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[PMID]:27770624
[Au] Autor:Rocchi F; Dylla ME; Bohlen PA; Ramachandran R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37212, USA.
[Ti] Título:Spatial and temporal disparity in signals and maskers affects signal detection in non-human primates.
[So] Source:Hear Res;344:1-12, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5891
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli (signals) increase in the presence of maskers. Natural environments contain maskers/distractors that can have a wide range of spatiotemporal properties relative to the signal. While these parameters have been well explored psychophysically in humans, they have not been well explored in animal models, and their neuronal underpinnings are not well understood. As a precursor to the neuronal measurements, we report the effects of systematically varying the spatial and temporal relationship between signals and noise in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata). Macaques detected tones masked by noise in a Go/No-Go task in which the spatiotemporal relationships between the tone and noise were systematically varied. Masked thresholds were higher when the masker was continuous or gated on and off simultaneously with the signal, and lower when the continuous masker was turned off during the signal. A burst of noise caused higher masked thresholds if it completely temporally overlapped with the signal, whereas partial overlap resulted in lower thresholds. Noise durations needed to be at least 100 ms before significant masking could be observed. Thresholds for short duration tones were significantly higher when the onsets of signal and masker coincided compared to when the signal was presented during the steady state portion of the noise (overshoot). When signal and masker were separated in space, masked signal detection thresholds decreased relative to when the masker and signal were co-located (spatial release from masking). Masking release was larger for azimuthal separations than for elevation separations. These results in macaques are similar to those observed in humans, suggesting that the specific spatiotemporal relationship between signal and masker determine threshold in natural environments for macaques in a manner similar to humans. These results form the basis for future investigations of neuronal correlates and mechanisms of masking.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal
Sinais (Psicologia)
Ruído/efeitos adversos
Mascaramento Perceptivo
Nível de Percepção Sonora
Detecção de Sinal Psicológico
Localização de Som
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Animais
Audiometria
Vias Auditivas/fisiologia
Limiar Auditivo
Macaca mulatta
Macaca radiata
Masculino
Modelos Animais
Periodicidade
Psicoacústica
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28452520
[Au] Autor:Müller R; Gupta AK; Zhu H; Pannala M; Gillani US; Fu Y; Caspers P; Buck JR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.
[Ti] Título:Dynamic Substrate for the Physical Encoding of Sensory Information in Bat Biosonar.
[So] Source:Phys Rev Lett;118(15):158102, 2017 Apr 14.
[Is] ISSN:1079-7114
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Horseshoe bats have dynamic biosonar systems with interfaces for ultrasonic emission (reception) that change shape while diffracting the outgoing (incoming) sound waves. An information-theoretic analysis based on numerical and physical prototypes shows that these shape changes add sensory information (mutual information between distant shape conformations <20%), increase the number of resolvable directions of sound incidence, and improve the accuracy of direction finding. These results demonstrate that horseshoe bats have a highly effective substrate for dynamic encoding of sensory information.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Quirópteros
Ecolocação
Ultrassom
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Modelos Biológicos
Localização de Som
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.158102


  3 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29256573
[Au] Autor:Schilder AG; Chong LY; Ftouh S; Burton MJ
[Ad] Endereço:evidENT, Ear Institute, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, 330 Grays Inn Road, London, UK, WC1X 8DA.
[Ti] Título:Bilateral versus unilateral hearing aids for bilateral hearing impairment in adults.
[So] Source:Cochrane Database Syst Rev;12:CD012665, 2017 12 19.
[Is] ISSN:1469-493X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Acquired hearing loss is common and its incidence increases markedly with age. In most people, 'age-related' hearing loss is sensorineural (due to the loss of cochlear hair cells) and bilateral, affecting both ears to the same degree. Hearing loss categorised as mild, moderate or severe is primarily managed with hearing aids. People with bilateral hearing loss may be offered one aid, fitted to one specific ear, or two aids fitted to both ears. There is uncertainty about the relative benefits to people with hearing loss of these different strategies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bilateral versus unilateral hearing aids in adults with a bilateral hearing impairment. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Cochrane Register of Studies Online; PubMed; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 8 June 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the fitting of two versus one ear-level acoustic hearing aids in adults (over 18 years) with a bilateral hearing impairment, both ears being eligible for hearing aids. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were patient preference for bilateral or unilateral aids, hearing-specific health-related quality of life and adverse effects (pain or discomfort in the ear, initiation or exacerbation of middle or outer ear infection). Secondary outcomes included: usage of hearing aids (as measured by, for example, data logging or battery consumption), generic health-related quality of life, listening ability and audiometric benefit measured as binaural loudness summation. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. MAIN RESULTS: We included four cross-over RCTs with a total of 209 participants, ranging in age from 23 to 85 and with a preponderance of men. All the studies allowed the use of hearing aids for a total period of at least eight weeks before questions on preference were asked. All studies recruited patients with bilateral hearing loss but there was considerable variation in the types and degree of sensorineural hearing loss that the participants were experiencing.Three of the studies were published before the mid-1990s whereas the fourth study was published in 2011. Therefore, only the most recent study used hearing aids incorporating technology comparable to that currently readily available in high-income settings. Of the four studies, two were conducted in the UK in National Health Service (NHS - public sector) patients: one recruited patients from primary care with hearing loss detected by a screening programme whereas the other recruited patients who had been referred by their primary care practitioner to an otolaryngology department for hearing aids. The other two studies were conducted in the United States: one study recruited only military personnel or veterans with noise-induced hearing loss whereas about half of the participants in the other study were veterans.Only one primary outcome (patient preference) was reported in all studies. The percentage of patients who preferred bilateral hearing aids varied between studies: this was 54% (51 out of 94 participants), 39% (22 out of 56), 55% (16 out of 29) and 77% (23 out of 30), respectively. We have not combined the data from these four studies. The evidence for this outcome is of very low quality.The other outcomes of interest were not reported in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review identified only four studies comparing the use of one hearing aid with two. The studies were small and included participants of widely varying ages. There was also considerable variation in the types and degree of sensorineural hearing loss that the participants were experiencing.For the most part, the types of hearing aid evaluated would now be regarded, in high-income settings, as 'old technology', with only one study looking at 'modern' digital aids. However, the relevance of this is uncertain, as this review did not evaluate the differences in outcomes between the different types of technology.We were unable to pool data from the four studies and the very low quality of the evidence leads us to conclude that we do not know if people with hearing loss have a preference for one aid or two. Similarly, we do not know if hearing-specific health-related quality of life, or any of our other outcomes, are better with bilateral or unilateral aids.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Auxiliares de Audição
Perda Auditiva Bilateral/reabilitação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/instrumentação
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/métodos
Estudos Cross-Over
Feminino
Auxiliares de Audição/utilização
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Preferência do Paciente
Qualidade de Vida
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Localização de Som
Inteligibilidade da Fala
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171220
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD012665.pub2


  4 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29281618
[Au] Autor:Ashida G; Tollin DJ; Kretzberg J
[Ad] Endereço:Cluster of Excellence "Hearing4all", Department of Neuroscience, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.
[So] Source:PLoS Comput Biol;13(12):e1005903, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7358
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD), which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models) to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type). These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1) that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2) that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub-neuronal nonlinear processes play important roles, and (3) that, for general purposes, intermediate models might be a reasonable compromise between simplicity and biological plausibility.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Neurológicos
Complexo Olivar Superior/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Animais
Gatos
Biologia Computacional
Simulação por Computador
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos
Neurônios/fisiologia
Roedores
Localização de Som/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180123
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180123
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005903


  5 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28859082
[Au] Autor:Thaler L; Reich GM; Zhang X; Wang D; Smith GE; Tao Z; Abdullah RSABR; Cherniakov M; Baker CJ; Kish D; Antoniou M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Durham University, Science Site, Durham, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Mouth-clicks used by blind expert human echolocators - signal description and model based signal synthesis.
[So] Source:PLoS Comput Biol;13(8):e1005670, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7358
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Echolocation is the ability to use sound-echoes to infer spatial information about the environment. Some blind people have developed extraordinary proficiency in echolocation using mouth-clicks. The first step of human biosonar is the transmission (mouth click) and subsequent reception of the resultant sound through the ear. Existing head-related transfer function (HRTF) data bases provide descriptions of reception of the resultant sound. For the current report, we collected a large database of click emissions with three blind people expertly trained in echolocation, which allowed us to perform unprecedented analyses. Specifically, the current report provides the first ever description of the spatial distribution (i.e. beam pattern) of human expert echolocation transmissions, as well as spectro-temporal descriptions at a level of detail not available before. Our data show that transmission levels are fairly constant within a 60° cone emanating from the mouth, but levels drop gradually at further angles, more than for speech. In terms of spectro-temporal features, our data show that emissions are consistently very brief (~3ms duration) with peak frequencies 2-4kHz, but with energy also at 10kHz. This differs from previous reports of durations 3-15ms and peak frequencies 2-8kHz, which were based on less detailed measurements. Based on our measurements we propose to model transmissions as sum of monotones modulated by a decaying exponential, with angular attenuation by a modified cardioid. We provide model parameters for each echolocator. These results are a step towards developing computational models of human biosonar. For example, in bats, spatial and spectro-temporal features of emissions have been used to derive and test model based hypotheses about behaviour. The data we present here suggest similar research opportunities within the context of human echolocation. Relatedly, the data are a basis to develop synthetic models of human echolocation that could be virtual (i.e. simulated) or real (i.e. loudspeaker, microphones), and which will help understanding the link between physical principles and human behaviour.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cegueira/reabilitação
Ecolocação/fisiologia
Modelos Biológicos
Localização de Som/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Animais
Bases de Dados Factuais
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Boca/fisiologia
Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
Espectrografia do Som
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170917
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170917
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005670


  6 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28663198
[Au] Autor:Benichoux V; Brown AD; Anbuhl KL; Tollin DJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physiology and Biophysics, victor.benichoux@pasteur.fr.
[Ti] Título:Representation of Multidimensional Stimuli: Quantifying the Most Informative Stimulus Dimension from Neural Responses.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(31):7332-7346, 2017 Aug 02.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A common way to assess the function of sensory neurons is to measure the number of spikes produced by individual neurons while systematically varying a given dimension of the stimulus. Such measured tuning curves can then be used to quantify the accuracy of the neural representation of the stimulus dimension under study, which can in turn be related to behavioral performance. However, tuning curves often change shape when other dimensions of the stimulus are varied, reflecting the simultaneous sensitivity of neurons to multiple stimulus features. Here we illustrate how one-dimensional information analyses are misleading in this context, and propose a framework derived from Fisher information that allows the quantification of information carried by neurons in multidimensional stimulus spaces. We use this method to probe the representation of sound localization in auditory neurons of chinchillas and guinea pigs of both sexes, and show how heterogeneous tuning properties contribute to a representation of sound source position that is robust to changes in sound level. Sensory neurons' responses are typically modulated simultaneously by numerous stimulus properties, which can result in an overestimation of neural acuity with existing one-dimensional neural information transmission measures. To overcome this limitation, we develop new, compact expressions of Fisher information-derived measures that bound the robust encoding of separate stimulus dimensions in the context of multidimensional stimuli. We apply this method to the problem of the representation of sound source location in the face of changes in sound source level by neurons of the auditory midbrain.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estimulação Acústica/métodos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia
Modelos Neurológicos
Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia
Localização de Som/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Chinchila/fisiologia
Simulação por Computador
Sinais (Psicologia)
Mesencéfalo/fisiologia
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Análise Espaço-Temporal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0318-17.2017


  7 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28659280
[Au] Autor:Plauska A; van der Heijden M; Borst JGG
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:A Test of the Stereausis Hypothesis for Sound Localization in Mammals.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(30):7278-7289, 2017 Jul 26.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The relative arrival times of sounds at both ears constitute an important cue for localization of low-frequency sounds in the horizontal plane. The binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) act as coincidence detectors that fire when inputs from both ears arrive near simultaneously. Each principal neuron in the MSO is tuned to its own best interaural time difference (ITD), indicating the presence of an internal delay, a difference in the travel times from either ear to the MSO. According to the stereausis hypothesis, differences in wave propagation along the cochlea could provide the delays necessary for coincidence detection if the ipsilateral and contralateral inputs originated from different cochlear positions, with different frequency tuning. We therefore investigated the relation between interaural mismatches in frequency tuning and ITD tuning during loose-patch (juxtacellular) recordings from principal neurons of the MSO of anesthetized female gerbils. Cochlear delays can be bypassed by directly stimulating the auditory nerve; in agreement with the stereausis hypothesis, tuning for timing differences during bilateral electrical stimulation of the round windows differed markedly from ITD tuning in the same cells. Moreover, some neurons showed a frequency tuning mismatch that was sufficiently large to have a potential impact on ITD tuning. However, we did not find a correlation between frequency tuning mismatches and best ITDs. Our data thus suggest that axonal delays dominate ITD tuning. Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) play a unique role in sound localization because of their ability to compare the relative arrival time of low-frequency sounds at both ears. They fire maximally when the difference in sound arrival time exactly compensates for the internal delay: the difference in travel time from either ear to the MSO neuron. We tested whether differences in cochlear delay systematically contribute to the total travel time by comparing for individual MSO neurons the best difference in arrival times, as predicted from the frequency tuning for either ear, and the actual best difference. No systematic relation was observed, emphasizing the dominant contribution of axonal delays to the internal delay.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vias Auditivas/fisiologia
Cóclea/fisiologia
Modelos Neurológicos
Condução Nervosa/fisiologia
Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia
Localização de Som/fisiologia
Complexo Olivar Superior/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Simulação por Computador
Feminino
Gerbillinae
Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170630
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0233-17.2017


  8 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28655036
[Au] Autor:Kraaijenga VJC; Ramakers GGJ; Smulders YE; van Zon A; Stegeman I; Smit AL; Stokroos RJ; Hendrice N; Free RH; Maat B; Frijns JHM; Briaire JJ; Mylanus EAM; Huinck WJ; Van Zanten GA; Grolman W
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Objective and Subjective Measures of Simultaneous vs Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
[So] Source:JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg;143(9):881-890, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:2168-619X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Importance: To date, no randomized clinical trial on the comparison between simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) has been performed. Objective: To investigate the hearing capabilities and the self-reported benefits of simultaneous BiCIs compared with those of sequential BiCIs. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter randomized clinical trial was conducted between January 12, 2010, and September 2, 2012, at 5 tertiary referral centers among 40 participants eligible for BiCIs. Main inclusion criteria were postlingual severe to profound hearing loss, age 18 to 70 years, and a maximum duration of 10 years without hearing aid use in both ears. Data analysis was conducted from May 24 to June 12, 2016. Interventions: The simultaneous BiCI group received 2 cochlear implants during 1 surgical procedure. The sequential BiCI group received 2 cochlear implants with an interval of 2 years between implants. Main Outcomes and Measures: First, the results 1 year after receiving simultaneous BiCIs were compared with the results 1 year after receiving sequential BiCIs. Second, the results of 3 years of follow-up for both groups were compared separately. The primary outcome measure was speech intelligibility in noise from straight ahead. Secondary outcome measures were speech intelligibility in noise from spatially separated sources, speech intelligibility in silence, localization capabilities, and self-reported benefits assessed with various hearing and quality of life questionnaires. Results: Nineteen participants were randomized to receive simultaneous BiCIs (11 women and 8 men; median age, 52 years [interquartile range, 36-63 years]), and another 19 participants were randomized to undergo sequential BiCIs (8 women and 11 men; median age, 54 years [interquartile range, 43-64 years]). Three patients did not receive a second cochlear implant and were unavailable for follow-up. Comparable results were found 1 year after simultaneous or sequential BiCIs for speech intelligibility in noise from straight ahead (difference, 0.9 dB [95% CI, -3.1 to 4.4 dB]) and all secondary outcome measures except for localization with a 30° angle between loudspeakers (difference, -10% [95% CI, -20.1% to 0.0%]). In the sequential BiCI group, all participants performed significantly better after the BiCIs on speech intelligibility in noise from spatially separated sources and on all localization tests, which was consistent with most of the participants' self-reported hearing capabilities. Speech intelligibility-in-noise results improved in the simultaneous BiCI group up to 3 years following the BiCIs. Conclusions and Relevance: This study shows comparable objective and subjective hearing results 1 year after receiving simultaneous BiCIs and sequential BiCIs with an interval of 2 years between implants. It also shows a significant benefit of sequential BiCIs over a unilateral cochlear implant. Until 3 years after receiving simultaneous BiCIs, speech intelligibility in noise significantly improved compared with previous years. Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR1722.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Implante Coclear/métodos
Implantes Cocleares
Localização de Som
Inteligibilidade da Fala
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171002
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171002
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170628
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaoto.2017.0745


  9 / 3929 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28654676
[Au] Autor:Zielinski DP; Sorensen PW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Silver, bighead, and common carp orient to acoustic particle motion when avoiding a complex sound.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0180110, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Behavioral responses of silver carp (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (H. nobilis), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to a complex, broadband sound were tested in the absence of visual cues to determine whether these species are negatively phonotaxic and the roles that sound pressure and particle motion might play mediating this response. In a dark featureless square enclosure, groups of 3 fish were tracked and the distance of each fish from speakers and their swimming trajectories relative to sound pressure and particle acceleration were analyzed before, and then while an outboard motor sound was played. All three species exhibited negative phonotaxis during the first two exposures after which they ceased responding. The median percent time fish spent near the active speaker for the first two trials decreased from 7.0% to 1.3% for silver carp, 7.9% to 1.1% for bighead carp, and 9.5% to 3% for common carp. Notably, when close to the active speaker fish swam away from the source and maintained a nearly perfect 0° orientation to the axes of particle acceleration. Fish did not enter sound fields greater than 140 dB (ref. 1 µPa). These results demonstrate that carp avoid complex sounds in darkness and while initial responses may be informed by sound pressure, sustained oriented avoidance behavior is likely mediated by particle motion. This understanding of how invasive carp use particle motion to guide avoidance could be used to design new acoustic deterrents to divert them in dark, turbid river waters.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Carpas/fisiologia
Orientação/fisiologia
Localização de Som/fisiologia
Natação/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Som
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170628
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180110


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[PMID]:28617796
[Au] Autor:Town SM; Brimijoin WO; Bizley JK
[Ad] Endereço:Ear Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(6):e2001878, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding). This coordinate frame ambiguity can be resolved by studying freely moving subjects; here we recorded spatial receptive fields in the auditory cortex of freely moving ferrets. We found that most spatially tuned neurons represented sound source location relative to the head across changes in head position and direction. In addition, we also recorded a small number of neurons in which sound location was represented in a world-centered coordinate frame. We used measurements of spatial tuning across changes in head position and direction to explore the influence of sound source distance and speed of head movement on auditory cortical activity and spatial tuning. Modulation depth of spatial tuning increased with distance for egocentric but not allocentric units, whereas, for both populations, modulation was stronger at faster movement speeds. Our findings suggest that early auditory cortex primarily represents sound source location relative to ourselves but that a minority of cells can represent sound location in the world independent of our own position.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia
Modelos Neurológicos
Modelos Psicológicos
Neurônios/fisiologia
Localização de Som
Processamento Espacial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Animais
Córtex Auditivo/citologia
Córtex Auditivo/efeitos da radiação
Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação
Estimulação Elétrica
Eletrodos Implantados
Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos da radiação
Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos da radiação
Feminino
Furões
Movimentos da Cabeça/efeitos da radiação
Locomoção/efeitos da radiação
Neurônios/citologia
Neurônios/efeitos da radiação
Som
Localização de Som/efeitos da radiação
Comportamento Espacial/efeitos da radiação
Processamento Espacial/efeitos da radiação
Gravação em Vídeo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170616
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001878



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