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  1 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28719913
[Au] Autor:Sun HC; Kingdom FAA; Baker CL
[Ad] Endereço:McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canadahua-chun.sun@mail.mcgill.cahttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hua_Chun_Sun.
[Ti] Título:Texture density adaptation can be bidirectional.
[So] Source:J Vis;17(8):9, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1534-7362
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Texture density has previously been thought of as a scalar attribute on the assumption that texture density adaptation only reduces, not enhances, perceived density (Durgin & Huk, 1997). This "unidirectional" property of density adaptation is in contradistinction to the finding that simultaneous density contrast (SDC) is "bidirectional"; that is, not only do denser surrounds reduce the perceived density of a lower density region, but sparser surrounds enhance it (Sun, Baker, & Kingdom, 2016). Here we reexamine the directionality of density adaptation using random dot patterns and a two-alternative forced choice task in which observers compare the perceived density of adapted test patches with unadapted match stimuli. In the first experiment, we observed a unidirectional density aftereffect when test and match were presented simultaneously as in previous studies. However, when they were presented sequentially, bidirectionality was obtained. This bidirectional aftereffect remained when the presentation order of test and match was reversed (second experiment). In the third experiment, we used sequential presentation to measure the density aftereffect for a wide range of adaptor densities (0-73 dots/deg2) and test densities (1.6, 6.4, and 25.6 dots/deg2). We found bidirectionality for all combinations of adaptor and test densities, consistent with our previous SDC results. This evidence supports the idea that there are multiple channels selective to texture density in human vision.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Ocular/fisiologia
Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comportamento de Escolha
Área de Dependência-Independência
Seres Humanos
Psicometria
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170908
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170908
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170719
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/17.8.9


  2 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28245496
[Au] Autor:Lass JW; Bennett PJ; Peterson MA; Sekuler AB
[Ad] Endereço:McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canadajwlass@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Effects of aging on figure-ground perception: Convexity context effects and competition resolution.
[So] Source:J Vis;17(2):15, 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1534-7362
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We examined age-related differences in figure-ground perception by exploring the effect of age on Convexity Context Effects (CCE; Peterson & Salvagio, 2008). Experiment 1, using Peterson and Salvagio's procedure and black and white stimuli consisting of 2 to 8 alternating concave and convex regions, established that older adults exhibited reduced CCEs compared to younger adults. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this age difference was found at various stimulus durations and sizes. Experiment 4 compared CCEs obtained with achromatic stimuli, in which the alternating convex and concave regions were each all black or all white, and chromatic stimuli in which the concave regions were homogeneous in color but the convex regions varied in color. We found that the difference between CCEs measured with achromatic and colored stimuli was larger in older than in younger adults. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the senescent visual system is less able to resolve the competition among various perceptual interpretations of the figure-ground relations among stimulus regions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Área de Dependência-Independência
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Modelos Psicológicos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170721
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170721
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170301
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/17.2.15


  3 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28182494
[Au] Autor:Aschenbrenner AJ; Balota DA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis.
[Ti] Título:Dynamic adjustments of attentional control in healthy aging.
[So] Source:Psychol Aging;32(1):1-15, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1939-1498
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In standard attentional control tasks, interference effects are reduced following incongruent trials compared to congruent trials, a phenomenon known as the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Typical explanations of this effect suggest the CSE is due to changes in levels of control across adjacent trials. This interpretation has been questioned by the finding that older adults, individuals with impaired attentional control systems, have been shown to produce larger CSEs in the Stroop task compared with younger adult controls. In 2 experiments, we investigate the generality of this finding by examining how the CSE changes in healthy aging in 3 standard attentional control tasks-Stroop, Simon, and flanker-while controlling for additional confounds that have plagued some of the past literature. In both experiments, older adult participants exhibited a larger CSE in the Stroop task, replicating recent research, but smaller CSEs in both the Simon and flanker paradigms. These results are interpreted as reflecting a pathway priming mechanism in the Stroop task but a control adjustment process in Simon and flanker. Hence, there appears to be different mechanisms underlying the CSE which are engaged based on the type of attentional selection that is required by the task. More generally, these results question the use of the CSE in the Stroop task as a measure of dynamic adjustments in attentional control and highlight the importance of consideration of task-specific control systems underlying the CSE. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento/psicologia
Atenção
Percepção de Cores
Área de Dependência-Independência
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
Semântica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Discriminação (Psicologia)
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Memória de Curto Prazo
Orientação
Tempo de Reação
Teste de Stroop
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; WEBCASTS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/pag0000148


  4 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28080124
[Au] Autor:Plaut DC; Vande Velde AK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology.
[Ti] Título:Statistical learning of parts and wholes: A neural network approach.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Gen;146(3):318-336, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1939-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Statistical learning is often considered to be a means of discovering the units of perception, such as words and objects, and representing them as explicit "chunks." However, entities are not undifferentiated wholes but often contain parts that contribute systematically to their meanings. Studies of incidental auditory or visual statistical learning suggest that, as participants learn about wholes they become insensitive to parts embedded within them, but this seems difficult to reconcile with a broad range of findings in which parts and wholes work together to contribute to behavior. Bayesian approaches provide a principled description of how parts and wholes can contribute simultaneously to performance, but are generally not intended to model the computations that actually give rise to this performance. In the current work, we develop an account based on learning in artificial neural networks in which the representation of parts and wholes is a matter of degree, and the extent to which they cooperate or compete arises naturally through incidental learning. We show that the approach accounts for a wide range of findings concerning the relationship between parts and wholes in auditory and visual statistical learning, including some findings previously thought to be problematic for neural network approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teorema de Bayes
Redes Neurais (Computação)
Aprendizagem por Associação de Pares
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
Percepção da Fala
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Comportamento de Escolha
Simulação por Computador
Aprendizagem por Discriminação
Área de Dependência-Independência
Seres Humanos
Mascaramento Perceptivo
Semântica
Percepção Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; WEBCASTS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xge0000262


  5 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27535753
[Au] Autor:Becker SI; Lewis AJ; Axtens JE
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. s.becker@psy.uq.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Top-down knowledge modulates onset capture in a feedforward manner.
[So] Source:Psychon Bull Rev;24(2):436-446, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5320
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:How do we select behaviourally important information from cluttered visual environments? Previous research has shown that both top-down, goal-driven factors and bottom-up, stimulus-driven factors determine which stimuli are selected. However, it is still debated when top-down processes modulate visual selection. According to a feedforward account, top-down processes modulate visual processing even before the appearance of any stimuli, whereas others claim that top-down processes modulate visual selection only at a late stage, via feedback processing. In line with such a dual stage account, some studies found that eye movements to an irrelevant onset distractor are not modulated by its similarity to the target stimulus, especially when eye movements are launched early (within 150-ms post stimulus onset). However, in these studies the target transiently changed colour due to a colour after-effect that occurred during premasking, and the time course analyses were incomplete. The present study tested the feedforward account against the dual stage account in two eye tracking experiments, with and without colour after-effects (Exp. 1), as well when the target colour varied randomly and observers were informed of the target colour with a word cue (Exp. 2). The results showed that top-down processes modulated the earliest eye movements to the onset distractors (<150-ms latencies), without incurring any costs for selection of target matching distractors. These results unambiguously support a feedforward account of top-down modulation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Percepção de Cores
Aprendizagem por Discriminação
Área de Dependência-Independência
Metas
Motivação
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Movimentos Oculares
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Mascaramento Perceptivo
Queensland
Tempo de Reação
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160819
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13423-016-1134-2


  6 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27480268
[Au] Autor:Nuthmann A
[Ad] Endereço:Psychology Department, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK. Antje.Nuthmann@ed.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Fixation durations in scene viewing: Modeling the effects of local image features, oculomotor parameters, and task.
[So] Source:Psychon Bull Rev;24(2):370-392, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5320
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Scene perception requires the orchestration of image- and task-related processes with oculomotor constraints. The present study was designed to investigate how these factors influence how long the eyes remain fixated on a given location. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to test whether local image statistics (including luminance, luminance contrast, edge density, visual clutter, and the number of homogeneous segments), calculated for 1° circular regions around fixation locations, modulate fixation durations, and how these effects depend on task-related control. Fixation durations and locations were recorded from 72 participants, each viewing 135 scenes under three different viewing instructions (memorization, preference judgment, and search). Along with the image-related predictors, the LMMs simultaneously considered a number of oculomotor and spatiotemporal covariates, including the amplitudes of the previous and next saccades, and viewing time. As a key finding, the local image features around the current fixation predicted this fixation's duration. For instance, greater luminance was associated with shorter fixation durations. Such immediacy effects were found for all three viewing tasks. Moreover, in the memorization and preference tasks, some evidence for successor effects emerged, such that some image characteristics of the upcoming location influenced how long the eyes stayed at the current location. In contrast, in the search task, scene processing was not distributed across fixation durations within the visual span. The LMM-based framework of analysis, applied to the control of fixation durations in scenes, suggests important constraints for models of scene perception and search, and for visual attention in general.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Área de Dependência-Independência
Fixação Ocular
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Atenção
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Julgamento
Modelos Lineares
Masculino
Rememoração Mental
Orientação
Movimentos Sacádicos
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170515
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170515
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160803
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13423-016-1124-4


  7 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27325056
[Au] Autor:Kalogeropoulou Z; Jagadeesh AV; Ohl S; Rolfs M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. zampeta@bccn-berlin.de.
[Ti] Título:Setting and changing feature priorities in visual short-term memory.
[So] Source:Psychon Bull Rev;24(2):453-458, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5320
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Many everyday tasks require prioritizing some visual features over competing ones, both during the selection from the rich sensory input and while maintaining information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here, we show that observers can change priorities in VSTM when, initially, they attended to a different feature. Observers reported from memory the orientation of one of two spatially interspersed groups of black and white gratings. Using colored pre-cues (presented before stimulus onset) and retro-cues (presented after stimulus offset) predicting the to-be-reported group, we manipulated observers' feature priorities independently during stimulus encoding and maintenance, respectively. Valid pre-cues reliably increased observers' performance (reduced guessing, increased report precision) as compared to neutral ones; invalid pre-cues had the opposite effect. Valid retro-cues also consistently improved performance (by reducing random guesses), even if the unexpected group suddenly became relevant (invalid-valid condition). Thus, feature-based attention can reshape priorities in VSTM protecting information that would otherwise be forgotten.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Percepção de Cores
Área de Dependência-Independência
Memória de Curto Prazo
Orientação
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Sinais (Psicologia)
Aprendizagem por Discriminação
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171112
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171112
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160622
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13423-016-1094-6


  8 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27812704
[Au] Autor:Sun HC; Baker CL; Kingdom FA
[Ad] Endereço:McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; hua-chun.sun@mail.mcgill.ca; https://www.researchgate.net/profile/.
[Ti] Título:Simultaneous density contrast is bidirectional.
[So] Source:J Vis;16(14):4, 2016 11 01.
[Is] ISSN:1534-7362
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Simultaneous density contrast, or SDC, is the phenomenon in which the perceived density of a textured region is altered by a surround of different density (Mackay, 1973). SDC provides an experimental tool to investigate mechanisms of density coding, yet has not been systematically examined. We measured SDC with a 2AFC staircase procedure in which human observers judged which of two patterns, one with and one without a surround, appeared more dense. We used a range of surround densities varying from very sparse to very dense (0-76.8 dots/deg2), and two center test densities (6.4 and 12.8 dots/deg2). Psychometric functions were used to estimate both the points of subjective equality (PSE) and their precision. Unexpectedly we find a bidirectional SDC effect across the five observers: Not only does a denser surround reduce perceived density of the center, but a sparser surround enhances its perceived density. We also show that SDC is not mediated by either contrast-contrast or spatial-frequency contrast. Our results suggest the presence of multiple channels selective for texture density, with lateral inhibitory interactions between them.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Análise Discriminante
Área de Dependência-Independência
Seres Humanos
Estimulação Luminosa
Psicometria
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170630
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170630
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161105
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/16.14.4


  9 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27598252
[Au] Autor:Friedrich TE; Hunter PV; Elias LJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan.
[Ti] Título:Developmental trajectory of pseudoneglect in adults using the greyscales task.
[So] Source:Dev Psychol;52(11):1937-1943, 2016 11.
[Is] ISSN:1939-0599
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Neurologically healthy adults display a reliable but slight leftward spatial bias, and this bias appears to change with age (Jewell & McCourt, 2000). Studies using line bisection and the landmark task to investigate pseudoneglect in participants over 60 years of age have shown suppression and near reversal of the leftward response bias. The current research investigates the developmental trajectory of perceptual biases using the greyscales task-a task that exhibits strengths compared to the line bisection and landmark task, as it generates a stronger and more consistent bias. Participants ranging from 18 to 88 years of age viewed 40 asymmetrical equiluminant gradient pairs with each stimulus appearing darker on the left and right side. Overall, a negative correlation was found between a leftward response bias and age, r(492) = -.154, p < .001, with the oldest age group (80-89 year olds) exhibiting a significantly stronger leftward bias compared to youngest age group (18-29 year olds), p = .016. These findings are in contrast with previous research proposing a reduced bias in perceptual attention among older adults, and suggest that further research is needed to understand the reliability of age-related changes in spatial attention. The findings also contribute to the understanding of developmental changes in allocation of spatial attention over the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia
Área de Dependência-Independência
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia
Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
Campos Visuais/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Fatores Etários
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estimulação Luminosa
Valores de Referência
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171124
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171124
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160907
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1892 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27535754
[Au] Autor:Smith AD; Kenny L; Rudnicka A; Briscoe J; Pellicano E
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. alastair.smith@nottingham.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Drawing Firmer Conclusions: Autistic Children Show No Evidence of a Local Processing Bias in a Controlled Copying Task.
[So] Source:J Autism Dev Disord;46(11):3481-3492, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1573-3432
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Drawing tasks are frequently used to test competing theories of visuospatial skills in autism. Yet, methodological differences between studies have led to inconsistent findings. To distinguish between accounts based on local bias or global deficit, we present a simple task that has previously revealed dissociable local/global impairments in neuropsychological patients. Autistic and typical children copied corner elements, arranged in a square configuration. Grouping cues were manipulated to test whether global properties affected the accuracy of reproduction. All children were similarly affected by these manipulations. There was no group difference in the reproduction of local elements, although global accuracy was negatively related to better local processing for autistic children. These data speak against influential theories of visuospatial differences in autism.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia
Área de Dependência-Independência
Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
Desempenho Psicomotor
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Sinais (Psicologia)
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
Valores de Referência
Senso de Coerência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160819
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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