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[PMID]:29231016
[Au] Autor:Meng HH; Luo B; Siyit T; Ji MM; Chen XP; Shi GF; Tao LY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Forensic Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, Jining Medical University, Jining 272012, China.
[Ti] Título:[Effect of Different Attentional Conditions on ERP Detection of Visual Acuity].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(2):125-128, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of different attentional conditions on the event-related potential (ERP) components generated by the visual information stimuli related to visual acuity, and provide a theoretical reference for clinical forensic visual objective evaluation. METHODS: With visual acuity optotypes as normal form of visual information stimuli, 15 volunteers as study subjects were supposed to account the visual acuity optotypes under the attentional condition of visual stimuli. Furthermore, the subjects were required to listen to the storytelling carefully under the non-attentional condition of visual stimuli, and after the examination, they needed to answer the story-related questions. All the EEG results of two different attentional conditions from the subjects were recorded by 32 channel ERP system. RESULTS: Under two attentional conditions, P1 and P300 components were evoked by the visual acuity optotypes on supra-threshold and threshold visual acuity levels, while only P1 component were evoked by the visual acuity optotypes on sub-threshold levels. In the ERP waveforms evoked by the visual acuity optotypes on supra-threshold, P1 and P300 amplitudes under attentional condition were larger than that under non-attentional condition. CONCLUSIONS: Attentional conditions can influence the detection of visual acuity. P300 component can be used to distinguish the visual acuity levels with supra-threshold and sub-threshold under non-attentional condition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção/fisiologia
Potenciais Evocados Visuais
Acuidade Visual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Eletroencefalografia
Potenciais Evocados
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.02.004


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[PMID]:28453238
[Au] Autor:Osman OT; Souid AK; Al-Mugaddam F; Eapen BR; Jafferany M
[Ad] Endereço:College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 17666, Alain, Abu Dhabi 00000, United Arab Emirates. ossamao@uaeu.ac.ae.
[Ti] Título:Attentiveness of Dermatologists in the Middle East to Psychocutaneous Medicine.
[So] Source:Prim Care Companion CNS Disord;19(2), 2017 Apr 27.
[Is] ISSN:2155-7780
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Objective: Patients with skin diseases often have psychological problems and complications that require assessment and treatment. The main objective of this study was to explore attentiveness of dermatologists to psychiatric symptoms in their patients. Methods: A previously validated online questionnaire was used to explore the attitude and experience of dermatologists practicing in the Middle East toward the assessment of the psychiatric needs of their patients. The survey also inquired about awareness of available resources in dealing with psychodermatology. This online survey was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Results: Of 70 invited dermatologists, 57 (81%) completed the survey. Fifteen respondents (31%) received no training and had attended no educational events on psychodermatology. Only 19 respondents (33%) were able to identify psychodermatology as psychiatric components of skin diseases and dermatologic symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Twenty respondents (41%) reported frequent experience with psychodermatology, and 14 (28%) were "very comfortable" in diagnosing and treating psychodermatology patients. Twenty-two respondents (47%) recognized psychocutaneous involvement in 10% to 25% of their patients, while 18 (36%) recognized it in < 10% of their patients. Recognized diagnoses that required referral for psychiatric assessment included trichotillomania (34%), delusion of parasitosis (22%), depression (18%), dysmorphophobias (16%), dermatitis (10%), and venereophobia (10%). Forty-five respondents (90%) were unaware of psychodermatology resources. The majority of respondents expressed interest in education on depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and body dysmorphic disorder. Conclusions: Psychocutaneous involvements are common among dermatologic patients. A large number of the surveyed dermatologists had no training or education in psychodermatology. A lack of familiarity with patient and family resources on psychocutaneous conditions was also evident. These findings support the need for improvement in training and education in psychodermatology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Dermatologistas/psicologia
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
Dermatopatias/diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Transtornos Mentais/complicações
Meia-Idade
Oriente Médio
Dermatopatias/complicações
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4088/PCC.16m02080


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[PMID]:28448826
[Au] Autor:Goodwin H; Yiend J; Hirsch CR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Generalized Anxiety Disorder, worry and attention to threat: A systematic review.
[So] Source:Clin Psychol Rev;54:107-122, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7811
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Among anxious populations, attention has been demonstrated to be preferentially biased to threatening material compared to neutral or other valenced material. Individuals who have high levels of trait worry, such as those with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), may be biased to threat but research has produced equivocal findings. This review aimed to systematically review the extant experimental literature to establish the current evidence of attentional bias to threat among trait worriers compared to healthy controls and other clinical populations. Twenty-nine published articles were included in the final review. There was strong evidence of a bias to threat among GAD patients compared to other groups and this was found across most experimental paradigms. Few studies had investigated this bias in non-clinical trait worriers. Among GAD patients this bias to threat was most strongly evidenced when visual threat material was in a verbal-linguistic format (i.e., words) rather than when in pictorial form (i.e., images or faces). The bias was also found across several domains of negative material, supporting the general nature of worry. Further research should look to examine the specific components of the threat bias in GAD, as well as investigating the bias to threat in trait worriers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
Ansiedade/psicologia
Atenção/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29192615
[Au] Autor:Zhang Y; Kang J; Kang J
[Ad] Endereço:School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, China; School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
[Ti] Título:Effects of Soundscape on the Environmental Restoration in Urban Natural Environments.
[So] Source:Noise Health;19(87):65-72, 2017 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1463-1741
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:CONTEXT: According to the attention restoration theory, directed attention is a limited physiological resource and is susceptible to fatigue by overuse. Natural environments are a healthy resource, which allows and promotes the restoration of individuals within it from their state of directed attention fatigue. This process is called the environmental restoration on individuals, and it is affected both positively and negatively by environmental factors. AIMS: By considering the relationship among the three components of soundscape, that is, people, sound and the environment, this study aims to explore the effects of soundscape on the environmental restoration in urban natural environments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A field experiment was conducted with 70 participants (four groups) in an urban natural environment (Shenyang, China). Directed attention was first depleted with a 50-min 'consumption' phase, followed by a baseline measurement of attention level. Three groups then engaged in 40 min of restoration in the respective environments with similar visual surroundings but with different sounds present, after which attention levels were re-tested. The fourth group did not undergo restoration and was immediately re-tested. The difference between the two test scores, corrected for the practice effect, represents the attention restoration of individuals exposed to the respective environments. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: An analysis of variance was performed, demonstrating that the differences between the mean values for each group were statistically significant [sig. = 0.027 (<0.050)]. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean values (confidence interval of 95%) of each group are as follows: 'natural sounds group' (8.4), 'traffic sounds group' (2.4) and 'machine sounds group' (-1.8). CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that (1) urban natural environments, with natural sounds, have a positive effect on the restoration of an individuals' attention and (2) the presence of different types of sounds has significantly divergent effects on the environmental restoration.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Planejamento de Cidades
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
Ruído
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: China
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_73_16


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[PMID]:29352314
[Au] Autor:Karthaus M; Wascher E; Getzmann S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ergonomics, IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at TU Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Proactive vs. reactive car driving: EEG evidence for different driving strategies of older drivers.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191500, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Aging is associated with a large heterogeneity in the extent of age-related changes in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. All these functions can influence the performance in complex tasks like car driving. The present study aims to identify potential differences in underlying cognitive processes that may explain inter-individual variability in driving performance. Younger and older participants performed a one-hour monotonous driving task in a driving simulator under varying crosswind conditions, while behavioral and electrophysiological data were recorded. Overall, younger and older drivers showed comparable driving performance (lane keeping). However, there was a large difference in driving lane variability within the older group. Dividing the older group in two subgroups with low vs. high driving lane variability revealed differences between the two groups in electrophysiological correlates of mental workload, consumption of mental resources, and activation and sustaining of attention: Older drivers with high driving lane variability showed higher frontal Alpha and Theta activity than older drivers with low driving lane variability and-with increasing crosswind-a more pronounced decrease in Beta activity. These results suggest differences in driving strategies of older and younger drivers, with the older drivers using either a rather proactive and alert driving strategy (indicated by low driving lane variability and lower Alpha and Beta activity), or a rather reactive strategy (indicated by high driving lane variability and higher Alpha activity).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Envelhecimento/psicologia
Condução de Veículo/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Ritmo alfa
Atenção/fisiologia
Comportamento
Ritmo beta
Cognição/fisiologia
Simulação por Computador
Eletroencefalografia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
Ritmo Teta
Vento
Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191500


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[PMID]:29314740
[Au] Autor:Oka Y; Matsuda H; Miyazaki M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Surgery, Saiwaicho Memorial Hospital, Okayama, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Authors Should Pay Attention to the Confounding by Indication of Observational Study Using Propensity Score.
[So] Source:Ther Apher Dial;22(1):95-96, 2018 02.
[Is] ISSN:1744-9987
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Pontuação de Propensão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1744-9987.12652


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[PMID]:28282750
[Au] Autor:Jones MJ; Peeling P; Dawson B; Halson S; Miller J; Dunican I; Clarke M; Goodman C; Eastwood P
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, School of Human Sciences , The University of Western Australia , Crawley , WA , Australia.
[Ti] Título:Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes.
[So] Source:J Sports Sci;36(2):162-170, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1466-447X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different types of tasks performed with or without an electronic device (tablet) on pre-sleep alertness, subsequent sleep quality and next-day athletic performance. Eight highly trained netball players attended a sleep laboratory for pre-sleep testing, polysomnographic sleep monitoring and next-day physical performance testing on 5 separate occasions (1 familiarisation and 4 experimental sessions). For 2 h prior to bedtime, athletes completed cognitively stimulating tasks (puzzles) or passive tasks (reading) with or without a tablet. Sleepiness tended to be greater after reading compared to completing puzzles without a tablet (d = 0.80), but not with a tablet. Melatonin concentration increased more so after reading compared to completing puzzles on a tablet (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in sleep quality or quantity or next-day athletic performance between any of the conditions. These data suggest that using a tablet for 2 h prior to sleep does not negatively affect subsequent sleep or next-day performance in athletes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desempenho Atlético
Atenção
Microcomputadores/utilização
Sono
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Temperatura Corporal
Orelha Média/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo
Melatonina/metabolismo
Salvia/metabolismo
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
JL5DK93RCL (Melatonin); WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170312
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/02640414.2017.1287936


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[PMID]:29385137
[Au] Autor:Stephen ID; Sturman D; Stevenson RJ; Mond J; Brooks KR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Visual attention mediates the relationship between body satisfaction and susceptibility to the body size adaptation effect.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0189855, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Body size misperception-the belief that one is larger or smaller than reality-affects a large and growing segment of the population. Recently, studies have shown that exposure to extreme body stimuli results in a shift in the point of subjective normality, suggesting that visual adaptation may be a mechanism by which body size misperception occurs. Yet, despite being exposed to a similar set of bodies, some individuals within a given geographical area will develop body size misperception and others will not. The reason for these individual difference is currently unknown. One possible explanation stems from the observation that women with lower levels of body satisfaction have been found to pay more attention to images of thin bodies. However, while attention has been shown to enhance visual adaptation effects in low (e.g. rotational and linear motion) and high level stimuli (e.g., facial gender), it is not known whether this effect exists in visual adaptation to body size. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is an indirect effect of body satisfaction on the direction and magnitude of the body fat adaptation effect, mediated via visual attention (i.e., selectively attending to images of thin over fat bodies or vice versa). Significant mediation effects were found in both men and women, suggesting that observers' level of body satisfaction may influence selective visual attention to thin or fat bodies, which in turn influences the magnitude and direction of visual adaptation to body size. This may provide a potential mechanism by which some individuals develop body size misperception-a risk factor for eating disorders, compulsive exercise behaviour and steroid abuse-while others do not.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Imagem Corporal
Satisfação Pessoal
Percepção Visual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189855


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[PMID]:29310714
[Au] Autor:Fujiwara K; Yaguchi C; Maekawa M; Kiyota N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sports and Health, Kanazawa Gakuin University, 10 Sue-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1392, Japan. fujikatu@kanazawa-gu.ac.jp.
[Ti] Título:Timings of attentional switching to perturbation and postural preparation during transient forward or backward floor translation.
[So] Source:J Physiol Anthropol;37(1):1, 2018 Jan 08.
[Is] ISSN:1880-6805
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Relationships between the timings of attentional switching and postural preparation were investigated using a choice-reaction paradigm with transient floor translation (S2), with the direction indicated by a warning auditory signal (S1). METHODS: Thirteen healthy young adults participated in this study. S2 started 2 s after S1 onset while standing on the platform. The platform moved forward when S1 was a high tone, and backward when S1 was a low tone. In the S1-S2 period, attentional switching was evaluated by P3 component of event-related potential. RESULTS: A shift in the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPap) or a continuous increase in postural muscle activation toward S2 was recognized as postural preparation. Changes in postural muscle activation were found just before the CoPap shift. P3 was observed about 250-650 ms after S1. Onset of postural preparation was significantly later (about 200 ms) than latency of P3 (p < 0.001) and correlated strongly with P3 latency (forward: r = 0.81, backward: r = 0.74, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Postural preparation for S2 was demonstrated to start after attentional switching from S1 to S2.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção/fisiologia
Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
Postura/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Eletromiografia
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s40101-017-0162-6


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[PMID]:28459273
[Au] Autor:Wass SV; Cook C; Clackson K
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of East London.
[Ti] Título:Changes in behavior and salivary cortisol after targeted cognitive training in typical 12-month-old infants.
[So] Source:Dev Psychol;53(5):815-825, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1939-0599
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Previous research has suggested that early development may be an optimal period to implement cognitive training interventions, particularly those relating to attention control, a basic ability that is essential for the development of other cognitive skills. In the present study, we administered gaze-contingent training (95 min across 2 weeks) targeted at voluntary attention control to a cohort of typical 12-month-old children (N = 24) and sham training to a control group (N = 24). We assessed training effects on (a) tasks involving nontrained aspects of attention control: visual sustained attention, habituation speed, visual recognition memory, sequence learning, and reversal learning; (b) general attentiveness (on-task behaviors during testing); and (c) salivary cortisol levels. Assessments were administered immediately after the cessation of training and at a 6-week follow-up. On the immediate posttest infants showed significantly more sustained visual attention, faster habituation, and improved sequence learning. Significant effects were also found for increased general attentiveness and decreased salivary cortisol. Some of these effects were still evident at the 6-week follow-up (significantly improved sequence learning and marginally improved sustained attention). These findings extend the emerging literature showing that attention training is possible in infancy. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção/fisiologia
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo
Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia
Aprendizagem/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Assistência ao Convalescente
Feminino
Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Recognição (Psicologia)/fisiologia
Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia
Saliva/metabolismo
Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/dev0000266



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