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Pesquisa : F02.463.188.357 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29451669
[Au] Autor:Celeste LC; Pereira ES; Pereira NRR; Alves LM
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Prosodic parameters of reading in 2nd to 5th grade students.
[Ti] Título:Parâmetros prosódicos de leitura em escolares do segundo ao quinto ano do ensino fundamental..
[So] Source:Codas;30(1):e20170034, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2317-1782
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng; por
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose Characterize and compare melodic variation and reading speed and verify their evolution throughout the development of schooling. Methods The reading of 78 Elementary School (2nd to 5th grade) students was analyzed using the Praat program with regards to the parameters of melodic variation (F0) and reading speed (Duration). Statistical measures (mean and standard deviation) were taken and the Student´s t-test was applied at significance level of 5%. Results Melodic variation and reading speed increased as schooling progressed, especially during 5th grade. Conclusion Melodic variation increases as schooling progresses, mainly during 5th grade. First minute of reading analysis is sufficient to assess reading speed, not being necessary to analyze the full text.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Leitura
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Compreensão
Avaliação Educacional
Seres Humanos
Linguagem
Fala/fisiologia
Estudantes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180217
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28459906
[Au] Autor:Morgan DJ; Leppin AL; Smith CD; Korenstein D
[Ad] Endereço:VA Maryland Healthcare System, University of Maryland School of Medicine and Centers for Disease Dynamics, Economics, and Policy, Baltimore, MD.
[Ti] Título:A Practical Framework for Understanding and Reducing Medical Overuse: Conceptualizing Overuse Through the Patient-Clinician Interaction.
[So] Source:J Hosp Med;12(5):346-351, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1553-5606
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Overuse of medical services is an increasingly recognized driver of poor-quality care and high cost. A practical framework is needed to guide clinical decisions and facilitate concrete actions that can reduce overuse and improve care. We used an iterative, expert-informed, evidence-based process to develop a framework for conceptualizing interventions to reduce medical overuse. Given the complexity of defining and identifying overused care in nuanced clinical situations and the need to define care appropriateness in the context of an individual patient, this framework conceptualizes the patient-clinician interaction as the nexus of decisions regarding inappropriate care. This interaction is influenced by other utilization drivers, including healthcare system factors, the practice environment, the culture of professional medicine, the culture of healthcare consumption, and individual patient and clinician factors. The variable strength of the evidence supporting these domains highlights important areas for further investigation. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:346-351.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Assistência à Saúde/normas
Assistência à Saúde/utilização
Uso Excessivo de Produtos e Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle
Relações Médico-Paciente
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Assistência à Saúde/economia
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas
Seres Humanos
Uso Excessivo de Produtos e Serviços de Saúde/economia
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.12788/jhm.2738


  3 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29194151
[Au] Autor:Donnell WM
[Ti] Título:A Correlational Study of a Reading Comprehension Program and Attrition Rates of ESL Nursing Students in Texas.
[So] Source:Nurs Educ Perspect;36(1):16-21, 2015 Jan/Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5026
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between English as a second language (ESL), a reading comprehension program, and attrition rates of nursing students. BACKGROUND: Higher attrition rates of ESL nursing students are an assumption, seemingly based on anecdotal evidence. Data reflecting ESL student attrition should be measured and analyzed so that students can be identified prior to attrition. METHOD: A secondary analysis of a large database of 27 initial licensure programs in Texas was completed. RESULTS: Data analysis identified that ESL students who used a reading comprehension program were almost twice as likely to be off track or out of the program as ESL students who did not use the program. CONCLUSION: Nurse educators need to evaluate student profile characteristics in a comprehensive way when determining risk of attrition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
Leitura
Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Multilinguismo
Texas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5480/13-1212


  4 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27771346
[Au] Autor:Yang Y; Wang J; Bailer C; Cherkassky V; Just MA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Commonality of neural representations of sentences across languages: Predicting brain activation during Portuguese sentence comprehension using an English-based model of brain function.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;146:658-666, 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of the study was to test the cross-language generative capability of a model that predicts neural activation patterns evoked by sentence reading, based on a semantic characterization of the sentence. In a previous study on English monolingual speakers (Wang et al., submitted), a computational model performed a mapping from a set of 42 concept-level semantic features (Neurally Plausible Semantic Features, NPSFs) as well as 6 thematic role markers to neural activation patterns (assessed with fMRI), to predict activation levels in a network of brain locations. The model used two types of information gained from the English-based fMRI data to predict the activation for individual sentences in Portuguese. First, it used the mapping weights from NPSFs to voxel activation levels derived from the model for English reading. Second, the brain locations for which the activation levels were predicted were derived from a factor analysis of the brain activation patterns during English reading. These meta-language locations were defined by the clusters of voxels with high loadings on each of the four main dimensions (factors), namely people, places, actions and feelings, underlying the neural representations of the stimulus sentences. This cross-language model succeeded in predicting the brain activation patterns associated with the reading of 60 individual Portuguese sentences that were entirely new to the model, attaining accuracies reliably above chance level. The prediction accuracy was not affected by whether the Portuguese speaker was monolingual or Portuguese-English bilingual. The model's confusion errors indicated an accurate capture of the events or states described in the sentence at a conceptual level. Overall, the cross-language predictive capability of the model demonstrates the neural commonality between speakers of different languages in the representations of everyday events and states, and provides an initial characterization of the common meta-language neural basis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/fisiologia
Compreensão/fisiologia
Multilinguismo
Leitura
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Mapeamento Encefálico
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Semântica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161106
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28468160
[Au] Autor:Chu MW; Cook JA; Tholpady SS; Schmalbach CE; Momeni A
[Ad] Endereço:*Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine †Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, RL Roudebush Veterans Administration Medical Center ‡Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN §Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
[Ti] Título:Facial Plastic Surgery Patient Resources Exceed National Institute Recommendations.
[So] Source:J Craniofac Surg;28(3):759-763, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1536-3732
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Patient education is essential in enhancing the physician-patient therapeutic alliance, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The American Medical Association and National Institute of Health recommend that information be written at a 6th-grade reading level, but online resources often exceed patient literacy. The purpose of this study is to assess readability of online material for facial plastics procedures presented on academic plastic surgery and otolaryngology websites.An Internet search was performed of all academic institutions that had both plastic surgery and otolaryngology training programs who offered patient information on facial plastic surgery procedures. National society websites for both plastic surgery and otolaryngology were also analyzed. All procedural information was compiled and readability analyses were performed. A 2-tailed Z-test was used to compare scores, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Sixty-three programs were identified; 42 had educational material. The overall average readability for all information was at a 10th-grade reading level. The national plastic surgery website had a significantly higher word count and number of syllables per word compared to the national otolaryngology website (P < 0.001, P = 0.04).The complexity of written resources represents an obstacle to online patient education and efforts to improve readability could benefit patients seeking medical information online. Current online education materials are a potential hindrance to patient education, satisfaction, and decision making. Healthcare institutions should consider writing new materials with simpler language that would be accessible to patients.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Guias como Assunto
Alfabetização em Saúde/organização & administração
Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração
Internet
Otolaringologia/educação
Ritidoplastia/educação
Cirurgia Plástica/educação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Compreensão
Seres Humanos
Materiais de Ensino
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:D
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000003435


  6 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27776281
[Au] Autor:Morgan E; Levy R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Linguistics, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0108, United States; Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155, United States. Electronic address: emily.morgan@tufts.edu.
[Ti] Título:Abstract knowledge versus direct experience in processing of binomial expressions.
[So] Source:Cognition;157:384-402, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7838
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model. In contrast, online processing of highly frequent binomials is primarily driven by direct experience, which we estimate from corpus frequency counts. We propose a trade-off wherein processing of novel expressions relies upon abstract knowledge, while reliance upon direct experience increases with increased exposure to an expression. Our findings support theories of language processing in which both compositional generation and direct, holistic reuse of multi-word expressions play crucial roles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Linguística
Semântica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Modelos Psicológicos
Modelos Estatísticos
Leitura
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27771538
[Au] Autor:Carrigan EM; Coppola M
[Ad] Endereço:University of Connecticut, United States. Electronic address: emily.carrigan@uconn.edu.
[Ti] Título:Successful communication does not drive language development: Evidence from adult homesign.
[So] Source:Cognition;158:10-27, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7838
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Constructivist accounts of language acquisition maintain that the language learner aims to match a target provided by mature users. Communicative problem solving in the context of social interaction and matching a linguistic target or model are presented as primary mechanisms driving the language development process. However, research on the development of homesign gesture systems by deaf individuals who have no access to a linguistic model suggests that aspects of language can develop even when typical input is unavailable. In four studies, we examined the role of communication in the genesis of homesign systems by assessing how well homesigners' family members comprehend homesign productions. In Study 1, homesigners' mothers showed poorer comprehension of homesign descriptions produced by their now-adult deaf child than of spoken Spanish descriptions of the same events produced by one of their adult hearing children. Study 2 found that the younger a family member was when they first interacted with their deaf relative, the better they understood the homesigner. Despite this, no family member comprehended homesign productions at levels that would be expected if family members co-generated homesign systems with their deaf relative via communicative interactions. Study 3 found that mothers' poor or incomplete comprehension of homesign was not a result of incomplete homesign descriptions. In Study 4 we demonstrated that Deaf native users of American Sign Language, who had no previous experience with the homesigners or their homesign systems, nevertheless comprehended homesign productions out of context better than the homesigners' mothers. This suggests that homesign has comprehensible structure, to which mothers and other family members are not fully sensitive. Taken together, these studies show that communicative problem solving is not responsible for the development of structure in homesign systems. The role of this mechanism must therefore be re-evaluated in constructivist theories of language development.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Surdez/psicologia
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
Linguística
Linguagem de Sinais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Gestos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Mães/psicologia
Irmãos/psicologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29240362
[Au] Autor:Williams S; Hemphill JC; Knowles A
[Ti] Título:Confidence of Nursing Personnel in Their Understanding Of the Psychosocial Impact of Prostate Cancer.
[So] Source:Urol Nurs;37(1):23-30, 2017 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1053-816X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Nurses must be equipped with skills to support men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Implementation of a unit-specific, evidence-based education program had significant, positive effects on the confidence of nurses who care for veterans who experience a psychosocial impact of prostate cancer treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Compreensão
Enfermagem em Nefrologia
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem
Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Competência Clínica
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180123
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180123
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29200435
[Au] Autor:Kunze T; Peterson ADH; Haueisen J; Knösche TR
[Ad] Endereço:Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
[Ti] Título:A model of individualized canonical microcircuits supporting cognitive operations.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188003, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Major cognitive functions such as language, memory, and decision-making are thought to rely on distributed networks of a large number of basic elements, called canonical microcircuits. In this theoretical study we propose a novel canonical microcircuit model and find that it supports two basic computational operations: a gating mechanism and working memory. By means of bifurcation analysis we systematically investigate the dynamical behavior of the canonical microcircuit with respect to parameters that govern the local network balance, that is, the relationship between excitation and inhibition, and key intrinsic feedback architectures of canonical microcircuits. We relate the local behavior of the canonical microcircuit to cognitive processing and demonstrate how a network of interacting canonical microcircuits enables the establishment of spatiotemporal sequences in the context of syntax parsing during sentence comprehension. This study provides a framework for using individualized canonical microcircuits for the construction of biologically realistic networks supporting cognitive operations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição/fisiologia
Compreensão/fisiologia
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia
Retroalimentação
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
Rede Nervosa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Modelos Neurológicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188003


  10 / 11199 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27775404
[Au] Autor:Knutsen D; Le Bigot L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Essex.
[Ti] Título:Conceptual match as a determinant of reference reuse in dialogue.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn;43(3):350-368, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1939-1285
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:As speakers interact, they add references to their common ground, which they can then reuse to facilitate listener comprehension. However, all references are not equally likely to be reused. The purpose of this study was to shed light on how the speakers' conceptualizations of the referents under discussion affect reuse (along with a generation effect in memory documented in previous studies on dialogic reuse). Two experiments were conducted in which participants interactively added references to their common ground. From each participant's point of view, these references either did or did not match their own conceptualization of the referents discussed, and were either self- or partner-generated. Although self-generated references were more readily accessible in memory than partner-generated ones (Experiment 1), reference reuse was mainly guided by conceptualization (Experiment 2). These results are in line with the idea that several different cues (conceptual match, memory accessibility) constrain reference reuse in dialogue. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia
Memória/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estimulação Luminosa
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161028
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xlm0000313



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