Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : F02.739 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 12265 [refinar]
Mostrando: 1 .. 10   no formato [Detalhado]

página 1 de 1227 ir para página                         

  1 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
[PMID]:29384605
[Au] Autor:Rohde M; van Dam LCJ; Ernst M
[Ti] Título:Statistically Optimal Multisensory Cue Integration: A Practical Tutorial.
[So] Source:Multisens Res;29(4-5):279-317, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2213-4794
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Humans combine redundant multisensory estimates into a coherent multimodal percept. Experiments in cue integration have shown for many modality pairs and perceptual tasks that multisensory information is fused in a statistically optimal manner: observers take the unimodal sensory reliability into consideration when performing perceptual judgments. They combine the senses according to the rules of Maximum Likelihood Estimation to maximize overall perceptual precision. This tutorial explains in an accessible manner how to design optimal cue integration experiments and how to analyse the results from these experiments to test whether humans follow the predictions of the optimal cue integration model. The tutorial is meant for novices in multisensory integration and requires very little training in formal models and psychophysical methods. For each step in the experimental design and analysis, rules of thumb and practical examples are provided. We also publish Matlab code for an example experiment on cue integration and a Matlab toolbox for data analysis that accompanies the tutorial online. This way, readers can learn about the techniques by trying them out themselves. We hope to provide readers with the tools necessary to design their own experiments on optimal cue integration and enable them to take part in explaining when, why and how humans combine multisensory information optimally.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teorema de Bayes
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Sinais (Psicologia)
Modelos Neurológicos
Percepção/fisiologia
Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Funções Verossimilhança
Teoria Psicológica
Projetos de Pesquisa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28452691
[Au] Autor:Ayodele O
[Ad] Endereço:College of Health and Human Services, Department of Applied Health Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, USA.
[Ti] Título:The Theory of Planned Behavior as a Predictor of HIV Testing Intention.
[So] Source:Am J Health Behav;41(2):147-151, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-7359
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: This investigation tests the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a predictor of HIV testing intention among Nigerian university undergraduate students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 392 students was conducted using a self-administered structured questionnaire that measured socio-demographics, perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and TPB constructs. Analysis was based on 273 students who had never been tested for HIV. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis assessed the applicability of the TPB in predicting HIV testing intention and additional predictive value of perceived risk of HIV infection. RESULTS: The prediction model containing TPB constructs explained 35% of the variance in HIV testing intention, with attitude and perceived behavioral control making significant and unique contributions to intention. Perceived risk of HIV infection contributed marginally (2%) but significantly to the final prediction model. CONCLUSIONS: Findings supported the TPB in predicting HIV testing intention. Although future studies must determine the generalizability of these results, the findings highlight the importance of perceived behavioral control, attitude, and perceived risk of HIV infection in the prediction of HIV testing intention among students who have not previously tested for HIV.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia
Teoria Psicológica
Estudantes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Nigéria/etnologia
Universidades
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5993/AJHB.41.2.5


  3 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28452693
[Au] Autor:Hyun Gwon S; Yan G; Kulbok PA
[Ad] Endereço:University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee College of Nursing, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
[Ti] Título:South Korean Adolescents' Intention to Smoke.
[So] Source:Am J Health Behav;41(2):163-170, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-7359
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intention to smoke, and 3 constructs of the Theory of Planed Behavior, including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control related to smoking among adolescents in South Korea. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional correlational design. The survey was conducted on 13- to 15-year-old adolescents (N = 740) in Seoul, South Korea. Multilevel modeling was conducted to analyze the data. RESULTS: After adjusting for socio-demographic and economic factors, attitude toward smoking, subjective norm about smoking, and perceived behavioral control about smoking were independent statistically significant predictors of in tention to smoke. When all 3 were considered together, attitude toward smoking and perceived behavioral control remained statistically significant, but subjective norm about smoking did not. The number of licensed tobacco retailers also predicted intention to smoke. CONCLUSIONS: Attitude, perceived behavioral control, and tobacco retailers around schools need to be considered when developing tobacco prevention and control programs and policies for adolescents.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia
Fumar/etnologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Intenção
Controle Interno-Externo
Masculino
Teoria Psicológica
República da Coreia/etnologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5993/AJHB.41.2.7


  4 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29251226
[Au] Autor:Veenstra G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sociology, The University of British Columbia, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Infusing fundamental cause theory with features of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of symbolic power.
[So] Source:Scand J Public Health;46(1):49-52, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1651-1905
[Cp] País de publicação:Sweden
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The theory of fundamental causes is one of the more influential attempts to provide a theoretical infrastructure for the strong associations between indicators of socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation) and health. It maintains that people of higher socioeconomic status have greater access to flexible resources such as money, knowledge, prestige, power, and beneficial social connections that they can use to reduce their risks of morbidity and mortality and minimize the consequences of disease once it occurs. However, several key aspects of the theory remain underspecified, compromising its ability to provide truly compelling explanations for socioeconomic health inequalities. In particular, socioeconomic status is an assembly of indicators that do not necessarily cohere in a straightforward way, the flexible resources that disproportionately accrue to higher status people are not clearly defined, and the distinction between socioeconomic status and resources is ambiguous. I attempt to address these definitional issues by infusing fundamental cause theory with features of a well-known theory of socioeconomic stratification in the sociological literature-Pierre Bourdieu's theory of symbolic power.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teoria Psicológica
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
Teoria Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Poder (Psicologia)
Classe Social
Simbolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1403494817748253


  5 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29175691
[Au] Autor:Bélanger-Gravel A; Lottinville S; Beaurivage D; Laferté M; Therrien F; Gauvin L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Information and Communication, Université Laval, 1055, Ave Du Séminaire, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada; Research Centre of the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute (CRIUCPQ-UL), 2725, Ch. Ste-Foy, Québec, G1V 4G5, Canada. Electronic address: ariane.belanger-gravel@com.ulaval.ca.
[Ti] Título:A theory of planned behaviour perspective on practitioners' beliefs toward the integration of the WIXX communication campaign messages and activities into daily practice.
[So] Source:Public Health;154:37-43, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5616
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To favour the dissemination and the implementation of the WIXX multimedia communication campaign, the aim of this study was to examine practitioners' beliefs towards the integration of the WIXX campaign activities into daily practice. STUDY DESIGN: An exploratory qualitative study. METHODS: Overall, 58 community-based practitioners completed an online questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour guidelines pertaining to perceived advantages/disadvantages and perceived barriers/facilitators toward the campaign. A content analysis was performed by two independent coders to extract modal beliefs. Results were validated by a third coder. RESULTS: Local partners had a positive attitude toward the WIXX campaign, but significant barriers remained and needed to be addressed to ensure full implementation of this campaign (e.g. lack of time or resources, additional workload, complexity of the registration process and so forth). Beliefs were fragmented and diversified, indicating that they were highly context dependent. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, some remaining challenges regarding the full implementation of the WIXX communication campaign were identified, suggesting that additional efforts might be needed to ensure the full adoption of the campaign by local practitioners.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Promoção da Saúde
Médicos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comunicação
Seres Humanos
Padrões de Prática Médica
Teoria Psicológica
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo SciELO Colômbia
Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:28453142
[Au] Autor:Cardozo-Cruz M; Ramírez-Pereira M
[Ad] Endereço:Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), Colombia.
[Ti] Título:[The dark rooms and the men who have sex with men: making the invisiblevisible].
[Ti] Título:Los cuartos oscuros y los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres: haciendo visible lo invisible..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);17(6):886-898, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objective To design an explanatory model of social representations of men who have sex with men in the dark rooms of the city of Santiago de Chile during the second half of 2012. METHODOLOGY: Exploratory and explanatory qualitative research. The theoretical and methodological approach chosen was based on the founded theory. Data collection was conducted using in-depth interviews. RESULTS: During the first phase of the research open coding was carried out. Codes and related categories were identified: conception of the dark room, biosecurity, reasons for entering a dark room, valuation of the dark room, sex practices, sexual orientation and roles and ways of relating. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a public health policy that includes social determinants of health is an imperative. Three key points are identified to intervene positively in their health: discrimination and social rejection, the absence or reduction of risk perception against dark rooms and places for sexual encounters and the need for inspection, monitoring and control of such sites.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia
Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Chile
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Teoria Psicológica
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
Discriminação Social/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180117
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180117
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29173072
[Au] Autor:Zhu Y; Dailey SL; Kreitzberg D; Bernhardt J
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Communication Studies , Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin , Austin , Texas , USA.
[Ti] Título:"Social Networkout": Connecting Social Features of Wearable Fitness Trackers with Physical Exercise.
[So] Source:J Health Commun;22(12):974-980, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1087-0415
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite widespread understanding of the benefits of physical activity, many adults in the United States do not meet recommended exercise guidelines. Burgeoning technologies, including wearable fitness trackers (e.g., Fitbit, Apple watch), bring new opportunities to influence physical activity by encouraging users to track and share physical activity data and compete against their peers. However, research has not explored the social processes that mediate the relationship between the use of wearable fitness trackers and intention to exercise. In this study, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) to explore the effects of two communicative features of wearable fitness devices-social sharing and social competing-on individuals' intention to exercise. Drawing upon surveys from 238 wearable fitness tracker users, we found that the relationship between the two communication features (social sharing and competing) and exercise intention was mediated by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The results suggest that the ways in which exercise data are shared significantly influence the exercise intentions, and these intentions are mediated by individuals' evaluation of exercise, belief about important others' approval of exercise, and perceived control upon exercise.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exercício/psicologia
Monitores de Aptidão Física
Rede Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Comportamento Competitivo
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Intenção
Masculino
Teoria Psicológica
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:T
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10810730.2017.1382617


  8 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29241289
[Au] Autor:Gelinsky P
[Ti] Título:[Radiology in the Light of Evolutionary Cognitive Theory].
[Ti] Título:Die Röntgenologie im Licht der Evolutionären Erkenntnistheorie..
[So] Source:Dtsch Med Wochenschr;142(25):1943-1948, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1439-4413
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:ger
[Ab] Resumo:An X-ray photograph is not adapted to the human a priori intuition: it is not colored, it is two-dimensional, has no depth and no perspective. A radiograph is composed by about 100 gradations of grey, of which the human eye cannot resolve more than 30. Projection radiography has a cardinal problem: the superposition of normal and pathological structures. Apart from visual physiology, visual psychology plays an essential role in diagnosis: expectation and stereotyped thinking influence the interpretation of visual perception. X-ray findings are to be compared with anamnesis, laboratory values, clinical data and always with good judgement - this was already known in 1913. Plato sketched a cave analogy that describes the difficulties of interpreting "shadows" - with very interesting parallels to radiology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teoria Psicológica
Radiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0043-115713


  9 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28956713
[Au] Autor:Wirtz PW; Rohrbeck CA
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Decision Sciences , The George Washington University , Washington , District of Columbia , USA.
[Ti] Título:Efficacy for Dealing With Terrorism Precautionary Behavior: Laying the Groundwork for Communication Effectiveness.
[So] Source:J Health Commun;22(10):829-838, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1087-0415
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In order to formulate effective communication and intervention strategies to respond to the widespread lack of preparedness for public health crises resulting from natural and human-made disasters, researchers have developed models describing the interrelationships between factors associated with emergency preparedness decisions. Empirical research has generally assumed that two key elements of most health behavior theories-self-efficacy and response efficacy-additively influence the decision to prepare, despite compelling theoretical rationale for an interactive relationship. The few studies that have investigated interactions in preparedness outcomes have not tested the Social Cognitive Theory prediction that non-zero levels of both efficacy types are required before individuals will engage in any preparedness behavior. Based on the responses of 3,101 participants in the National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness, this study tested additive, interactive, and conditional main effect hypotheses about the influence of self-efficacy and response efficacy for dealing with terrorism on preparedness due to terrorism six years after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. A significant self-efficacy × response efficacy interaction effect on preparedness was found, in addition to a significant response efficacy effect when perceived self-efficacy was zero, contrary to the expectation from Social Cognitive Theory. These results offer insights into the cognitive processes underlying individuals' decisions to prepare for disasters such as terrorist attacks, and highlight the importance of considering more complex theory-based cognitive interaction models in designing effective communication strategies to facilitate individual emergency preparedness.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração
Individualidade
Autoeficácia
Terrorismo/prevenção & controle
Terrorismo/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Comunicação
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Modelos Psicológicos
Teoria Psicológica
Inquéritos e Questionários
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:T
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170929
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10810730.2017.1363323


  10 / 12265 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28817332
[Au] Autor:Holt M; Murphy DA
[Ad] Endereço:Martin Holt and Dean A. Murphy are with the Centre for Social Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Dean A. Murphy is also with the Department of Gender and Cultural Studies, University of Sydney, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Individual Versus Community-Level Risk Compensation Following Preexposure Prophylaxis of HIV.
[So] Source:Am J Public Health;107(10):1568-1571, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0048
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We analyzed the concept of risk compensation and how it has been applied in HIV prevention, paying particular attention to the strategy of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In risk compensation, reduced perceptions of risk after the introduction of a preventative intervention lead to more frequent risk-taking behavior. Such a change may undermine the intervention's protective benefits. We found that many studies purporting to investigate risk compensation do not assess or report changes in perceptions of risk, instead relying on behavioral measures. Our analysis suggests a complex and sometimes counterintuitive relationship between the introduction of a new prevention intervention, perceptions of HIV risk, and subsequent changes in behavior. As PrEP is introduced, we believe comprehensive assessment of community-level risk compensation-that is, changes in risk perceptions and behavior as a result of increased optimism about avoiding HIV among people not directly protected by PrEP-should not be omitted. We therefore suggest ways to assess prevention optimism and community-level risk compensation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Percepção
Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos
Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Teoria Psicológica
Medição de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171002
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171002
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170818
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303930



página 1 de 1227 ir para página                         
   


Refinar a pesquisa
  Base de dados : MEDLINE Formulário avançado   

    Pesquisar no campo  
1  
2
3
 
           



Search engine: iAH v2.6 powered by WWWISIS

BIREME/OPAS/OMS - Centro Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde