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[PMID]:27770254
[Au] Autor:Fiechter JL; Benjamin AS
[Ad] Endereço:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. fiechte2@illinois.edu.
[Ti] Título:Updating metacognitive control in response to expected retention intervals.
[So] Source:Mem Cognit;45(3):347-361, 2017 04.
[Is] ISSN:1532-5946
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval. No effect of the expected retention interval was found for 1 min versus 4 min (Exp. 1), 30 s versus 3 min (Exp. 2), and 30 s versus 10 min (Exps. 3 and 4), even when subjects were given complete control over the pacing of study items (Exp. 4). However, when the difference between the expected retention intervals was increased massively (10 min vs. 24 h; Exp. 5), subjects remembered more items that they expected to be tested sooner, an effect consistent with the idea that they traded off efforts to remember items for the later test versus items that were about to be tested. Overall, this set of results accords with much of the test-expectancy literature, revealing that subjects are often reluctant to adjust encoding strategies on an item-by-item basis, and when they do, they usually make quantitative, rather than qualitative, adjustments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Função Executiva/fisiologia
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia
Metacognição/fisiologia
Retenção (Psicologia)/fisiologia
Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13421-016-0664-1


  2 / 315 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28470554
[Au] Autor:Adam KCS; Vogel EK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave., Chicago, IL, 60637, USA. kadam1@uchicago.edu.
[Ti] Título:Confident failures: Lapses of working memory reveal a metacognitive blind spot.
[So] Source:Atten Percept Psychophys;79(5):1506-1523, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1943-393X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Working memory performance fluctuates dramatically from trial to trial. On many trials, performance is no better than chance. Here, we assessed participants' awareness of working memory failures. We used a whole-report visual working memory task to quantify both trial-by-trial performance and trial-by-trial subjective ratings of inattention to the task. In Experiment 1 (N = 41), participants were probed for task-unrelated thoughts immediately following 20% of trials. In Experiment 2 (N = 30), participants gave a rating of their attentional state following 25% of trials. Finally, in Experiments 3a (N = 44) and 3b (N = 34), participants reported confidence of every response using a simple mouse-click judgment. Attention-state ratings and off-task thoughts predicted the number of items correctly identified on each trial, replicating previous findings that subjective measures of attention state predict working memory performance. However, participants correctly identified failures on only around 28% of failure trials. Across experiments, participants' metacognitive judgments reliably predicted variation in working memory performance but consistently and severely underestimated the extent of failures. Further, individual differences in metacognitive accuracy correlated with overall working memory performance, suggesting that metacognitive monitoring may be key to working memory success.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção/fisiologia
Julgamento/fisiologia
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
Metacognição/fisiologia
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conscientização/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Individualidade
Masculino
Distribuição Aleatória
Pensamento/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13414-017-1331-8


  3 / 315 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27773566
[Au] Autor:Goupil L; Kouider S
[Ad] Endereço:Brain and Consciousness Group, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France; Ecole Doctorale Cerveau Cognition Comportement, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: lougoupil@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Behavioral and Neural Indices of Metacognitive Sensitivity in Preverbal Infants.
[So] Source:Curr Biol;26(22):3038-3045, 2016 Nov 21.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0445
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Humans adapt their behavior not only by observing the consequences of their actions but also by internally monitoring their performance. This capacity, termed metacognitive sensitivity [1, 2], has traditionally been denied to young children because they have poor capacities in verbally reporting their own mental states [3-5]. Yet, these observations might reflect children's limited capacities for explicit self-reports, rather than limitations in metacognition per se. Indeed, metacognitive sensitivity has been shown to reflect simple computational mechanisms [1, 6-8], and can be found in various non-verbal species [7-10]. Thus, it might be that this faculty is present early in development, although it would be discernible through implicit behaviors and neural indices rather than explicit self-reports. Here, by relying on such non-verbal indices, we show that 12- and 18-month-old infants internally monitor the accuracy of their own decisions. At the behavioral level, infants showed increased persistence in their initial choice after making a correct as compared to an incorrect response, evidencing an appropriate evaluation of decision confidence. Moreover, infants were able to use decision confidence adaptively to either confirm their initial choice or change their mind. At the neural level, we found that a well-established electrophysiological signature of error monitoring in adults, the error-related negativity, is similarly elicited when infants make an incorrect choice. Hence, although explicit forms of metacognition mature later during childhood, infants already estimate decision confidence, monitor their errors, and use these metacognitive evaluations to regulate subsequent behavior.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Escolha
Metacognição
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tomada de Decisões
Seres Humanos
Lactente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180112
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180112
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25711506
[Au] Autor:Menon M; Balzan RP; Harper K; Kumar D; Andersen D; Moritz S; Woodward TS
[Ti] Título:Psychosocial Approaches in the Treatment of Psychosis: Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) and Metacognitive Training (MCT).
[So] Source:Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses;11(3):156-163, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1935-1232
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although antipsychotic medication has been the most widely used and efficacious treatment in ameliorating the symptoms of psychosis, there has been a growing realization that pharmacological treatment has limitations. A significant minority of individuals continue to show "treatment-resistant" symptoms and significant relapse risk, while others show symptom reduction without the corresponding improvement in social and role functioning. Psychotherapy, in combination with medication, can help with symptom reduction, as well as improve functioning and quality of life. In this paper, we focus on two modalities of psychotherapy which have been shown to improve symptomatology and functioning in individuals with psychosis: Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and Metacognitive Training (MCT). Both treatment approaches focus on increasing the individuals' understanding of the psychological mechanisms associated with delusions and hallucinations, and helping them develop strategies to improve reality testing and belief evaluation. We aim to provide an overview of both treatments, examining not only the theoretical mechanisms and efficacy of each approach, but also the common therapeutic components they share.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Remediação Cognitiva/métodos
Terapia Cognitiva/métodos
Metacognição/fisiologia
Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150226
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3371/CSRP.MEBA.022015


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[PMID]:28970619
[Au] Autor:Persky AM; McLaughlin JE
[Ad] Endereço:Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
[Ti] Título:The Flipped Classroom - From Theory to Practice in Health Professional Education.
[So] Source:Am J Pharm Educ;81(6):118, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1553-6467
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The flipped classroom is growing in popularity in health professional education. As such, instructors are experiencing various growing pains in functionalizing this model, from justifying the approach to managing time inside and outside of class to assessing impact on learning. This review focuses on some key theories that support the flipped model and translates those key theories into practice across core aspects of the flipped classroom: pre-class preparation, in-class activities, after-class activities and assessment of student learning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Educação Profissionalizante/métodos
Aprendizagem
Metacognição
Pensamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Educação em Farmácia/métodos
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171004
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5688/ajpe816118


  6 / 315 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28915244
[Au] Autor:McAnally KI; Morris AP; Best C
[Ad] Endereço:Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Group, Fishermens Bend, Victoria, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Metacognitive monitoring and control in visual change detection: Implications for situation awareness and cognitive control.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0176032, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA) are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control). We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL) or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP). In Experiment 1, observers failed to detect some changes to the display, indicating imperfect SA, but JOPs were reasonably well calibrated to objective performance. Experiment 2 examined JOLs and JOPs in two task contexts: with study-time limits imposed by the task or with self-pacing to meet specified performance targets. JOPs were well calibrated in both conditions as were JOLs for high performance targets. In summary, observers had limited SA, but good insight about their performance and learning for high performance targets and allocated study time appropriately.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conscientização/fisiologia
Metacognição/fisiologia
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0176032


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[PMID]:28642960
[Au] Autor:Kelly W
[Ad] Endereço:Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
[Ti] Título:Comment on: Teaching metacognition in clinical decision-making using a novel mnemonic checklist: an exploratory study.
[So] Source:Singapore Med J;58(6):343, 2017 06.
[Is] ISSN:0037-5675
[Cp] País de publicação:Singapore
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lista de Checagem
Metacognição
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tomada de Decisão Clínica
Tomada de Decisões
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170624
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11622/smedj.2017050


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[PMID]:28630519
[Au] Autor:Medina MS; Castleberry AN; Persky AM
[Ad] Endereço:University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
[Ti] Título:Strategies for Improving Learner Metacognition in Health Professional Education.
[So] Source:Am J Pharm Educ;81(4):78, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1553-6467
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Metacognition is an essential skill in critical thinking and self-regulated, lifelong learning. It is important for learners to have skills in metacognition because they are used to monitor and regulate reasoning, comprehension, and problem-solving, which are fundamental components/outcomes of pharmacy curricula. Instructors can help learners develop metacognitive skills within the classroom and experiential setting by carefully designing learning activities within courses and the curriculum. These skills are developed through intentional questioning, modeling techniques, and reflection. This article discusses key background literature on metacognition and identifies specific methods and strategies to develop learners' metacognitive skills in both the classroom and experiential settings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ocupações em Saúde/educação
Metacognição
Resolução de Problemas
Pensamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Educação em Farmácia
Seres Humanos
Aprendizagem
Erros Médicos/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170621
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5688/ajpe81478


  9 / 315 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28538827
[Au] Autor:Nicolielo-Carrilho AP; Hage SRV
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade de São Paulo - USP - Bauru (SP), Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Metacognitive reading strategies of children with learning disabilities.
[Ti] Título:Estratégias metacognitivas de leitura de crianças com distúrbio de aprendizagem..
[So] Source:Codas;29(3):e20160091, 2017 May 15.
[Is] ISSN:2317-1782
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:por; eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. Methods: the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. Conclusion: children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia
Compreensão
Transtornos de Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia
Metacognição
Leitura
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estudos de Casos e Controles
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Testes Neuropsicológicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170630
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170630
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170525
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 315 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28496274
[Au] Autor:Poirier TI; Pailden J; Jhala R; Ronald K; Wilhelm M; Fan J
[Ad] Endereço:Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, Illinois.
[Ti] Título:Student Self-Assessment and Faculty Assessment of Performance in an Interprofessional Error Disclosure Simulation Training Program.
[So] Source:Am J Pharm Educ;81(3):54, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1553-6467
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To conduct a prospective evaluation for effectiveness of an error disclosure assessment tool and video recordings to enhance student learning and metacognitive skills while assessing the IPEC competencies. The instruments for assessing performance (planning, communication, process, and team dynamics) in interprofessional error disclosure were developed. Student self-assessment of performance before and after viewing the recordings of their encounters were obtained. Faculty used a similar instrument to conduct real-time assessments. An instrument to assess achievement of the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) core competencies was developed. Qualitative data was reviewed to determine student and faculty perceptions of the simulation. The interprofessional simulation training involved a total of 233 students (50 dental, 109 nursing and 74 pharmacy). Use of video recordings made a significant difference in student self-assessment for communication and process categories of error disclosure. No differences in student self-assessments were noted among the different professions. There were differences among the family member affects for planning and communication for both pre-video and post-video data. There were significant differences between student self-assessment and faculty assessment for all paired comparisons, except communication in student post-video self-assessment. Students' perceptions of achievement of the IPEC core competencies were positive. The use of assessment instruments and video recordings may have enhanced students' metacognitive skills for assessing performance in interprofessional error disclosure. The simulation training was effective in enhancing perceptions on achievement of IPEC core competencies. This enhanced assessment process appeared to enhance learning about the skills needed for interprofessional error disclosure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Docentes de Farmácia
Erros Médicos
Metacognição
Autoavaliação
Treinamento por Simulação
Estudantes de Farmácia
Revelação da Verdade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Educação em Farmácia
Seres Humanos
Relações Interprofissionais
Estudos Prospectivos
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Gravação em Vídeo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171025
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171025
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170513
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5688/ajpe81354



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