Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : F02.739.527 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 397 [refinar]
Mostrando: 1 .. 10   no formato [Detalhado]

página 1 de 40 ir para página                         

  1 / 397 MEDLINE  
              next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28219257
[Au] Autor:Kalamala P; Sadowska A; Ordziniak W; Chuderski A
[Ad] Endereço:1 Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland.
[Ti] Título:Gestalt Effects in Visual Working Memory.
[So] Source:Exp Psychol;64(1):5-13, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:2190-5142
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Four experiments investigated whether conforming to Gestalt principles, well known to drive visual perception, also facilitates the active maintenance of information in visual working memory (VWM). We used the change detection task, which required the memorization of visual patterns composed of several shapes. We observed no effects of symmetry of visual patterns on VWM performance. However, there was a moderate positive effect when a particular shape that was probed matched the shape of the whole pattern (the whole-part similarity effect). Data support the models assuming that VWM encodes not only particular objects of the perceptual scene but also the spatial relations between them (the ensemble representation). The ensemble representation may prime objects similar to its shape and thereby boost access to them. In contrast, the null effect of symmetry relates the fact that this very feature of an ensemble does not yield any useful additional information for VWM.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teoria Gestáltica
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Recognição (Psicologia)
Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170404
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170404
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1027/1618-3169/a000346


  2 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28167115
[Au] Autor:Luo C; Burns E; Xu H
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
[Ti] Título:Association between autistic traits and emotion adaptation to partially occluded faces.
[So] Source:Vision Res;133:21-36, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5646
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Prolonged exposure to a happy face makes subsequently presented faces appear sadder: the facial emotion aftereffect (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of faces. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population by autistic traits using the autism-quotient (AQ). Prior work has not found any association between AQ and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum. In the present study, we tested whether AQ was associated with FEA to partially occluded faces. We hypothesized that inferring emotion from such faces would require participants to process their viewable parts as a gestalt percept, thus we anticipated this ability would diminish as autistic traits increased. In Experiment 1, we partially occluded the adapting faces with aligned or misaligned opaque bars. Both conditions produced significant FEAs, with aftereffects and AQ negatively correlated. In Experiment 2, we adapted participants to obscured faces flickering in luminance, and manipulated the facilitation of holistic perception by varying the synchronization of this flickering. We found significant FEAs in all conditions, but abolished its association with AQ. In Experiment 3, we showed that the association between AQ and FEA in the occluded conditions in Experiment 1 was not due to the recognizability or perceived emotional intensity of our adaptors; although the overall FEAs were linked to emotional intensity. We propose that increasing autistic traits are associated with diminishing abilities in perceiving emotional faces as a gestalt percept.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia
Transtorno Autístico/complicações
Emoções
Expressão Facial
Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia
Recognição (Psicologia)/fisiologia
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Pós-Efeito de Figura/fisiologia
Teoria Gestáltica
Felicidade
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170804
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170804
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:27488558
[Au] Autor:Murphy J; Gray KL; Cook R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, City University London, Whiskin Street, London, EC1R OJD, UK.
[Ti] Título:The composite face illusion.
[So] Source:Psychon Bull Rev;24(2):245-261, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5320
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, and aberrant face perception in clinical populations. Composite paradigms continue to advance our knowledge of face perception, as exemplified by their recent use for investigating the perceptual mechanisms underlying dynamic face processing. However, the paradigm has been the subject of intense scrutiny, particularly over the last decade, and there is a growing sense that the composite face illusion, whilst easy to illustrate, is deceptively difficult to measure and interpret. In this review, we provide a focussed overview of the existing composite face literature, and identify six priorities for future research. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will aid the evaluation and refinement of theoretical accounts of the illusion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reconhecimento Facial
Ilusões Ópticas
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
Distorção da Percepção
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Teoria Gestáltica
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Orientação
Pesquisa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170804
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170804
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160805
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13423-016-1131-5


  4 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:27485261
[Au] Autor:Kline JA; Neumann D; Hall CL; Capito J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Emergency Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
[Ti] Título:Role of physician perception of patient smile on pretest probability assessment for acute pulmonary embolism.
[So] Source:Emerg Med J;34(2):82-88, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1472-0213
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Many clinicians use a global visual interpretation of patient appearance to decide if a patient looks sick or not. For patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE), we tested the relationship between visual appearance of a happy patient facial affect and probability of PE+ on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). METHODS: Eligible patients were selected by usual care to undergo CTPA, the criterion standard for PE+ or PE-. Prior to CTPA result, trained study personnel obtained physician pretest probability using the gestalt method (visual analogue scale, 0%-100%), the Wells score (0-12) and physicians' impression of whether the patient smiled during the initial examination (smile+). Patients' faces were also video recorded and analysed with an automated neural network-based algorithm (Noldus FaceReader) for happy affect. RESULTS: Of the 208 patients enrolled, 27 were PE+ and smile+ was more frequent in patients with PE+ than PE-, a finding confirmed by the Noldus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of smile was low, and physicians overestimated presence of an alternative diagnosis more likely to PE with smile+ than smile- patients in patients with true PE. As a result, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was lower for the Wells score in smile+ patients. However, the physicians' mean gestalt estimate of PE did not differ with smile status, nor did smile status affect the AUROC for gestalt. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected PE, physician recollection of patients' smile+ was more common in PE+ patients, and was associated with a less accurate Wells score, primarily because physicians overestimated probability of alternative diagnosis. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of physicians' gestalt did not differ with perceived smile status. These data suggest that the patients' smile had less effect on the numeric gestalt pretest probability assessment than on the binary decision about an alternative diagnosis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Médicos/psicologia
Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico
Sorriso
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada
Diagnóstico Diferencial
Feminino
Teoria Gestáltica
Seres Humanos
Indiana
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Percepção
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Estudos Prospectivos
Sistema de Registros
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Escala Visual Analógica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170127
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170127
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160804
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/emermed-2016-205874


  5 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:26395066
[Au] Autor:Flach J
[Ad] Endereço:Psychology Department, Wright State University, USA. Electronic address: john.flach@wright.edu.
[Ti] Título:Supporting productive thinking: The semiotic context for Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE).
[So] Source:Appl Ergon;59(Pt B):612-624, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9126
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The central thesis of this paper is that Rasmussen framed his approach to Cognitive Systems Engineering from the perspective of a Triadic Semiotic Model. This frame became the context for integrating multiple intellectual threads including Control Theory, Information Theory, Ecological Psychology, and Gestalt Psychology into a coherent theoretical framework. The case is made that the triadic semiotic framework is essential for a complete appreciation of the constructs that were central to Rasmussen's approach: Abstraction Hierarchy, Skill-Rules-Knowledge Model, Ecological Interface Design, and Proactive Risk Management.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição
Ergonomia/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ecologia
Teoria Gestáltica
Seres Humanos
Teoria da Informação
Conhecimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150924
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:27862989
[Au] Autor:Rippey JC; Carr PJ; Cooke M; Higgins N; Rickard CM
[Ad] Endereço:Emergency Medicine, School of Primary, Aboriginal and Rural Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Services, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Predicting and preventing peripheral intravenous cannula insertion failure in the emergency department: Clinician 'gestalt' wins again.
[So] Source:Emerg Med Australas;28(6):658-665, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1742-6723
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Failed attempts at peripheral i.v. cannula (PIVC) insertion in the ED are common. The psychological, physical and economic impact of these failures is significant. We sought to explore whether clinicians of differing experience levels can predict their own likelihood (clinician 'gestalt') of first-time cannula insertion success on any given patient. METHODS: Data analyses from a prospective self-reported study assessing risk factors for first-time insertion success in a tertiary adult ED. We constructed and compared two simple theoretical clinical decision algorithms in an attempt to improve first-time PIVC insertion success rates. RESULTS: This best algorithm identified a subgroup of 18% of the total PIVC population at higher risk of failure. This 18% comprised 57% of all PIVC failures, and implementation would result in a relative risk reduction of PIVC failure by 31%. CONCLUSIONS: When applied to our sample population, an algorithm relying on clinician gestalt to identify patients at high risk of PIVC failure had the greatest potential impact. These patients would be referred to expert PIVC inserters prior to, rather than after, failed attempts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cateterismo Periférico
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Algoritmos
Cânula
Feminino
Teoria Gestáltica
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estudos Prospectivos
Fatores de Risco
Austrália Ocidental
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1742-6723.12695


  7 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:27353224
[Au] Autor:Jäkel F; Singh M; Wichmann FA; Herzog MH
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück, Germany. Electronic address: fjaekel@uos.de.
[Ti] Título:An overview of quantitative approaches in Gestalt perception.
[So] Source:Vision Res;126:3-8, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5646
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Gestalt psychology is often criticized as lacking quantitative measurements and precise mathematical models. While this is true of the early Gestalt school, today there are many quantitative approaches in Gestalt perception and the special issue of Vision Research "Quantitative Approaches in Gestalt Perception" showcases the current state-of-the-art. In this article we give an overview of these current approaches. For example, ideal observer models are one of the standard quantitative tools in vision research and there is a clear trend to try and apply this tool to Gestalt perception and thereby integrate Gestalt perception into mainstream vision research. More generally, Bayesian models, long popular in other areas of vision research, are increasingly being employed to model perceptual grouping as well. Thus, although experimental and theoretical approaches to Gestalt perception remain quite diverse, we are hopeful that these quantitative trends will pave the way for a unified theory.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Formação de Conceito/fisiologia
Teoria Gestáltica
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Teorema de Bayes
Pesquisa Biomédica
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160630
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:27170119
[Au] Autor:Campana F; Rebollo I; Urai A; Wyart V; Tallon-Baudry C
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives, INSERM U960, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris 75005, France, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center Research, Washington, DC 20007, campana.florence@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Conscious Vision Proceeds from Global to Local Content in Goal-Directed Tasks and Spontaneous Vision.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;36(19):5200-13, 2016 May 11.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:UNLABELLED: The reverse hierarchy theory (Hochstein and Ahissar, 2002) makes strong, but so far untested, predictions on conscious vision. In this theory, local details encoded in lower-order visual areas are unconsciously processed before being automatically and rapidly combined into global information in higher-order visual areas, where conscious percepts emerge. Contingent on current goals, local details can afterward be consciously retrieved. This model therefore predicts that (1) global information is perceived faster than local details, (2) global information is computed regardless of task demands during early visual processing, and (3) spontaneous vision is dominated by global percepts. We designed novel textured stimuli that are, as opposed to the classic Navon's letters, truly hierarchical (i.e., where global information is solely defined by local information but where local and global orientations can still be manipulated separately). In line with the predictions, observers were systematically faster reporting global than local properties of those stimuli. Second, global information could be decoded from magneto-encephalographic data during early visual processing regardless of task demands. Last, spontaneous subjective reports were dominated by global information and the frequency and speed of spontaneous global perception correlated with the accuracy and speed in the global task. No such correlation was observed for local information. We therefore show that information at different levels of the visual hierarchy is not equally likely to become conscious; rather, conscious percepts emerge preferentially at a global level. We further show that spontaneous reports can be reliable and are tightly linked to objective performance at the global level. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Is information encoded at different levels of the visual system (local details in low-level areas vs global shapes in high-level areas) equally likely to become conscious? We designed new hierarchical stimuli and provide the first empirical evidence based on behavioral and MEG data that global information encoded at high levels of the visual hierarchy dominates perception. This result held both in the presence and in the absence of task demands. The preferential emergence of percepts at high levels can account for two properties of conscious vision, namely, the dominance of global percepts and the feeling of visual richness reported independently of the perception of local details.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estado de Consciência
Modelos Neurológicos
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Teoria Gestáltica
Metas
Seres Humanos
Magnetoencefalografia/métodos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160513
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3619-15.2016


  9 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:27058166
[Au] Autor:Slana A; Repovs G; Fitch WT; Gingras B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address: anka.slana@psy.ff.uni-lj.si.
[Ti] Título:Harmonic context influences pitch class equivalence judgments through gestalt and congruency effects.
[So] Source:Acta Psychol (Amst);166:54-63, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6297
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The context in which a stimulus is presented shapes the way it is processed. This effect has been studied extensively in the field of visual perception. Our understanding of how context affects the processing of auditory stimuli is, however, rather limited. Western music is primarily built on melodies (succession of pitches) typically accompanied by chords (harmonic context), which provides a natural template for the study of context effects in auditory processing. Here, we investigated whether pitch class equivalence judgments of tones are affected by the harmonic context within which the target tones are embedded. Nineteen musicians and 19 non-musicians completed a change detection task in which they were asked to determine whether two successively presented target tones, heard either in isolation or with a chordal accompaniment (same or different chords), belonged to the same pitch class. Both musicians and non-musicians were most accurate when the chords remained the same, less so in the absence of chordal accompaniment, and least when the chords differed between both target tones. Further analysis investigating possible mechanisms underpinning these effects of harmonic context on task performance revealed that both a change in gestalt (change in either chord or pitch class), as well as incongruency between change in target tone pitch class and change in chords, led to reduced accuracy and longer reaction times. Our results demonstrate that, similarly to visual processing, auditory processing is influenced by gestalt and congruency effects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estimulação Acústica/métodos
Teoria Gestáltica
Música
Nível de Percepção Sonora
Tempo de Reação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Julgamento
Masculino
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160409
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 397 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
PubMed Central Texto completo
Texto completo
[PMID]:26986760
[Au] Autor:Dumitru ML; Joergensen GH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(3):e0151774, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teoria Gestáltica
Pensamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Formação de Conceito
Seres Humanos
Estimulação Luminosa
Tempo de Reação
Recognição (Psicologia)
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160318
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0151774



página 1 de 40 ir para página                         
   


Refinar a pesquisa
  Base de dados : MEDLINE Formulário avançado   

    Pesquisar no campo  
1  
2
3
 
           



Search engine: iAH v2.6 powered by WWWISIS

BIREME/OPAS/OMS - Centro Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde