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Pesquisa : F04.096.628.255 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29016631
[Au] Autor:Kwon S; Solomon GEA; Youtie J; Porter AL
[Ad] Endereço:School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A measure of knowledge flow between specific fields: Implications of interdisciplinarity for impact and funding.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185583, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Encouraging knowledge flow between mutually relevant disciplines is a worthy aim of research policy makers. Yet, it is less clear what types of research promote cross-disciplinary knowledge flow and whether such research generates particularly influential knowledge. Empirical questions remain as to how to identify knowledge-flow mediating research and how to provide support for this research. This study contributes to addressing these gaps by proposing a new way to identify knowledge-flow mediating research at the individual research article level, instead of at more aggregated levels. We identify journal articles that link two mutually relevant disciplines in three ways-aggregating, bridging, and diffusing. We then examine the likelihood that these papers receive subsequent citations or have funding acknowledgments. Our case study of cognitive science and educational research knowledge flow suggests that articles that aggregate knowledge from multiple disciplines are cited significantly more often than are those whose references are drawn primarily from a single discipline. Interestingly, the articles that meet the criteria for being considered knowledge-flow mediators are less likely to reflect funding, based on reported acknowledgements, than were those that did not meet these criteria. Based on these findings, we draw implications for research policymakers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estudos Interdisciplinares
Conhecimento
Aprendizagem
Pesquisa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ciência Cognitiva/tendências
Apoio Financeiro
Seres Humanos
Fator de Impacto de Revistas
Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185583


  2 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28938712
[Au] Autor:Greenland S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
[Ti] Título:Invited Commentary: The Need for Cognitive Science in Methodology.
[So] Source:Am J Epidemiol;186(6):639-645, 2017 09 15.
[Is] ISSN:1476-6256
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:There is no complete solution for the problem of abuse of statistics, but methodological training needs to cover cognitive biases and other psychosocial factors affecting inferences. The present paper discusses 3 common cognitive distortions: 1) dichotomania, the compulsion to perceive quantities as dichotomous even when dichotomization is unnecessary and misleading, as in inferences based on whether a P value is "statistically significant"; 2) nullism, the tendency to privilege the hypothesis of no difference or no effect when there is no scientific basis for doing so, as when testing only the null hypothesis; and 3) statistical reification, treating hypothetical data distributions and statistical models as if they reflect known physical laws rather than speculative assumptions for thought experiments. As commonly misused, null-hypothesis significance testing combines these cognitive problems to produce highly distorted interpretation and reporting of study results. Interval estimation has so far proven to be an inadequate solution because it involves dichotomization, an avenue for nullism. Sensitivity and bias analyses have been proposed to address reproducibility problems (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(6):646-647); these methods can indeed address reification, but they can also introduce new distortions via misleading specifications for bias parameters. P values can be reframed to lessen distortions by presenting them without reference to a cutoff, providing them for relevant alternatives to the null, and recognizing their dependence on all assumptions used in their computation; they nonetheless require rescaling for measuring evidence. I conclude that methodological development and training should go beyond coverage of mechanistic biases (e.g., confounding, selection bias, measurement error) to cover distortions of conclusions produced by statistical methods and psychosocial forces.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Estatísticos
Viés de Seleção
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ciência Cognitiva
Seres Humanos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Projetos de Pesquisa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170924
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/aje/kwx259


  3 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28284440
[Au] Autor:Edmond G; Towler A; Growns B; Ribeiro G; Found B; White D; Ballantyne K; Searston RA; Thompson MB; Tangen JM; Kemp RI; Martire K
[Ad] Endereço:School of Law, UNSW, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: g.edmond@unsw.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.
[So] Source:Sci Justice;57(2):144-154, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1355-0306
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ciência Cognitiva
Ciências Forenses
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Prova Pericial
Retroalimentação
Seres Humanos
Memória
Competência Profissional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170622
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170622
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170313
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28250407
[Au] Autor:Shen Z; Sun J; Liu B; Jiang Y; Wu Y; Wang J; Shao X; Fang J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research, The 3rd Clinical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland).
[Ti] Título:Mechanical Stimulus-Induced Wthdrawal Behavior Increases Subsequent Pre-Stimulus Local Field Potential Power in the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Unanesthetized Rats.
[So] Source:Med Sci Monit;23:1099-1105, 2017 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1643-3750
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is important in pain expectation. Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical stimulus-induced withdrawal behaviors are spinally-mediated nocifensive reflexes in rats, but it is not known whether pain expectation is influenced by withdrawal behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reanalyzed previous mechanosensitivity measurements of 244 rats measured 5 times in succession. To study neural oscillation in the rACC, 1 recording microwire array was surgically implanted. Then, we simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) of the rACC over the course of multiple withdrawal behaviors in unanesthetized rats. RESULTS From our previous withdrawal behavioral data in 244 rats, we observed that the distributions of paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were denser and more concentrated after the first withdrawal behavior. Compared to the first mechanical stimulus, increased neuronal synchrony and a stronger delta band component existed in each pre-stimulus LFP in the rACC during subsequent stimuli. CONCLUSIONS Pain expectation could be involved in withdrawal behaviors, which is related to increased total power and delta band power of the subsequent pre-stimulus LFPs in the rACC.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia
Sistema Nervoso Central
Ciência Cognitiva/métodos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico
Masculino
Dor/metabolismo
Percepção da Dor/fisiologia
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170522
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170522
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28071974
[Au] Autor:Martínez-Pernía D; González-Castán Ó; Huepe D
[Ad] Endereço:a Center for Social and Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez , Santiago , Chile.
[Ti] Título:From ancient Greece to the cognitive revolution: A comprehensive view of physical rehabilitation sciences.
[So] Source:Physiother Theory Pract;33(2):89-102, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1532-5040
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The development of rehabilitation has traditionally focused on measurements of motor disorders and measurements of the improvements produced during the therapeutic process; however, physical rehabilitation sciences have not focused on understanding the philosophical and scientific principles in clinical intervention and how they are interrelated. The main aim of this paper is to explain the foundation stones of the disciplines of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech/language therapy in recovery from motor disorder. To reach our goals, the mechanistic view and how it is integrated into physical rehabilitation will first be explained. Next, a classification into mechanistic therapy based on an old version (automaton model) and a technological version (cyborg model) will be shown. Then, it will be shown how physical rehabilitation sciences found a new perspective in motor recovery, which is based on functionalism, during the cognitive revolution in the 1960s. Through this cognitive theory, physical rehabilitation incorporated into motor recovery of those therapeutic strategies that solicit the activation of the brain and/or symbolic processing; aspects that were not taken into account in mechanistic therapy. In addition, a classification into functionalist rehabilitation based on a computational therapy and a brain therapy will be shown. At the end of the article, the methodological principles in physical rehabilitation sciences will be explained. It will allow us to go deeper into the differences and similarities between therapeutic mechanism and therapeutic functionalism.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/história
Ciência Cognitiva/história
Terapia da Linguagem/história
Terapia Ocupacional/história
Filosofia/história
Modalidades de Fisioterapia/história
Reabilitação/história
Fonoterapia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/psicologia
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/reabilitação
Cognição
História do Século XVI
História do Século XVII
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
Atividade Motora
Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170717
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170717
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170111
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09593985.2016.1266720


  6 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28000986
[Au] Autor:Brogaard B; Gatzia DE
[Ad] Endereço:Brogaard Lab for Multisensory Research, University of Miami.
[Ti] Título:Cortical Color and the Cognitive Sciences.
[So] Source:Top Cogn Sci;9(1):135-150, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1756-8765
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Back when researchers thought about the various forms that color vision could take, the focus was primarily on the retinal mechanisms. Since that time, research on human color vision has shifted from an interest in retinal mechanisms to cortical color processing. This has allowed color research to provide insight into questions that are not limited to early vision but extend to cognition. Direct cortical connections from higher-level areas to lower-level areas have been found throughout the brain. One of the classic questions in cognitive science is whether perception is influenced, and if so to what extent, by cognition and whether a clear distinction can be drawn between perception and cognition. Since perception is seen as providing justification for our beliefs about properties in the external world, these questions also have metaphysical and epistemological significance. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the areas where research on color perception can shed new light on questions in the cognitive sciences. A further aim of the paper is to raise some questions about color research that are in dire need of further reflection and investigation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/fisiologia
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cognição
Ciência Cognitiva
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tops.12241


  7 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27890158
[Au] Autor:Douglas HE; Raban MZ; Walter SR; Westbrook JI
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University Singapore Campus, #06-04 Kings Centre, 390 Havelock Road 169662, Singapore. Electronic address: H.Douglas@murdoch.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Improving our understanding of multi-tasking in healthcare: Drawing together the cognitive psychology and healthcare literature.
[So] Source:Appl Ergon;59(Pt A):45-55, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9126
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Multi-tasking is an important skill for clinical work which has received limited research attention. Its impacts on clinical work are poorly understood. In contrast, there is substantial multi-tasking research in cognitive psychology, driver distraction, and human-computer interaction. This review synthesises evidence of the extent and impacts of multi-tasking on efficiency and task performance from health and non-healthcare literature, to compare and contrast approaches, identify implications for clinical work, and to develop an evidence-informed framework for guiding the measurement of multi-tasking in future healthcare studies. The results showed healthcare studies using direct observation have focused on descriptive studies to quantify concurrent multi-tasking and its frequency in different contexts, with limited study of impact. In comparison, non-healthcare studies have applied predominantly experimental and simulation designs, focusing on interleaved and concurrent multi-tasking, and testing theories of the mechanisms by which multi-tasking impacts task efficiency and performance. We propose a framework to guide the measurement of multi-tasking in clinical settings that draws together lessons from these siloed research efforts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle
Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atenção
Conscientização
Ciência Cognitiva
Assistência à Saúde
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170217
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170217
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161129
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27797147
[Au] Autor:Matey J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Philosophy, Southern Methodist University.
[Ti] Título:Phenomenal Intentionality and Color Experience.
[So] Source:Top Cogn Sci;9(1):241-254, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1756-8765
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Phenomenal intentionality is a view about the representational content of conscious experiences that grounds the content of experiences in their phenomenal character. The view is motivated by evidence from introspection, as well as theoretical considerations and intuitions. This paper discusses one potential problem with the view. The view has difficulty accounting for the intentionality of color experiences. Versions of the view either fail to count things as part of the content of color experience that should be counted, resulting in verdicts that some color experiences are inaccurate which should not be, or they admit properties as part of their contents that ought not to be admitted, resulting in color experiences being considered to be accurate when they ought not to be considered so. This is a problem because color predicates are usefully employed in sciences such as biology, cognitive science, and engineering. They are used in generalizations that take the form of laws governing the presence and behavior of properties. Scientific practice relies on the assumption that the laws governing how entities behave employ terms that refer to actual properties that entities really have. We should therefore assume that there is some consistent set of properties to which our color terms refer.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estado de Consciência/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ciência Cognitiva
Percepção de Cores
Seres Humanos
Modelos Psicológicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161101
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tops.12223


  9 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27665436
[Au] Autor:Werner K
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Philosophy, Cognitive Science Department, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Grodzka 52, 31-044, Kraków, Poland. konrad.t.werner@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Metaphilosophy of Mind: how Do Minds Investigate Minds? Refutation of the Theocentric View.
[So] Source:Integr Psychol Behav Sci;51(1):120-140, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1936-3567
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of mind and the boundary questions of mind. I shall then combine these distinctions to arrive at several ways of investigating the mind, the brain and cognition. On this ground, I will discuss the notion of epistemological theocentrism as outlined by Henry Allison and argue against the perspective I call theocentric philosophy of mind. From this angle I will be able to address skepticism which cannot be defeated but actually can be, as I put it, disarmed. Finally, metaphilosophy of mind based on the abovementioned distinctions elicits a perspective that is not sufficiently delineated by cognitive scientists and philosophers: empirical way of addressing the boundary questions of mind.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ciência Cognitiva
Metacognição
Filosofia
Teoria da Mente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160926
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12124-016-9362-6


  10 / 903 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27344380
[Au] Autor:Naikar N
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Cognitive Work and Safety Analysis, Joint and Operations Analysis Division, Defence Science and Technology Group, 506 Lorimer St, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207, Australia. Electronic address: neelam.naikar@dsto.defence.gov.au.
[Ti] Título:Cognitive work analysis: An influential legacy extending beyond human factors and engineering.
[So] Source:Appl Ergon;59(Pt B):528-540, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9126
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Jens Rasmussen's multifaceted legacy includes cognitive work analysis (CWA), a framework for the analysis, design, and evaluation of complex sociotechnical systems. After considering the framework's origins, this paper reviews its progress, predictably covering experimental research on ecological interface design, case studies of the application of CWA to human factors and engineering problems in industry, and methods and modelling tools for CWA. Emphasis is placed, however, on studying the nexus between some of the recent results obtained with CWA and the original field studies of human problem-solving that motivated the framework's development. Of particular interest is a case study of the use of CWA for military doctrine development, a problem commonly regarded as lying outside the fields of human factors and engineering. It is concluded that the value of CWA, even for such diverse problems, is likely to result from its conceptual grounding in empirical observations of patterns of human reasoning in complex systems.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ciência Cognitiva/história
Ergonomia/história
Análise de Sistemas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cognição
Ciência Cognitiva/métodos
Ergonomia/métodos
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Seres Humanos
Medicina Militar/história
Medicina Militar/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160627
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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