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[PMID]:28708861
[Au] Autor:Martinie MA; Almecija Y; Ros C; Gil S
[Ad] Endereço:Université de Poitiers, Université de Tours, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage (CeRCA - CNRS UMR 7295), Poiters, France.
[Ti] Título:Incidental mood state before dissonance induction affects attitude change.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0180531, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive), participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Afeto/fisiologia
Dissonância Cognitiva
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170715
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180531


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[PMID]:28438968
[Au] Autor:Colosio M; Shestakova A; Nikulin VV; Blagovechtchenski E; Klucharev V
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 109316, Moscow, Russian Federation, mcolosio@hse.ru.
[Ti] Título:Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Dissonance (Revised): An EEG Study.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(20):5074-5083, 2017 May 17.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative frontocentral evoked response similar to error-related negativity, which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring. Furthermore, the amplitude of the evoked response is correlated with the reevaluation of the alternatives. We also found a link between individual neural dynamics (long-range temporal correlations) of the frontocentral cortices during rest and follow-up neural and behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance. Individuals with stronger resting-state long-range temporal correlations demonstrated a greater postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives and larger evoked brain responses associated with stronger cognitive dissonance. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive dissonance is reflected in both resting-state and choice-related activity of the prefrontal cortex as part of the general performance-monitoring circuitry. Contrary to traditional decision theory, behavioral studies repeatedly demonstrate that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. Difficult choices generate psychological (cognitive) dissonance, which is reduced by the postdecisional devaluation of unchosen options. We found that decisions associated with a higher level of cognitive dissonance elicited a stronger negative frontocentral deflection that peaked ∼60 ms after the response. This activity shares similar spatial and temporal features as error-related negativity, the electrophysiological correlate of performance monitoring. Furthermore, the frontocentral resting-state activity predicted the individual magnitude of preference change and the strength of cognitive dissonance-related neural activity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
Dissonância Cognitiva
Eletroencefalografia/métodos
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conflito (Psicologia)
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170426
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3209-16.2017


  3 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28291105
[Au] Autor:Braxton CC; Robinson CN; Awad SS
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX.2Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
[Ti] Título:Escalation of Commitment in the Surgical ICU.
[So] Source:Crit Care Med;45(4):e433-e436, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1530-0293
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU. We hypothesize that factors previously identified in business and organizational psychology literature including self-justification, accountability, sunk costs, and cognitive dissonance result in escalation of commitment behavior in the surgical ICU setting resulting in increased utilization of resources and cost. DESIGN: A descriptive case study that illustrates common ICU narratives in which escalation of commitment can occur. In addition, we describe factors that are thought to contribute to escalation of commitment behaviors. MAIN RESULTS: Escalation of commitment behavior was observed with self-justification, accountability, and cognitive dissonance accounting for the majority of the behavior. Unlike in business decisions, sunk costs was not as evident. In addition, modulating factors such as personality, individual experience, culture, and gender were identified as contributors to escalation of commitment. CONCLUSIONS: Escalation of commitment occurs in the surgical ICU, resulting in significant expenditure of resources despite a predicted and often known poor outcome. Recognition of this phenomenon may lead to actions aimed at more rational decision making and may contribute to lowering healthcare costs. Investigation of objective measures that can help aid decision making in the surgical ICU is warranted.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tomada de Decisão Clínica
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
Recursos em Saúde/utilização
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
Futilidade Médica
Padrões de Prática Médica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Competência Clínica
Dissonância Cognitiva
Características Culturais
Recursos em Saúde/economia
Seres Humanos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia
Personalidade
Fatores Sexuais
Responsabilidade Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170526
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170526
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002261


  4 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28249056
[Au] Autor:Smith DK; Miller DE; Mounsey A
[Ad] Endereço:Naval Hospital Jacksonville, FL, USA.
[Ti] Título:PURLs: "Cold turkey" works best for smoking cessation.
[So] Source:J Fam Pract;66(3):174-176, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1533-7294
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Counsel patients who want to quit smoking that doing so abruptly leads to higher cessation rates than does quitting gradually.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Motivação
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
Fumar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Dissonância Cognitiva
Seres Humanos
Fumar/psicologia
Fumar/terapia
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia
Fatores de Tempo
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170630
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170630
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170302
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27808527
[Au] Autor:Green MA; Willis M; Fernandez-Kong K; Reyes S; Linkhart R; Johnson M; Thorne T; Kroska E; Woodward H; Lindberg J
[Ad] Endereço:Cornell College Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disorder Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Cornell College.
[Ti] Título:Dissonance-based eating disorder program reduces cardiac risk: A preliminary trial.
[So] Source:Health Psychol;36(4):346-355, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1930-7810
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized, controlled preliminary trial to examine the effect of a dissonance-based eating disorder program on eating disorder symptoms and cardiac risk indices in a community sample of women with subclinical and clinical symptoms (N = 47), examining the efficacy of the program in both the indicated prevention and treatment realms. METHOD: Eating disorder symptoms, body mass index, and biomarkers of cardiac risk were examined in dissonance and assessment-only control conditions at baseline, postintervention, and 2-month follow-up. Specifically, we assessed mean R wave amplitude, QT interval length, vagal tone (high frequency spectral power of heart rate variability), and sympathetic tone (low/high frequency spectral power ratio) via electocardiography (ECG) at each assessment period. RESULTS: We predicted a statistically significant 2 (condition: control, dissonance) × 3 (time: baseline, postintervention, 2-month follow-up) interaction in the mixed factorial MANOVA results. Results confirmed this hypothesis. Eating disorder symptoms and cardiac risk indices decreased significantly among participants in the dissonance condition at postintervention and 2-month follow-up compared with baseline. CONCLUSION: Results provide support for the efficacy of a dissonance-based program in the reduction of eating disorder symptoms and cardiac risk indices among women with subclinical and clinical eating disorder symptoms. Findings establish the efficaciousness of this dissonance-based approach in the indicated prevention and treatment realms and establish its efficacy in reducing cardiac risk indicators. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dissonância Cognitiva
Terapia Cognitiva
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia
Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Análise de Variância
Eletrocardiografia
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia
Feminino
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico
Cardiopatias/etiologia
Seres Humanos
Modelos Lineares
Risco
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/hea0000438


  6 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27593168
[Au] Autor:Breithaupt L; Eickman L; Byrne CE; Fischer S
[Ad] Endereço:George Mason University, Department of Psychology, 4400 University Drive, 3F5, Fairfax, VA 22030, United States; REbeL, Inc. 8695 College Blvd. Suite 260, Overland Park, KS 66210, United States. Electronic address: lbreitha@gmu.edu.
[Ti] Título:REbeL Peer Education: A model of a voluntary, after-school program for eating disorder prevention.
[So] Source:Eat Behav;25:32-37, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7358
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention leads to decreases in risk factors for these disorders. Although controlled trials have demonstrated that targeted, manualized programs reduce eating disorder risk, concerns regarding implementation and dissemination remain. A primary concern is the difficulty in adapting programs for a high school setting for populations at highest risk: adolescents. This paper describes the REbeL Peer Education model and assesses the initial pilot trials of the intervention. The program is novel in that it utilizes a voluntary, self-selection model that is sustainable in a high school setting, and focuses on empowerment and effective cognitive dissonance based prevention activities. High school peer-educators self-selected into the semi-manualized dissonance based intervention. Group activities were peer led, designed to critique the thin ideal, and designed to empower macro (school and larger community wide) changes in The pilot trial (N=47) assess the effectiveness and feasibility of the intervention. Results of the initial pilot study revealed preliminary support for the feasibility of the program, increases in feelings of empowerment, and decreases in eating disorder cognitions and behaviors with moderate to large effect sizes. Feedback from participants indicated that the intervention was enjoyable, educational, and empowering. This study is the first to adapt dissonance-based prevention models to a semi-manualized, peer-led, prevention program integrated into high school settings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle
Educação em Saúde/métodos
Modelos Educacionais
Grupo Associado
Programas Voluntários
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Dissonância Cognitiva
Estudos de Viabilidade
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Projetos Piloto
Fatores de Risco
Instituições Acadêmicas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160906
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25976736
[Au] Autor:Ong AS; Frewer L; Chan MY
[Ad] Endereço:a Nanyang Polytechnic, Behavioural Sciences, School of Health Sciences , Singapore , Singapore.
[Ti] Título:Cognitive dissonance in food and nutrition-A review.
[So] Source:Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr;57(11):2330-2342, 2017 Jul 24.
[Is] ISSN:1549-7852
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The study of cognitive dissonance in food and nutrition has been relatively under-developed. This review paper looks at food and/or food-related studies that have utilized cognitive dissonance as a primary construct in a priori theorization and hypothesis-formulation, examining the ways in which the dissonance construct has been used and its corresponding effects on various food-related outcomes in those studies. Current gaps and critical issues underlying cognitive dissonance investigation in food and nutrition research are also identified and discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dissonância Cognitiva
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
Alimentos
Estado Nutricional
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atitude
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170810
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170810
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150516
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10408398.2015.1013622


  8 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27649357
[Au] Autor:Phillips JG; Hoon T; Landon J
[Ad] Endereço:a Auckland University of Technology.
[Ti] Título:Dynamic Selective Exposure during Decision-Making.
[So] Source:J Gen Psychol;143(4):239-53, 2016 Oct-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1940-0888
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To understand dynamic changes in the likelihood that people would access and selectively expose themselves to information online, the present study examined the checking of account balances during simulated gambling. Sixteen participants played 120 hands of computer Blackjack for points, at higher or lower levels of risk (different point multipliers), and after each win or loss the computer recorded if participants checked their account balances. There were individual differences in checking rates. Participants who were more likely to check balances exhibited a selectivity of exposure to decision consonant information after a win at low risk. Although it was expected that people would seek to maintain positive mood, data were better explained in terms of Cognitive Dissonance. The effects of Cognitive Dissonance are liable to extend beyond single static decisions into dynamic online environments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude Frente aos Computadores
Apresentação de Dados
Tomada de Decisões
Jogo de Azar/psicologia
Funções Verossimilhança
Sistemas On-Line
Jogos de Vídeo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Afeto
Dissonância Cognitiva
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Medição de Risco
Fatores Sexuais
Estudantes/psicologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170421
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170421
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160921
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/00221309.2016.1214098


  9 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27245269
[Au] Autor:de Vries JM; Timmins F
[Ad] Endereço:School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
[Ti] Título:Deception and self-deception in health care.
[So] Source:Nurs Philos;17(3):163-72, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1466-769X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Deception is part of the natural repertoire of adaptive behaviours in many organisms. In humans we see it in all domains of human activity including health care. Within health care, deception can be a matter of concern, but it is also used to protect patients, for instance against overwhelming and negative diagnostics. This paper demonstrates that deception and self-deception are closely interlinked and that self-deception facilitates deception. Furthermore, self-deception tends to be used to reduce the discomfort we feel when we are dishonest (cognitive dissonance). The paper includes references to core psychological mechanisms and ethical aspects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dissonância Cognitiva
Decepção
Assistência à Saúde/normas
Ética Profissional
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Assistência à Saúde/métodos
Seres Humanos
Valores Sociais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170327
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170327
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160602
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/nup.12126


  10 / 675 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27188688
[Au] Autor:Kilpela LS; Blomquist K; Verzijl C; Wilfred S; Beyl R; Becker CB
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas, 78212.
[Ti] Título:The body project 4 all: A pilot randomized controlled trial of a mixed-gender dissonance-based body image program.
[So] Source:Int J Eat Disord;49(6):591-602, 2016 06.
[Is] ISSN:1098-108X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The Body Project is a cognitive dissonance-based body image improvement program with ample research support among female samples. More recently, researchers have highlighted the extent of male body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors; however, boys/men have not been included in the majority of body image improvement programs. This study aims to explore the efficacy of a mixed-gender Body Project compared with the historically female-only body image intervention program. METHOD: Participants included male and female college students (N = 185) across two sites. We randomly assigned women to a mixed-gender modification of the two-session, peer-led Body Project (MG), the two-session, peer-led, female-only (FO) Body Project, or a waitlist control (WL), and men to either MG or WL. Participants completed self-report measures assessing negative affect, appearance-ideal internalization, body satisfaction, and eating disorder pathology at baseline, post-test, and at 2- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Linear mixed effects modeling to estimate the change from baseline over time for each dependent variable across conditions were used. For women, results were mixed regarding post-intervention improvement compared with WL, and were largely non-significant compared with WL at 6-month follow-up. Alternatively, results indicated that men in MG consistently improved compared with WL through 6-month follow-up on all measures except negative affect and appearance-ideal internalization. DISCUSSION: Results differed markedly between female and male samples, and were more promising for men than for women. Various explanations are provided, and further research is warranted prior to drawing firm conclusions regarding mixed-gender programming of the Body Project. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:591-602).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Imagem Corporal/psicologia
Dissonância Cognitiva
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Grupo Associado
Satisfação Pessoal
Projetos Piloto
Autorrelato
Estudantes/psicologia
Resultado do Tratamento
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171122
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171122
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160519
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/eat.22562



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