this study were to assess the opinion of Chilean citizens about surgical castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production, to investigate how involvement in livestock production influences opinions, and to evaluate if different types of information would affect their opinion towards these management practices. The study was carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, and consisted of two surveys with 400 participants in each study. The first one used an online, self-administered questionnaire and the second one used a face to face questionnaire. The second questionnaire had four information treatments assigned randomly to survey participants (no information; negative information; negative and positive information; positive information). Most participants were aware that the two management practices are common in beef production systems and were opposed to them. Involvement in animal production was associated with greater acceptance of both management practices and participants that had visited a beef production farm before the study were more likely to support castration without anaesthesia in Survey 1. Belonging to any socioeconomic group and providing negative or positive information had no impact on participants' opinion. The results show a disconnection between the views of participants recruited for this study and beef production systems that do not provide pain control for male cattle surgical castration or provide little or no access to pasture.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anestesia
Orquiectomia/métodos
Opinião Pública
Carne Vermelha
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conscientização
Bovinos
Chile
Masculino
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190671



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