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Pesquisa : F04.096.628.255.500 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:28832813
[Au] Autor:Ucedo DM; Santos KPD; Santana APO
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Federal de Santa de Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis (SC), Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Language in Frontotemporal Dementia: an analysis in light of Enunciative-Discursive Neurolinguistics.
[Ti] Título:A linguagem na Demência Frontotemporal: uma análise à luz da Neurolinguística Enunciativo-Discursiva..
[So] Source:Codas;29(4):e20160154, 2017 Aug 17.
[Is] ISSN:2317-1782
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:por; eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this case study was to perform a cross-sectional analysis of spontaneous speech of a patient with Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD). For this purpose, four speech and language therapy episodes, from 2012 to 2014, were selected, transcribed and analyzed in light of Enunciative-Discursive Neurolinguistics. The analysis showed, as the patient's FTD status progressed, that he used different semiotic strategies, e.g., use of repetition and gesture during speech production. It also highlighted the importance of the interlocutor's role of prompting the patient to express verbal meaning. Thus, it can be concluded that the recognition of the strategies used by the patient in favor of his role as a speaker, during interactions, is what enables and legitimates his role.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia
Linguagem
Fala/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Neurociência Cognitiva
Seres Humanos
Testes de Linguagem
Linguística
Masculino
Meia-Idade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170824
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 70 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28548461
[Au] Autor:Schibli K; Wong K; Hedayati N; D'Angiulli A
[Ad] Endereço:The Neuroscience of Imagination, Cognition and Emotion Research (NICER) Lab, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Attending, learning, and socioeconomic disadvantage: developmental cognitive and social neuroscience of resilience and vulnerability.
[So] Source:Ann N Y Acad Sci;1396(1):19-38, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1749-6632
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information. Attentional preferences influence the development of latent inhibition (LI), an aspect of learning that involves reassigning meaningful associations to previously learned but irrelevant stimuli. LI reflects learning processes clarifying the relationship between neurobiological mechanisms related to attention and socioeconomic disadvantage during child development. Notably, changes in both selective attention and typical LI development may occur via the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MsCL-DA) system. Chaotic environments, social isolation, and deprivation associated with low SES trigger stress responses implicating imbalances in the MsCL-DA and consolidating anxiety traits. BiDeT describes plausible interactions between socioemotional traits and low-SES environments that modify selective attention and LI, predisposing individuals to vulnerability in cognitive development and academic achievement. However, positive role models, parental style, and self-regulation training are proposed as potential promoters of resilience.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
Neurociência Cognitiva/tendências
Aprendizagem
Classe Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Pré-Escolar
Seres Humanos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Estresse Psicológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170802
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170802
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170527
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/nyas.13369


  3 / 70 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28361727
[Au] Autor:Krutzinna JI
[Ti] Título:Beyond an Open Future.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(2):313-325, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Discussions about the ethical permissibility of pediatric cognitive enhancement frequently revolve around arguments about welfare, and often include an appeal to the child's right to an open future. Both proponents and opponents of cognitive enhancement claim that their respective positions best serve the interests of the child by promoting an open future. This article argues that this right to an open future argument only captures some of the risks to the welfare of children, therefore requiring a broader ethical approach. Further, it suggests that a thorough moral assessment of the ends pursued is needed before concluding on the moral permissibility of cognitive enhancement in children, which ultimately hinges on the effect on the overall welfare of the child, beyond an open future.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Temas Bioéticos
Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Bem-Estar da Criança/ética
Cognição/ética
Previsões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Neurociência Cognitiva/ética
Seres Humanos
Princípios Morais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S096318011600089X


  4 / 70 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28324757
[Au] Autor:Cantwell G; Riesenhuber M; Roeder JL; Ashby FG
[Ad] Endereço:University of California, Santa Barbara, United States. Electronic address: gcant@umich.edu.
[Ti] Título:Perceptual category learning and visual processing: An exercise in computational cognitive neuroscience.
[So] Source:Neural Netw;89:31-38, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2782
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning. Using bitmap images as inputs and by adjusting only a couple of learning-rate parameters, the new HMAX/COVIS model provides impressively good fits to human category-learning data from two qualitatively different experiments that used different types of category structures and different types of visual stimuli. Overall, the model provides a comprehensive neural and behavioral account of basal ganglia-mediated learning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos
Simulação por Computador
Aprendizagem
Córtex Visual
Percepção Visual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Gânglios da Base/fisiologia
Neurociência Cognitiva/tendências
Simulação por Computador/tendências
Seres Humanos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
Distribuição Aleatória
Córtex Visual/fisiologia
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170523
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170523
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170322
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 70 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28253258
[Au] Autor:Szucs D; Ioannidis JP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(3):e2000797, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11-0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. This is so because sample sizes have remained small. Assuming similar true effect sizes in both disciplines, power was lower in cognitive neuroscience than in psychology. Journal impact factors negatively correlated with power. Assuming a realistic range of prior probabilities for null hypotheses, false report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings, the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic, and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurociência Cognitiva/estatística & dados numéricos
Pesquisa Empírica
Psicologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Probabilidade
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2000797


  6 / 70 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28238943
[Au] Autor:Salzer Y; de Hollander G; Forstmann BU
[Ad] Endereço:Integrative Model-Based Cognitive Neuroscience Research Unit, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: salzerit@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Sensory neural pathways revisited to unravel the temporal dynamics of the Simon effect: A model-based cognitive neuroscience approach.
[So] Source:Neurosci Biobehav Rev;77:48-57, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7528
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Simon task is one of the most prominent interference tasks and has been extensively studied in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Despite years of research, the underlying mechanism driving the phenomenon and its temporal dynamics are still disputed. Within the framework of the review, we adopt a model-based cognitive neuroscience approach. We first go over key findings in the literature of the Simon task, discuss competing qualitative cognitive theories and the difficulty of testing them empirically. We then introduce sequential sampling models, a particular class of mathematical cognitive process models. Finally, we argue that the brain architecture accountable for the processing of spatial ('where') and non-spatial ('what') information, could constrain these models. We conclude that there is a clear need to bridge neural and behavioral measures, and that mathematical cognitive models may facilitate the construction of this bridge and work towards revealing the underlying mechanisms of the Simon effect.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurociência Cognitiva
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Encéfalo
Seres Humanos
Vias Neurais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171026
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171026
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170228
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28199022
[Au] Autor:Snyder JS; Elhilali M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada.
[Ti] Título:Recent advances in exploring the neural underpinnings of auditory scene perception.
[So] Source:Ann N Y Acad Sci;1396(1):39-55, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1749-6632
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds-and conventional behavioral techniques-to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays. The current review focuses on neural and computational studies of auditory scene perception published in the last few years. Following the progress that has been made in these studies, we describe (1) theoretical advances in our understanding of the most well-studied aspects of auditory scene perception, namely segregation of sequential patterns of sounds and concurrently presented sounds; (2) the diversification of topics and paradigms that have been investigated; and (3) how new neuroscience techniques (including invasive neurophysiology in awake humans, genotyping, and brain stimulation) have been used in this field.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vias Auditivas/fisiologia
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia
Neurociência Cognitiva/tendências
Biologia Computacional/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica/métodos
Atenção/fisiologia
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia
Mapeamento Encefálico
Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Som
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170802
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170802
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/nyas.13317


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[PMID]:28146677
[Au] Autor:Hancock PA; Baldwin CL; Warm JS; Szalma JL
[Ad] Endereço:University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida.
[Ti] Título:Between Two Worlds.
[So] Source:Hum Factors;59(1):28-34, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1547-8181
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To provide an evaluative overview of the life and contributions of Raja Parasuraman. BACKGROUND: From his earliest contributions in clarifying and explaining the problematic area of vigilance to his most recent interdisciplinary advances in understanding how genotype relates to behavior in complex technical environments, Raja Parasuraman was a giant of human factors and ergonomics. Our present exposition articulates and recounts his many contributions to our science and to science in general beyond the confines of our own discipline. METHOD: We use the history of scientific contributions, biographical analysis, and reported personal experience to accomplish our overall assessment of the man and his work. RESULTS: We conclude that Parasuraman's contributions were unique, substantive, and seminal, and will continue to influence our science for many years to come. APPLICATION: This work will serve as a record for those to come who look to make significant contributions to the goals, aims, and aspirations that we set ourselves in human factors and ergonomics in seeking to improve the human condition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurociência Cognitiva/história
Ergonomia/história
Sistemas Homem-Máquina
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Parasuraman R
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; S
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0018720816688604


  9 / 70 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28146476
[Au] Autor:Young NP; Deisseroth K
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
[Ti] Título:Cognitive neuroscience: In search of lost time.
[So] Source:Nature;542(7640):173-174, 2017 02 09.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurociência Cognitiva
Neurociências
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cognição
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170516
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170516
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature21497


  10 / 70 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28114925
[Au] Autor:Klimas J; McNeil R; Ahamad K; Mead A; Rieb L; Cullen W; Wood E; Small W
[Ad] Endereço:British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Two birds with one stone: experiences of combining clinical and research training in addiction medicine.
[So] Source:BMC Med Educ;17(1):22, 2017 Jan 23.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6920
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Despite a large evidence-base upon which to base clinical practice, most health systems have not combined the training of healthcare providers in addiction medicine and research. As such, addiction care is often lacking, or not based on evidence or best practices. We undertook a qualitative study to assess the experiences of physicians who completed a clinician-scientist training programme in addiction medicine within a hospital setting. METHODS: We interviewed physicians from the St. Paul's Hospital Goldcorp Addiction Medicine Fellowship and learners from the hospital's academic Addiction Medicine Consult Team in Vancouver, Canada (N = 26). They included psychiatrists, internal medicine and family medicine physicians, faculty, mentors, medical students and residents. All received both addiction medicine and research training. Drawing on Kirkpatrick's model of evaluating training programmes, we analysed the interviews thematically using qualitative data analysis software (Nvivo 10). RESULTS: We identified five themes relating to learning experience that were influential: (i) attitude, (ii) knowledge, (iii) skill, (iv) behaviour and (v) patient outcome. The presence of a supportive learning environment, flexibility in time lines, highly structured rotations, and clear guidance regarding development of research products facilitated clinician-scientist training. Competing priorities, including clinical and family responsibilities, hindered training. CONCLUSIONS: Combined training in addiction medicine and research is feasible and acceptable for current doctors and physicians in training. However, there are important barriers to overcome and improved understanding of the experience of addiction physicians in the clinician-scientist track is required to improve curricula and research productivity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Aditivo/terapia
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação
Neurociência Cognitiva/educação
Educação Médica
Pesquisadores/educação
Estudantes de Medicina
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Canadá
Competência Clínica/normas
Currículo
Educação Médica/organização & administração
Avaliação Educacional
Bolsas de Estudo/organização & administração
Bolsas de Estudo/normas
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Mentores
Papel do Médico
Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Especialização
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170321
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170321
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12909-017-0862-y



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