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[PMID]:27770253
[Au] Autor:Sala G; Gobet F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychological Sciences, Bedford Street South, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZA, UK. Giovanni.sala@liv.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Experts' memory superiority for domain-specific random material generalizes across fields of expertise: A meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Mem Cognit;45(2):183-193, 2017 02.
[Is] ISSN:1532-5946
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes. By contrast, theories hypothesizing the presence of small memory structures-such as chunks-predict this outcome, because some chunks still occur by chance in the stimuli, even after randomization. The current meta-analysis assessed the correlation between level of expertise and recall of random material in diverse domains. The overall correlation was moderate but statistically significant ([Formula: see text]), and the effect was observed in nearly every study. This outcome suggests that experts partly base their superiority on a vaster amount of small memory structures, in addition to high-level structures or holistic processing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Generalização (Psicologia)/fisiologia
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13421-016-0663-2


  2 / 3380 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29023466
[Au] Autor:Lommen MJJ; Duta M; Vanbrabant K; de Jong R; Juechems K; Ehlers A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Training discrimination diminishes maladaptive avoidance of innocuous stimuli in a fear conditioning paradigm.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0184485, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorder worldwide. Although anxiety disorders differ in the nature of feared objects or situations, they share a common mechanism by which fear generalizes to related but innocuous objects, eliciting avoidance of objects and situations that pose no objective risk. This overgeneralization appears to be a crucial mechanism in the persistence of anxiety psychopathology. In this study we test whether an intervention that promotes discrimination learning reduces generalization of fear, in particular, harm expectancy and avoidance compared to an irrelevant (control) training. Healthy participants (N = 80) were randomly allocated to a training condition. Using a fear conditioning paradigm, participants first learned visual danger and safety signals (set 1). Baseline level of stimulus generalization was tested with ambiguous stimuli on a spectrum between the danger and safety signals. There were no differences between the training groups. Participants then received the stimulus discrimination training or a control training. After training, participants learned a new set of danger and safety signals (set 2), and the level of harm expectancy generalization and behavioural avoidance of ambiguous stimuli was tested. Although the training groups did not differ in fear generalization on a cognitive level (harm expectancy), the results showed a different pattern of avoidance of ambiguous stimuli, with the discrimination training group showing less avoidance of stimuli that resembled the safety signals. These results support the potential of interventions that promote discrimination learning in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia
Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia
Medo/psicologia
Generalização (Psicologia)/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estimulação Física
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171027
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171027
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171013
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184485


  3 / 3380 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28846732
[Au] Autor:Hélie S; Shamloo F; Ell SW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The effect of training methodology on knowledge representation in categorization.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183904, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Category representations can be broadly classified as containing within-category information or between-category information. Although such representational differences can have a profound impact on decision-making, relatively little is known about the factors contributing to the development and generalizability of different types of category representations. These issues are addressed by investigating the impact of training methodology and category structures using a traditional empirical approach as well as the novel adaptation of computational modeling techniques from the machine learning literature. Experiment 1 focused on rule-based (RB) category structures thought to promote between-category representations. Participants learned two sets of two categories during training and were subsequently tested on a novel categorization problem using the training categories. Classification training resulted in a bias toward between-category representations whereas concept training resulted in a bias toward within-category representations. Experiment 2 focused on information-integration (II) category structures thought to promote within-category representations. With II structures, there was a bias toward within-category representations regardless of training methodology. Furthermore, in both experiments, computational modeling suggests that only within-category representations could support generalization during the test phase. These data suggest that within-category representations may be dominant and more robust for supporting the reconfiguration of current knowledge to support generalization.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Generalização (Psicologia)
Conhecimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tomada de Decisões
Seres Humanos
Modelos Psicológicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171026
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171026
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170829
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183904


  4 / 3380 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28393399
[Au] Autor:Foerde K; Steinglass JE
[Ad] Endereço:Eating Disorders Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York.
[Ti] Título:Decreased feedback learning in anorexia nervosa persists after weight restoration.
[So] Source:Int J Eat Disord;50(4):415-423, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1098-108X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder, with a mortality rate the highest of any psychiatric illness. It is notoriously challenging to treat and mechanisms of illness are not well understood. Reward system abnormalities have been proposed across theoretical models of the persistence of AN. Feedback learning is an important component of how reward systems shape behavior and we hypothesized that individuals with AN would show poorer learning from feedback. METHODS: We administered the acquired equivalence task to measure both learning from incremental feedback and generalization of that learning to novel stimuli. Participants were individuals with AN (n = 36) before and after intensive weight restoration treatment and healthy comparison participants (HC, n = 26) tested twice. Performance was assessed as accuracy during the Learning and Test phases, for both trained and novel stimuli. The relationship between task performance and eating disorder severity at baseline was also assessed. RESULTS: Both before and after treatment, individuals with AN showed reduced learning from feedback in the Learning phase (F = 2.75, p = .048) and lower accuracy during the Test phase (F = 4.29, p = .043), as compared with HC. Individuals with AN did not differ from HC in accuracy for novel stimuli (F = 1.04, p = .312), indicating no deficit in generalization. Decreased acquisition of feedback learning was associated with longer illness duration and with greater eating disorder symptom severity at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with AN show reduced learning from feedback or reinforcement, which may contribute to difficulties in changing maladaptive behaviors.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia
Peso Corporal/fisiologia
Feedback Formativo
Generalização (Psicologia)/fisiologia
Recompensa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Ingestão de Alimentos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Testes Neuropsicológicos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170707
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170707
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170411
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/eat.22709


  5 / 3380 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28390494
[Au] Autor:Meulders A; Vandael K; Vlaeyen JW
[Ad] Endereço:University of Leuven. Electronic address: ann.meulders@ppw.kuleuven.be.
[Ti] Título:Generalization of Pain-Related Fear Based on Conceptual Knowledge.
[So] Source:Behav Ther;48(3):295-310, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1878-1888
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Increasing evidence suggests that pain-related fear is key to the transition from acute to chronic pain. Previous research has shown that perceptual similarity with a pain-associated movement fosters the generalization of fear to novel movements. Perceptual generalization of pain-related fear is adaptive as it enables individuals to extrapolate the threat value of one movement to another without the necessity to learn anew. However, excessive spreading of fear to safe movements may become maladaptive and may lead to sustained anxiety, dysfunctional avoidance behaviors, and severe disability. A hallmark of human cognition is the ability to extract conceptual knowledge from a learning episode as well. Although this conceptual pathway may be important to understand fear generalization in chronic pain, research on this topic is lacking. We investigated acquisition and generalization of concept-based pain-related fear. During acquisition, unique exemplars of one action category (CS+; e.g., opening boxes) were followed by pain, whereas exemplars of another action category (CS-; e.g., closing boxes) were not. Subsequently, spreading of pain-related fear to novel exemplars of both action categories was tested. Participants learned to expect the pain to occur and reported more pain-related fear to the exemplars of the CS+ category compared with those of the CS- category. During generalization, fear and expectancy generalized to novel exemplars of the CS+ category, but not to the CS- category. This pattern was not corroborated in the eyeblink startle measures. This is the first study that demonstrates that pain-related fear can be acquired and generalized based on conceptual knowledge.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aprendizagem por Associação
Aprendizagem da Esquiva
Medo/psicologia
Generalização (Psicologia)
Movimento
Percepção da Dor
Dor/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Voluntários Saudáveis
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170410
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28347936
[Au] Autor:Waters AM; Theresiana C; Neumann DL; Craske MG
[Ad] Endereço:School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Mt. Gravatt, Queensland 4122, Australia. Electronic address: a.waters@griffith.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Developmental differences in aversive conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement: A study with children, adolescents, and adults.
[So] Source:J Exp Child Psychol;159:263-278, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0457
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study investigated developmental differences in aversive conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement (i.e., the recovery of conditioned aversive associations following reexposure to the unconditioned stimulus [US] post-extinction). This study examined these mechanisms in children (M =8.8years), adolescents (M =16.1years), and adults (M =32.3years) using differential aversive conditioning with a geometric shape conditional stimulus (CS+) paired with an aversive sound US and another shape (CS-) presented alone. Following an extinction phase in which both CSs were presented alone, half of the participants in each age group received three US exposures (reinstatement condition) and the other half did not (control condition), followed by all participants completing an extinction retest phase on the same day. Findings indicated (a) significant differences in generalizing aversive expectancies to safe stimuli during conditioning and extinction that persisted during retest in children relative to adults and adolescents, (b) significantly less positive CS reevaluations during extinction that persisted during retest in adolescents relative to adults and children, and (c) reinstatement of US expectancies to the CS+ relative to the CS- in all age groups. Results suggest important differences in stimulus safety learning in children and stimulus valence reevaluation in adolescents relative to adults.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Infantil
Condicionamento Clássico
Extinção Psicológica
Medo
Retenção (Psicologia)
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Afeto
Aprendizagem por Associação
Criança
Feminino
Generalização (Psicologia)
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170526
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170526
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170329
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 3380 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28336570
[Au] Autor:Frederick DE; Brown A; Tacopina S; Mehta N; Vujovic M; Brim E; Amina T; Fixsen B; Kay LM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology.
[Ti] Título:Task-Dependent Behavioral Dynamics Make the Case for Temporal Integration in Multiple Strategies during Odor Processing.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(16):4416-4426, 2017 Apr 19.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Differing results in olfactory-based decision-making research regarding the amount of time that rats and mice use to identify odors have led to some disagreements about odor-processing mechanics, including whether or not rodents use temporal integration (i.e., sniffing longer to identify odors better). Reported differences in behavioral strategies may be due to the different types of tasks used in different laboratories. Some researchers have reported that animals performing two-alternative choice (TAC) tasks need only 1-2 sniffs and do not increase performance with longer sampling. Others have reported that animals performing go/no-go (GNG) tasks increase sampling times and performance for difficult discriminations, arguing for temporal integration. We present results from four experiments comparing GNG and TAC tasks over several behavioral variables (e.g., performance, sampling duration). When rats know only one task, they perform better in GNG than in TAC. However, performance was not statistically different when rats learned and were tested in both tasks. Rats sample odors longer in GNG than in TAC, even when they know both tasks and perform them in the same or different sessions. Longer sampling is associated with better performance for both tasks in difficult discriminations, which supports the case for temporal integration over ≥2-6 sniffs in both tasks. These results illustrate that generalizations from a single task about behavioral or cognitive abilities (e.g., processing, perception) do not capture the full range of complexity and can significantly impact inferences about general abilities in sensory perception. Behavioral tasks and training and testing history affect measured outcomes in cognitive tests. Rats sample odors longer in a go/no-go (GNG) than in a two-alternative choice (TAC) task, performing better in GNG unless they know both tasks. Odor-sampling time is extended in both tasks when the odors to be discriminated are very similar. Rats may extend sampling time to integrate odor information up to ∼0.5 s (2-6 sniffs). Such factors as task, task parameters, and training history affect decision times and performance, making it important to use multiple tasks when making inferences about sensory or cognitive processing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Escolha
Discriminação (Psicologia)
Condutos Olfatórios/fisiologia
Percepção Olfatória
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Generalização (Psicologia)
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Tempo de Reação
Olfato
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170325
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1797-16.2017


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[PMID]:28327097
[Au] Autor:Liu Y; Yu X; Yang B; Zhang F; Zou W; Na A; Zhao X; Yin G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.
[Ti] Título:Rumination mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in patients with major depressive disorder.
[So] Source:BMC Psychiatry;17(1):103, 2017 Mar 21.
[Is] ISSN:1471-244X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. RESULTS: Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia
Generalização (Psicologia)
Memória Episódica
Comportamento Estereotipado
Pensamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Inventário de Personalidade
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170323
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12888-017-1264-8


  9 / 3380 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28254614
[Au] Autor:Park Y; Casasola M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Child Development and Family Studies, 603-112, Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Pusan 46241, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: youjeongpark@pusan.ac.kr.
[Ti] Título:The impact of object type on the spatial analogies in Korean preschoolers.
[So] Source:Cogn Psychol;94:53-66, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-5623
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We tested young children's spatial reasoning in a match-to-sample task, manipulating the objects in the task (abstract geometric shapes, line drawings of realistic objects, or both). Korean 4- and 5-year-old children (N=161) generalized the target spatial configuration (i.e., on, in, above) more easily when the sample used geometric shapes and the choices used realistic objects than the reverse (i.e., realistic-object sample to geometric-shape choices). With within-type stimuli (i.e., sample and choices were both geometric shapes or both realistic objects), 5-year-old, but not 4-year-old, children generalized the spatial relations more easily with geometric shapes than realistic objects. In addition, children who knew more locative terms (e.g., "in", "on") performed better on the task, suggesting a link to children's spatial vocabulary. The results demonstrate an advantage of geometric shapes over realistic objects in facilitating young children's performance on a match-to-sample spatial reasoning task.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Resolução de Problemas
Percepção Espacial
Processamento Espacial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Generalização (Psicologia)
Seres Humanos
Masculino
República da Coreia
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170304
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 3380 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28253010
[Au] Autor:Tao T; Wyer RS; Zheng Y
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Marketing.
[Ti] Título:The role of categorization and scale endpoint comparisons in numerical information processing: A two-process model.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Gen;146(3):409-427, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1939-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We propose a two-process conceptualization of numerical information processing to describe how people form impressions of a score that is described along a bounded scale. According to the model, people spontaneously categorize a score as high or low. Furthermore, they compare the numerical discrepancy between the score and the endpoint of the scale to which it is closer, if they are not confident of their categorization, and use implications of this comparison as a basis for judgment. As a result, their evaluation of the score is less extreme when the range of numbers along the scale is large (e.g., from 0 to 100) than when it is small (from 0 to 10). Six experiments support this two-process model and demonstrate its generalizability. Specifically, the magnitude of numbers composing the scale has less impact on judgments (a) when the score being evaluated is extreme, (b) when individuals are unmotivated to engage in endpoint comparison processes (i.e., they are low in need for cognition), and (c) when they are unable to do so (i.e., they are under cognitive load). Moreover, the endpoint to which individuals compare the score can depend on their regulatory focus. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Formação de Conceito
Matemática
Processos Mentais
Modelos Psicológicos
Resolução de Problemas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Cognição
Feminino
Generalização (Psicologia)
Seres Humanos
Julgamento
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xge0000266



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