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[PMID]:28460069
[Au] Autor:Premi E; Grassi M; van Swieten J; Galimberti D; Graff C; Masellis M; Tartaglia C; Tagliavini F; Rowe JB; Laforce R; Finger E; Frisoni GB; de Mendonça A; Sorbi S; Gazzina S; Cosseddu M; Archetti S; Gasparotti R; Manes M; Alberici A; Cardoso MJ; Bocchetta M; Cash DM; Ourselin S; Padovani A; Rohrer JD; Borroni B; Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI)
[Ad] Endereço:Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Cognitive reserve and TMEM106B genotype modulate brain damage in presymptomatic frontotemporal dementia: a GENFI study.
[So] Source:Brain;140(6):1784-1791, 2017 Jun 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Frontotemporal dementia is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with around a third of cases having autosomal dominant inheritance. There is wide variability in phenotype even within affected families, raising questions about the determinants of the progression of disease and age at onset. It has been recently demonstrated that cognitive reserve, as measured by years of formal schooling, can counteract the ongoing pathological process. The TMEM106B genotype has also been found to be a modifier of the age at disease onset in frontotemporal dementia patients with TDP-43 pathology. This study therefore aimed to elucidate the modulating effect of environment (i.e. cognitive reserve as measured by educational attainment) and genetic background (i.e. TMEM106B polymorphism, rs1990622 T/C) on grey matter volume in a large cohort of presymptomatic subjects bearing frontotemporal dementia-related pathogenic mutations. Two hundred and thirty-one participants from the GENFI study were included: 108 presymptomatic MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72 mutation carriers and 123 non-carriers. For each subject, cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes were generated using a parcellation of the volumetric T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. TMEM106B genotyping was carried out, and years of education recorded. First, we obtained a composite measure of grey matter volume by graph-Laplacian principal component analysis, and then fitted a linear mixed-effect interaction model, considering the role of (i) genetic status; (ii) educational attainment; and (iii) TMEM106B genotype on grey matter volume. The presence of a mutation was associated with a lower grey matter volume (P = 0.002), even in presymptomatic subjects. Education directly affected grey matter volume in all the samples (P = 0.02) with lower education attainment being associated with lower volumes. TMEM106B genotype did not influence grey matter volume directly on its own but in mutation carriers it modulated the slope of the correlation between education and grey matter volume (P = 0.007). Together, these results indicate that brain atrophy in presymptomatic carriers of common frontotemporal dementia mutations is affected by both genetic and environmental factors such that TMEM106B enhances the benefit of cognitive reserve on brain structure. These findings should be considered in evaluating outcomes in future disease-modifying trials, and support the search for protective mechanisms in people at risk of dementia that might facilitate new therapeutic strategies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia
Escolaridade
Demência Frontotemporal
Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem
Proteínas de Membrana/genética
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Atrofia/patologia
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem
Demência Frontotemporal/genética
Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Polimorfismo Genético
Sintomas Prodrômicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Membrane Proteins); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (TMEM106B protein, human)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171127
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171127
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx103


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[PMID]:29036183
[Au] Autor:Persson K; Eldholm RS; Barca ML; Cavallin L; Ferreira D; Knapskog AB; Selbæk G; Brækhus A; Saltvedt I; Westman E; Engedal K
[Ad] Endereço:Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway.
[Ti] Título:MRI-assessed atrophy subtypes in Alzheimer's disease and the cognitive reserve hypothesis.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186595, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND/AIMS: MRI assessment of the brain has demonstrated four different patterns of atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD): typical AD, limbic-predominant AD, hippocampal-sparing AD, and a subtype with minimal atrophy, previously referred to as no-atrophy AD. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe the differences between these four AD subtypes in a longitudinal memory-clinic study. METHODS: The medial temporal lobes, the frontal regions, and the posterior regions were assessed with MRI visual rating scales to categorize 123 patients with mild AD according to ICD-10 and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and the clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) into atrophy subtypes. Demographic data, neuropsychological measures, cerebrospinal-fluid biomarkers, and progression rate of dementia at two-year follow-up were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Typical AD was found in 59 patients (48%); 29 (24%) patients had limbic-predominant AD; 19 (15%) had hippocampal-sparing AD; and 16 (13%) belonged to the group with minimal atrophy. No differences were found regarding cognitive test results or progression rates between the different subtypes. Using adjusted logistic regression analysis, we found that the patients in the minimal-atrophy group were less educated, had a lower baseline CDR sum of boxes score, and had higher levels of amyloid ß in the cerebrospinal fluid. CONCLUSION: Previous results concerning the prevalence and the similar phenotypic expressions of the four AD subtypes were confirmed. The main finding was that patients with minimal atrophy as assessed by MRI had less education than the other AD subtypes and that this could support the cognitive reserve hypothesis and, at least in part, explain the lower degree of atrophy in this group. Patients with less formal education might present with clinically typical AD symptoms before they have positive biomarkers of AD and this finding might challenge suggested biomarker-based criteria for AD.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia
Reserva Cognitiva
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia
Atrofia
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171017
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186595


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[PMID]:28630377
[Au] Autor:Darby RR; Brickhouse M; Wolk DA; Dickerson BC; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
[Ad] Endereço:Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Effects of cognitive reserve depend on executive and semantic demands of the task.
[So] Source:J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry;88(9):794-802, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1468-330X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) is one factor that helps to maintain cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether the effects of CR depend on the semantic/executive components of the task remains unknown. METHODS: 470 patients (138 with AD, 332 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)) were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Linear regression models were used to determine the effects of CR (years of education) on cognitive performance after controlling for demographic factors and regional cortical atrophy. First, we assessed memory tasks with low (Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) discriminability), moderate (AVLT delayed recall) and high (Logical Memory Test (LMT) delayed recall) executive/semantic components. Next, we assessed tasks with lower (digit span forward, Trails A) or higher (digit span backwards, Trails B) executive demands, and lower (figure copying) or higher (naming, semantic fluency) semantic demands. RESULTS: High CR was significantly associated with performance on the LMT delayed recall, approached significance in the AVLT delayed recall and was not significantly associated with performance on AVLT discriminability. High CR was significantly associated with performance on the Trails B and digit span backwards, mildly associated with Trails A performance and was not associated with performance on digit span forwards. High CR was associated with performance on semantic but not visuospatial tasks. High CR was associated with semantic tasks in patients with both MCI and AD, but was only associated with executive functions in patients with MCI. CONCLUSION: CR may relate to executive functioning and semantic knowledge, leading to preserved cognitive performance in patients with AD pathology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia
Função Executiva/fisiologia
Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
Semântica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia
Cognição
Disfunção Cognitiva
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171114
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171114
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170621
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2017-315719


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[PMID]:28579327
[Au] Autor:Yamakawa GR; Salberg S; Barlow KM; Brooks BL; Esser MJ; Yeates KO; Mychasiuk R
[Ad] Endereço:Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Manipulating cognitive reserve: Pre-injury environmental conditions influence the severity of concussion symptomology, gene expression, and response to melatonin treatment in rats.
[So] Source:Exp Neurol;295:55-65, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2430
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In an effort to understand the factors that contribute to heterogeneity in outcomes often associated with mTBI in youth, this study examined the role of premorbid differences in cognitive reserve on post-concussive symptoms (PCS), molecular markers, and treatment response. Male and female rats matured in one of three environmental conditions (Stress, Enrichment, Control), received a mTBI in adolescence, and were randomized to melatonin or placebo treatment. All animals underwent a behavioural test battery designed to examine PCS. Using prefrontal cortex and hippocampus tissue, expression of 9 genes was assessed in an effort to determine how the brain's epigenome was influenced by cognitive reserve, mTBI, and melatonin. Enrichment increased cognitive reserve (CR) and prevented lingering symptoms. Conversely, stress was associated with progressive worsening and manifestation of PCS in the longer-term. Melatonin was able to restore baseline function for control and enriched animals, but was ineffective for the stress condition. Epigenetic change in the prefrontal cortex was largely driven by the injury, while gene expression changes in the hippocampus were dependent upon cognitive reserve. The occurrence and severity of PCS is dependent upon a complex and multifaceted array of factors that modify behavioural and epigenetic responses to mTBI and its treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico
Concussão Encefálica/genética
Concussão Encefálica/psicologia
Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia
Meio Ambiente
Melatonina/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal
Concussão Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico
Epigênese Genética
Feminino
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Masculino
Síndrome Pós-Concussão/genética
Síndrome Pós-Concussão/psicologia
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Encurtamento do Telômero
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antioxidants); JL5DK93RCL (Melatonin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170814
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170814
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170606
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28422821
[Au] Autor:Carapelle E; Serra L; Modoni S; Falcone M; Caltagirone C; Bozzali M; Specchio LM; Avolio C
[Ad] Endereço:aClinic of Nervous System Diseases, OORR Foggia bNeuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome cInstitute of Nuclear Medicine d1° Laboratory, OORR Foggia eNeuroimaging Laboratory IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, and Department of NeuroScience University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.
[Ti] Título:How the cognitive reserve interacts with ß-amyloid deposition in mitigating FDG metabolism: An observational study.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);96(16):e5876, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This observational study had the aim to assess the interaction between cognitive reserve (CR) and cerebrospinal fluid ß-amyloid1-42 (Aß1-42) in modulating brain [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) metabolism in patients with moderate Alzheimer disease (AD).Twenty-seven patients with probable AD and 25 neurological normal subjects (NNS) entered the study. All participants had an FDG-PET scan, and AD patients also received a lumbar puncture to measure Aß1-42, 181p-tau, and Tau concentrations. Based on years of formal education, AD patients were classified as highly educated-AD (years of formal education >5) or less educated-AD (years of formal education <5). By using a voxel-wise approach, we first investigated differences in the cerebral glucose uptake between AD and NNS, then we assessed the interaction between level of education (a proxy of CR) and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers on FDG-PET metabolism in the patient groups.Significantly lower glucose uptake was observed in the posterior cingulate gyrus, in the precuneus, in the inferior and medial temporal gyrus, and in the inferior parietal lobule of AD patients compared with NNS. A significant interaction was found between CR and Aß1-42 values on brain metabolism in the inferior and medial temporal gyrus bilaterally.The AD patients with higher CR level and marked signs of neuropathology showed glucose hypometabolism in regions typically targeted by AD pathology. This finding supports the hypothesis that CR partially compensates for the effect of Aß plaques on cognitive impairment, helps in patients' clinical staging, and opens new possibilities for the development of nonpharmacological interventions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia
Glucose/metabolismo
Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem
Biomarcadores/metabolismo
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
Mapeamento Encefálico
Escolaridade
Feminino
Fluordesoxiglucose F18
Seres Humanos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada
Testes Neuropsicológicos
Fosforilação
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amyloid beta-Peptides); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (MAPT protein, human); 0 (Peptide Fragments); 0 (Radiopharmaceuticals); 0 (amyloid beta-protein (1-42)); 0 (tau Proteins); 0Z5B2CJX4D (Fluorodeoxyglucose F18); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170501
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170501
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170420
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000005876


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[PMID]:28323829
[Au] Autor:Clare L; Wu YT; Teale JC; MacLeod C; Matthews F; Brayne C; Woods B; CFAS-Wales study team
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Research in Ageing and Cognitive Health (REACH), School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(3):e1002259, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales) cohort collected in 2011-2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors-cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking-and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%-23%) of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%-27%) of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition, and maintenance of cognitive health may be supported by a healthy and active lifestyle, in later life.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição
Reserva Cognitiva
Estilo de Vida
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Estudos Transversais
Escolaridade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Ocupações
País de Gales
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170612
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170612
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170322
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002259


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[PMID]:28322422
[Au] Autor:Mistridis P; Mata J; Neuner-Jehle S; Annoni JM; Biedermann A; Bopp-Kistler I; Brand D; Brioschi Guevara A; Decrey-Wick H; Démonet JF; Hemmeter U; Kressig RW; Martin B; Rampa L; Savaskan E; Stuck A; Tschopp P; Zekry D; Monsch A
[Ad] Endereço:Memory Clinic, University Centre for Medicine of Aging, Felix Platter Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Use it or lose it! Cognitive activity as a protec-tive factor for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease.
[So] Source:Swiss Med Wkly;147:w14407, 2017 03 21.
[Is] ISSN:1424-3997
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Because of the worldwide aging of populations, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias constitute a devastating experience for patients and families as well as a major social and economic burden for both healthcare systems and society. Multiple potentially modifiable cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors have been associated with this disease. Thus, modifying these risk factors and identifying protective factors represent important strategies to prevent and delay disease onset and to decrease the social burden. Based on the cognitive reserve hypothesis, evidence from epidemiological studies shows that low education and cognitive inactivity constitute major risk factors for dementia. This indicates that a cognitively active lifestyle may protect against cognitive decline or delay the onset of dementia. We describe a newly developed preventive programme, based on this evidence, to stimulate and increase cognitive activity in older adults at risk for cognitive decline. This programme, called "BrainCoach", includes the technique of "motivational interviewing" to foster behaviour change. If the planned feasibility study is successful, we propose to add BrainCoach as a module to the already existing "Health Coaching" programme, a Swiss preventive programme to address multiple risk factors in primary care.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle
Cognição
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle
Promoção da Saúde
Fatores de Proteção
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Envelhecimento/psicologia
Reserva Cognitiva
Seres Humanos
Estilo de Vida
Entrevista Motivacional/métodos
Fatores de Risco
Suíça
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170322
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28291786
[Au] Autor:Wang HX; MacDonald SW; Dekhtyar S; Fratiglioni L
[Ad] Endereço:College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.
[Ti] Título:Association of lifelong exposure to cognitive reserve-enhancing factors with dementia risk: A community-based cohort study.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(3):e1002251, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Variation in the clinical manifestation of dementia has been associated with differences in cognitive reserve, although less is known about the cumulative effects of exposure to cognitive reserve factors over the life course. We examined the association of cognitive reserve-related factors over the lifespan with the risk of dementia in a community-based cohort of older adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Information on early-life education, socioeconomic status, work complexity at age 20, midlife occupation attainment, and late-life leisure activities was collected in a cohort of dementia-free community dwellers aged 75+ y residing in the Kungsholmen district of Stockholm, Sweden, in 1987-1989. The cohort was followed up to 9 y (until 1996) to detect incident dementia cases. To exclude preclinical phases of disease, participants who developed dementia at the first follow-up examination 3 y after the baseline were excluded (n = 602 after exclusions). Structural equation modelling was used to generate latent factors of cognitive reserve from three periods over the life course: early (before 20 y), adulthood (around 30-55 y), and late life (75 y and older). The correlation between early- and adult-life latent factors was strong (γ = 0.9), whereas early-late (γ = 0.27) and adult-late (γ = 0.16) latent factor correlations were weak. One hundred forty-eight participants developed dementia during follow-up, and 454 remained dementia-free. The relative risk (RR) of dementia was estimated using Cox models with life-course cognitive reserve-enhancing factors modelled separately and simultaneously to assess direct and indirect effects. The analysis was repeated among carriers and noncarriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. A reduced risk of dementia was associated with early- (RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36-0.90), adult- (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.42-0.87), and late-life (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.37-0.73) reserve-enhancing latent factors in separate multivariable Cox models. In a mutually adjusted model, which may have been imprecisely estimated because of strong correlation between early- and adult-life factors, the late-life factor preserved its association (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45-0.94), whereas the effect of midlife (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.50-1.06) and early-life factors (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.47-1.23) on the risk of dementia was attenuated. The risk declined progressively with cumulative exposure to reserve-enhancing latent factors, and having high scores on cognitive reserve-enhancing composite factors in all three periods over the life course was associated with the lowest risk of dementia (RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.81). Similar associations were detected among APOE ε4 allele carriers and noncarriers. Limitations include measurement error and nonresponse, with both biases likely favouring the null. Strong correlation between early- and adult-life latent factors may have led to a loss in precision when estimating mutually adjusted effects of all periods. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, cumulative exposure to reserve-enhancing factors over the lifespan was associated with reduced risk of dementia in late life, even among individuals with genetic predisposition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reserva Cognitiva
Demência/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Estudos de Coortes
Demência/diagnóstico
Demência/etiologia
Demência/genética
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Fatores de Risco
Suécia/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170612
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170612
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002251


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[PMID]:28287785
[Au] Autor:Thorvaldsson V; Skoog I; Johansson B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
[Ti] Título:IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.
[So] Source:Psychol Aging;32(2):148-157, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1939-1498
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia
Inteligência/fisiologia
Destreza Motora/fisiologia
Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia
Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Envelhecimento/psicologia
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Testes de Inteligência
Masculino
Percepção/fisiologia
Vigilância da População/métodos
Sistema de Registros
Suécia/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170809
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170809
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170314
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/pag0000150


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[PMID]:28263040
[Au] Autor:Hinrichs KH; Easter RE; Angers K; Pester B; Lai Z; Marshall DF; Kamali M; McInnis M; Langenecker SA; Ryan KA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
[Ti] Título:Influence of cognitive reserve on neuropsychological functioning in bipolar disorder: Findings from a 5-year longitudinal study.
[So] Source:Bipolar Disord;19(1):50-59, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1399-5618
[Cp] País de publicação:Denmark
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the 5-year longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in a large sample of well-characterized patients with bipolar disorder (BP), compared to healthy controls (HCs), and the influence of cognitive reserve factors (e.g., education and IQ) on cognitive change over time. METHODS: Participants included 159 individuals diagnosed with BP and 54 HCs recruited as part of a longitudinal naturalistic study of BP who had completed neuropsychological testing at the time of their enrollment and again 5 years later. RESULTS: The overall relative rate of change did not differ between the BP and HC groups. In total, 46.5% of the BP group and 37% of the HC group showed evidence of decline on at least one measure over time. T-test analyses did not find differences between BP 'decliners' and 'non-decliners' in cognitive reserve variables. However, we found that higher baseline intellectual ability was associated with more stability in cognitive test scores over time for the BP group. Results of linear regression modeling revealed that lower verbal IQ and education were related to increased cognitive decline in specific domains in the BP group. CONCLUSIONS: This study has explored the influence of cognitive reserve on preservation of specific cognitive abilities over time in BP. The BP group did not demonstrate accelerated cognitive decline over 5 years compared to the HC group. Although the trajectory of cognitive change over time was similar between BP patients and HCs, higher overall intellectual ability may be a protective factor against cognitive decline, particularly for BP patients.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno Bipolar
Cognição
Reserva Cognitiva
Inteligência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia
Escolaridade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Testes de Inteligência
Testes de Linguagem
Modelos Lineares
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Meia-Idade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170307
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/bdi.12470



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