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  1 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29465570
[Au] Autor:Kim SY; Lee BD; Park JM; Lee YM; Moon E; Jeong HJ; Chung YI
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry.
[Ti] Título:Transmissibility and familiality of NEO personality dimensions in a sample of Korean families with schizophrenia.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(8):e9858, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness to experience (NEO) personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD).We have recruited 204 probands (with schizophrenia) with their parents and siblings whenever possible. We have used NEO questionnaires for measuring personality and symptomatic dimensions. Heritabilities of personality dimensions in total 543 family members were estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). Personality dimensions in total family members were compared with those in 307 healthy unrelated controls for measuring the familialities using ANOVA analysis.Four of the 5 NEO variables were significantly heritable and were included in the subsequent analyses. The 3 groups (control, unaffected first-degree relative, case) were found to be significantly different and with the expected order of average group scores for all heritable dimensions.Our results show that the aberrations in several personality dimensions could form the complexity of schizophrenic syndrome as a result of genetic-environment coactions or interactions in spite of some limitations (recruited family, phenotyping).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Família/psicologia
Personalidade
Esquizofrenia/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estado de Consciência
Meio Ambiente
Extroversão (Psicologia)
Seres Humanos
Desequilíbrio de Ligação
Neuroticismo
Fenótipo
Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009858


  2 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29297644
[Au] Autor:Kondratyeva EA; Avdunina IA; Kondratyev AN; Ulitin AU; Ivanova NE; Petrova MV; Luginina EV; Grechko AV
[Ti] Título:Vegetative State: Difficulty in Identifying Consciousness and Predicting Outcome.
[So] Source:Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk;71(4):273-80, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0869-6047
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Article consists of literature review, authors experience of the application of neurovisualization and neurophysiological research methods to predict the recovery of consciousness in patients in vegetative state (VS). According to the literature data PET with FDG has higher sensitivity in the detection of signs of consciousness, then functional MRI (fMRI). The method fMRI allows assessing the functional activity of the brain in a state of rest and in response to stimulation with different modalities ­ visual, auditory, etc (with the application of active and passive paradigm). A higher specificity in the detection of signs of consciousness have the methodology of fMRI with the active paradigm, at the same time, the absence of signs of consciousness according to the fMRI can not be charged as a basis for the conclusion of a poor prognosis in a particular patient. Neurophysiological tests (EEG, TMS, EP, etc) are more readily available and quite effective. Based on the literature analysis, the authors comes to the conclusion that neurovisualization and neurophysiological tests used in the prediction of the outcome of VS reflects the residual functional activity of different brain areas, in a context of diffuse brain damage, and the recovery of consciousness is usually combined with the restoring of the functional activity off the thalamocortical tracts, which activity, indirectly, is evaluated using these methods. In the authors' opinions, the main disadvantage in the interpretation of the is the lack of a common pathophysiological concept of the organization of brain functions in VS patients. The authors offer for the discussion their concept of stable pathological states of the brain, which is based on the works of Russian pathophysiologists.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estado de Consciência/fisiologia
Neuroimagem/métodos
Estado Vegetativo Persistente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
Seres Humanos
Imagem Multimodal
Estado Vegetativo Persistente/diagnóstico
Estado Vegetativo Persistente/fisiopatologia
Estado Vegetativo Persistente/psicologia
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180208
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180208
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15690/vramn728


  3 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29371460
[Au] Autor:Spatola N; Urbanska K
[Ad] Endereço:Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LAPSCO, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. nicolas.spatola@uca.fr.
[Ti] Título:Conscious machines: Robot rights.
[So] Source:Science;359(6374):400, 2018 01 26.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estado de Consciência
Robótica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aar5059


  4 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29371459
[Au] Autor:Carter O; Hohwy J; van Boxtel J; Lamme V; Block N; Koch C; Tsuchiya N
[Ad] Endereço:University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Conscious machines: Defining questions.
[So] Source:Science;359(6374):400, 2018 01 26.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estado de Consciência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aar4163


  5 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29232704
[Au] Autor:Jack BN; Roeber U; O'Shea RP
[Ad] Endereço:Discipline of Psychology, School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188979, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estado de Consciência
Potenciais Evocados
Visão Binocular
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Eletroencefalografia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188979


  6 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28458434
[Au] Autor:Kumar P; Srivastava P; Gupta A; Bajpai M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physiology, KGMU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
[Ti] Título:Noninvasive recording of electrocardiogram in conscious rat: A new device.
[So] Source:Indian J Pharmacol;49(1):116-118, 2017 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1998-3751
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIM: Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important tool for the study of cardiac electrophysiology both in human beings and experimental animals. Existing methods of ECG recording in small animals like rat have several limitations and ECG recordings of the anesthetized rat lack validity for heart rate (HR) variability analysis. The aim of the present study was to validate the ECG data from new device with ECG of anesthetized rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ECG was recorded on student's physiograph (BioDevice, Ambala) and suitable coupler and electrodes in six animals first by the newly developed device in conscious state and second in anesthetized state (stabilized technique). RESULTS: The data obtained were analyzed using unpaired -test showed no significant difference ( < 0.05) in QTc, QRS, and HR recorded by new device and established device in rats. CONCLUSION: No previous study describes a similar ECG recording in conscious state of rats. Thus, the present method may be a most physiological and inexpensive alternative to other methods. In this study, the animals were not restrained; they were just secured and represent a potential strength of the study.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anestesia
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia
Eletrocardiografia/métodos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação
Desenho de Equipamento
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Wistar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.201031


  7 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29065029
[Au] Autor:Zaidi Z; Vyas R; Verstegen D; Morahan P; Dornan T
[Ad] Endereço:Z. Zaidi is associate professor, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4328-5766. R. Vyas is assistant vice president, Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER Education), FAIMER, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. D. Verstegen is assistant professor, Department of Educational Research and Development, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands. P. Morahan is professor emerita, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. T. Dornan is professor, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
[Ti] Título:Medical Education to Enhance Critical Consciousness: Facilitators' Experiences.
[So] Source:Acad Med;92(11S Association of American Medical Colleges Learn Serve Lead: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Research in Medical Education Sessions):S93-S99, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1938-808X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To analyze educators' experiences of facilitating cultural discussions in two global health professions education programs and what these experiences had taught them about critical consciousness. METHOD: A multicultural research team conducted in-depth interviews with 16 faculty who had extensive experience facilitating cultural discussions. They analyzed transcripts of the interviews thematically, drawing sensitizing insights from Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony. Collaboration and conversation helped the team self-consciously examine their positions toward the data set and be critically reflexive. RESULTS: Participant faculty used their prior experience facilitating cultural discussions to create a "safe space" in which learners could develop critical consciousness. During multicultural interactions they recognized and explicitly addressed issues related to power differentials, racism, implicit bias, and gender bias. They noted the need to be "facile in attending to pain" as learners brought up traumatic experiences and other sensitive issues including racism and the impact of power dynamics. They built relationships with learners by juxtaposing and exploring the sometimes-conflicting norms of different cultures. Participants were reflective about their own understanding and tendency to be biased. They aimed to break free of such biases while role modeling how to have the courage to speak up. CONCLUSIONS: Experience had given facilitators in multicultural programs an understanding of their responsibility to promote critical consciousness and social justice. How faculty without prior experience or expertise could develop those values and skills is a topic for future research.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Competência Cultural
Diversidade Cultural
Docentes de Medicina
Poder (Psicologia)
Pensamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estado de Consciência
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Racismo
Sexismo
Justiça Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/ACM.0000000000001907


  8 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29050383
[Au] Autor:Edlow BL; Chatelle C; Spencer CA; Chu CJ; Bodien YG; O'Connor KL; Hirschberg RE; Hochberg LR; Giacino JT; Rosenthal ES; Wu O
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Neurotechnology and Neurorecovery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 175 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
[Ti] Título:Early detection of consciousness in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury.
[So] Source:Brain;140(9):2399-2414, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:See Schiff (doi:10.1093/awx209) for a scientific commentary on this article. Patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury may recover consciousness before self-expression. Without behavioural evidence of consciousness at the bedside, clinicians may render an inaccurate prognosis, increasing the likelihood of withholding life-sustaining therapies or denying rehabilitative services. Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography techniques have revealed covert consciousness in the chronic setting, but these techniques have not been tested in the intensive care unit. We prospectively enrolled 16 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute severe traumatic brain injury to test two hypotheses: (i) in patients who lack behavioural evidence of language expression and comprehension, functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography detect command-following during a motor imagery task (i.e. cognitive motor dissociation) and association cortex responses during language and music stimuli (i.e. higher-order cortex motor dissociation); and (ii) early responses to these paradigms are associated with better 6-month outcomes on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging on post-injury Day 9.2 ± 5.0 and electroencephalography on Day 9.8 ± 4.6. At the time of imaging, behavioural evaluation with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised indicated coma (n = 2), vegetative state (n = 3), minimally conscious state without language (n = 3), minimally conscious state with language (n = 4) or post-traumatic confusional state (n = 4). Cognitive motor dissociation was identified in four patients, including three whose behavioural diagnosis suggested a vegetative state. Higher-order cortex motor dissociation was identified in two additional patients. Complete absence of responses to language, music and motor imagery was only observed in coma patients. In patients with behavioural evidence of language function, responses to language and music were more frequently observed than responses to motor imagery (62.5-80% versus 33.3-42.9%). Similarly, in 16 matched healthy subjects, responses to language and music were more frequently observed than responses to motor imagery (87.5-100% versus 68.8-75.0%). Except for one patient who died in the intensive care unit, all patients with cognitive motor dissociation and higher-order cortex motor dissociation recovered beyond a confusional state by 6 months. However, 6-month outcomes were not associated with early functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography responses for the entire cohort. These observations suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography can detect command-following and higher-order cortical function in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury. Early detection of covert consciousness and cortical responses in the intensive care unit could alter time-sensitive decisions about withholding life-sustaining therapies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia
Diagnóstico Precoce
Estado Vegetativo Persistente/diagnóstico por imagem
Estado Vegetativo Persistente/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Eletroencefalografia
Feminino
Escala de Coma de Glasgow
Escala de Resultado de Glasgow
Seres Humanos
Imaginação/fisiologia
Linguagem
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Música
Estado Vegetativo Persistente/etiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171021
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx176


  9 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29040277
[Au] Autor:Lourinho I; Ferreira MA; Severo M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medical Education and Simulation, University of Porto, Faculty of Medicine, Porto, Portugal.
[Ti] Título:Personality and achievement along medical training: Evidence from a cross-lagged analysis.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185860, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Evidence on personality traits change implies it should be studied as an outcome and not only as an explanatory effect. Therefore, we aimed to assess how personality and academic achievement sway each other. Three cohorts of medical students (n = 181) comprised of school leavers and graduates, completed NEO-FFI when admitted (baseline) and later on medical training (follow-up). Previous achievement was measured as mean scores on national school examinations, and academic achievement as medical course average. Causal relations were studied by cross-lagged analysis. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analysis at baseline showed differences between graduates and school leavers on personality, with graduates scoring lower on neuroticism (ß = -12.344, p<0.001), and higher on openness to experience (ß = 5.257, p<0.001), conscientiousness (ß = 2.345, p = 0.004,) and agreeableness (ß = 6.993, p<0.001). Longitudinal analyses indicated that personality traits and achievement tracked over time. Cross-lagged analysis found a positive significant association between academic achievement and neuroticism at baseline (ß = 0.031, p = 0.014) and with being a graduate student (ß = 0.766, p = 0.006). After adjusting, no association was found between previous achievement and personality at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Some neuroticism may enhance medical academic achievement. The blurring of the initial differences between graduates and school leavers suggests a reasonable possibility of personality traits change along the medical course. Future research on medical selection processes cannot afford to ignore the influence of the medical school environment on personality traits change.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
Escolaridade
Inventário de Personalidade
Psicometria/métodos
Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia
Comportamento Cooperativo
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Neuroticismo
Personalidade
Portugal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171018
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185860


  10 / 10157 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28978697
[Au] Autor:Boly M; Massimini M; Tsuchiya N; Postle BR; Koch C; Tononi G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, boly@wisc.edu gtononi@wisc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Are the Neural Correlates of Consciousness in the Front or in the Back of the Cerebral Cortex? Clinical and Neuroimaging Evidence.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(40):9603-9613, 2017 Oct 04.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The role of the frontal cortex in consciousness remains a matter of debate. In this Perspective, we will critically review the clinical and neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the front versus the back of the cortex in specifying conscious contents and discuss promising research avenues. Should a Few Null Findings Falsify Prefrontal Theories of Conscious Perception?, by Brian Odegaard, Robert T. Knight, and Hakwan Lau.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Neuroimagem/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171021
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171021
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3218-16.2017



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