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  1 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28460283
[Au] Autor:Vorontsova N; Ellett L
[Ad] Endereço:Royal Holloway, University of London, London, UK.
[Ti] Título:Depression, goals and motivations in people with persecutory delusions.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;254:133-134, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Goals motivated by avoidance, rather than approach, and by external, rather than internal, motivations, have been implicated in the persistence of depression. This paper reports the first empirical investigation of the goals and motivations of individuals experiencing persecutory delusions. Participants completed assessments of goals and motivations, depression and paranoia. Higher levels of depression were associated with more avoidant motivations and lower goal self-concordance, but not with numbers of approach motivations. More avoidant motivations were also associated with greater paranoia. The findings are consistent with proposals that avoidant and externally-motivated goal pursuit could contribute to symptom persistence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Delusões/psicologia
Depressão/psicologia
Metas
Motivação
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Delusões/diagnóstico
Delusões/epidemiologia
Depressão/diagnóstico
Depressão/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Transtornos Paranoides/diagnóstico
Transtornos Paranoides/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28409716
[Au] Autor:Wood J; Dennard S
[Ti] Título:Gang Membership: Links to Violence Exposure, Paranoia, PTSD, Anxiety, and Forced Control of Behavior in Prison.
[So] Source:Psychiatry;80(1):30-41, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1943-281X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Gang membership inherently links to violence, and violent experiences strongly relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and paranoia. Yet to date, gang members' mental health has received little attention, and their paranoia has not been examined. This study, using established measures, assessed street gang and nongang prisoners' levels of violence exposure, symptoms of PTSD, paranoia, and anxiety, forced behavioral control, and segregation in prison. METHOD: Participants were 65 (32 gang and 33 nongang) prisoners, recruited using opportunity sampling. Participants provided informed consent and were interviewed individually. Interviews were anonymized to maintain confidentiality. Chi-square and discriminant function analyses were used to compare participants' demographics, segregation levels, mental health symptoms, and to identify predictors of street gang membership. RESULTS: As compared to nongang prisoners, street gang prisoners have higher levels of exposure to violence, symptoms of paranoia, PTSD, anxiety, and forced control of their behavior in prison. Street gang prisoners were not more likely to be segregated, but they were more likely to belong to ethnic minorities. Street gang prisoners were only found to be younger than nongang prisoners, when other variables were controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health deserves more attention in gang research. The implications of findings are that gang membership may undermine members' mental health, and/or that individuals with existing mental health problems may be those attracted to gang membership. Moreover, justice responses, via policies and intervention strategies, need to identify and address the mental health needs in gang member prisoners, if successful rehabilitation of gang members is to be achieved.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ansiedade/psicologia
Controle Comportamental/psicologia
Exposição à Violência/psicologia
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia
Prisioneiros/psicologia
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170510
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170510
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170415
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/00332747.2016.1199185


  3 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28270464
[Au] Autor:Coffey CA; Brodsky SL; Sams DM
[Ad] Endereço:Mr. Coffey is a Student and Dr. Brodsky is Professor Emeritus and Scholar in Residence, Department of Psychology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, Mr. Sams is an attorney with the Community Tax Law Project in Richmond, VA. cacoffey1@crimson.ua.edu.
[Ti] Título:I'll See You in Court…Again: Psychopathology and Hyperlitigious Litigants.
[So] Source:J Am Acad Psychiatry Law;45(1):62-71, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1943-3662
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Persistent litigation is a problem in many legal jurisdictions and is costly at individual and systemic levels. This phenomenon is referred to as "querulous" behavior in psychiatric literature, whereas legal discourse refers to it as "vexatious litigation." We refer to this phenomenon as "hyperlitigious behavior" and those who engage in these actions as "hyperlitigious litigants." Hyperlitigious litigants and hyperlitigious behavior were once the focus of a considerable amount of psychiatric literature, but research devoted to these topics has declined over the past half century. A review of the published literature on hyperlitigious behavior in European and English-speaking countries highlights geographic differences in the conceptualization and management of this behavior. We provide an alternative framework to consider the motivation to engage in hyperlitigious behavior and suggest three strategies for mental health professionals who interact with these individuals. Finally, we call for a revival of discussions and research within the English-speaking psychiatric community to facilitate more informed decisions regarding the management and treatment of hyperlitigious behavior.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Delusões/psicologia
Jurisprudência
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia
Transtornos do Comportamento Social/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Vítimas de Crime/legislação & jurisprudência
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
Delusões/diagnóstico
Transtornos Paranoides/diagnóstico
Psicopatologia
Transtornos do Comportamento Social/diagnóstico
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170309
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28253093
[Au] Autor:Alganami F; Varese F; Wagstaff GF; Bentall RP
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Psychological Sciences , Liverpool University , Liverpool , UK.
[Ti] Título:Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.
[So] Source:Cogn Neuropsychiatry;22(2):159-174, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1464-0619
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. METHOD: In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). RESULTS: Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. CONCLUSION: Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sinais (Psicologia)
Alucinações/fisiopatologia
Transtornos Paranoides/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Psicometria
Estudantes/psicologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/13546805.2017.1294056


  5 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28253090
[Au] Autor:Buck B; Hester N; Penn DL; Gray K
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Psychology and Neuroscience , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , NC , USA.
[Ti] Título:Differential patterns in mind perception in subclinical paranoia: relationships to self-reported empathy.
[So] Source:Cogn Neuropsychiatry;22(2):137-144, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1464-0619
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Although social cognition skills and biases are well-studied in paranoia, "mind perception" - perceiving the extent to which someone even possesses a thinking, feeling mind - is not. We sought to better characterise the profile of mind perception for individuals with paranoia. METHODS: We examined links between mind perception and paranoia in a large (n = 890) subclinical sample. Participants completed measures of paranoia, schizotypy, mind perception, and dispositional empathy. These assessments were examined for their relationships to one another, as well as the possibility that mind perception partially mediates the relationship between paranoia and empathy. RESULTS: Analyses revealed that increased paranoia was linked to less mind perception towards people. This distorted mind perception partially explained the link between paranoia and both perspective taking and empathic concern. CONCLUSIONS: In paranoia - and psychopathology more broadly - understanding and addressing distorted mind perception may be one component of restoring social functioning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Empatia
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia
Comportamento Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Psicometria
Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
Autorrelato
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/13546805.2017.1287692


  6 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28218047
[Au] Autor:Anand S
[Ad] Endereço:Northern Virginia Mental Health Institute, Falls Church, VA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Movies in mind: Pawn Sacrifice-appreciating the anatomy of oddness.
[So] Source:Aust N Z J Psychiatry;51(3):299-300, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1440-1614
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicina nas Artes
Filmes Cinematográficos
Transtornos Paranoides
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0004867417691148


  7 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28103519
[Au] Autor:Appiah-Kusi E; Fisher HL; Petros N; Wilson R; Mondelli V; Garety PA; Mcguire P; Bhattacharyya S
[Ad] Endereço:King's College London, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN), Box PO 67, 16 De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK. Electronic address: elizabeth.appiah-kusi@kcl.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Do cognitive schema mediate the association between childhood trauma and being at ultra-high risk for psychosis?
[So] Source:J Psychiatr Res;88:89-96, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1379
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Exposure to childhood trauma has been associated with psychotic symptoms, being at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Negative self-beliefs have been shown to partially mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and paranoia and have been shown to be characteristic of patients with psychosis. However, whether the association between childhood trauma and being at high risk of developing psychosis (e.g., UHR) and paranoia symptoms is mediated by altered cognitive schema is unknown and warrants investigation to inform preventive interventions. Data was collected on 30 UHR patients from Outreach and Support in South London about exposure to childhood trauma, cognitive schema, paranoia and cannabis use. Relative to healthy controls (n = 38), UHR patients were significantly more likely to report exposure to various types of childhood trauma (emotional and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect), had more negative schema and less positive schema about themselves and others, and were more likely to use cannabis more than once a month. Emotional neglect was found to be significantly associated with UHR status even after controlling for the effects of previous exposure to cannabis use (b = 0.262, 95% CI: 0.115-0.408), and this association was partially mediated by negative self-schema (b = 0.045, 95% CI: 0.004-0.159). Similarly, emotional neglect was significantly associated with paranoia (b = 1.354, 95% CI: 0.246-2.462), and this association was partially mediated by negative self-schema (b = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.323-1.895). These findings provide preliminary evidence about the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the association between childhood trauma and later risk for psychosis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adultos Sobreviventes de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia
Cognição/fisiologia
Transtornos Paranoides/etiologia
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia
Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Abuso de Maconha/psicologia
Transtornos Paranoides/reabilitação
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170120
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28092774
[Au] Autor:Lamster F; Lincoln TM; Nittel CM; Rief W; Mehl S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Psychology, Philipps University Marburg, Gutenbergstr. 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany; University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, Center for Acute Psychiatric Disorders, Lenggstr. 31, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:The lonely road to paranoia. A path-analytic investigation of loneliness and paranoia.
[So] Source:Compr Psychiatry;74:35-43, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1532-8384
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Loneliness and paranoia are related, but the mechanisms that link them to each other remain unclear. Systematic reviews on loneliness propose a social-cognitive model in which loneliness leads to negative evaluations of other persons and a lack of interpersonal trust. However, the data discussed in these reviews are based on healthy individuals. Building on this model, the present study investigated 1) whether negative interpersonal schemata mediate the association between loneliness and paranoia and 2) whether a low level of perceived social support and less frequent social contact are related to loneliness. Using a cross-sectional design, sixty-five participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited online and completed questionnaire-based measures of loneliness, paranoia, negative interpersonal schemata, perceived social support and frequency of social contact. Data were analyzed taking a path-analytic approach. The association between loneliness and paranoia was significantly and fully mediated by negative schemata of others. Moreover, a low level of perceived social support was significantly associated with loneliness, whereas self-reported frequency of social contact was not. The present results highlight the potential role of interpersonal negative schemata in the formation and maintenance of paranoia and elucidate the crucial role of loneliness in the way individuals construe themselves within a social environment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Solidão/psicologia
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia
Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Relações Interpessoais
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Percepção
Autorrelato
Comportamento Social
Apoio Social
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170814
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170814
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170117
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28003468
[Au] Autor:Kendler KS
[Ad] Endereço:Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
[Ti] Título:The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5.
[So] Source:Schizophr Bull;43(2):332-343, 2017 03 01.
[Is] ISSN:1745-1701
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
Transtornos Paranoides/diagnóstico
Esquizofrenia Paranoide/diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Transtornos Paranoides/história
Transtornos Paranoides/fisiopatologia
Esquizofrenia Paranoide/história
Esquizofrenia Paranoide/fisiopatologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161223
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbw161


  10 / 3369 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27569740
[Au] Autor:McKie A; Askew K; Dudley R
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; The Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
[Ti] Título:An experimental investigation into the role of ruminative and mindful self-focus in non-clinical paranoia.
[So] Source:J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry;54:170-177, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7943
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Ruminative self-focus is a maladaptive form of emotional processing and is linked to distress, whereas mindful self-focus is adaptive and linked to low distress. However, the effects of these different modes of self-focus have not yet been examined in symptoms associated with psychotic disorders, such as paranoid ideation. This study aimed to explore whether inducing ruminative self-focus maintains paranoid ideation whilst inducing mindful self-focus reduces paranoid ideation. METHOD: Thirty-two non-clinical participants engaged in a paranoia induction prime and then took part in an eight-minute ruminative self-focus induction and an eight-minute mindful self-focus induction. RESULTS: Following an induction of paranoia, mindful self-focus significantly decreased levels of paranoia, whereas ruminative self-focus had no significant impact on levels of paranoia, and therefore was interpreted as having maintained paranoia. LIMITATIONS: The study used non clinical participants and the level of paranoid ideation experienced was fairly mild, which limits generalisation to clinical levels of distress. Additionally, the mechanism by which rumination and mindful self-focus have their effects was not examined. CONCLUSIONS: The results add to the growing body of evidence that there are two distinct modes of self-focus that have differential effects on emotional processing. These findings also demonstrate the potential benefit of interventions targeting rumination in paranoid ideation with mindful self-focus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Afeto/fisiologia
Atenção/fisiologia
Conscientização/fisiologia
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia
Autoimagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Escala Visual Analógica
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160830
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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