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[PMID]:29380888
[Au] Autor:Génin F; Masters JC
[Ad] Endereço:African Primate Initiative for Ecology and Speciation (APIES), Earth Stewardship Science Research Institute, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Sharing the burden: A neutral approach to socioecological theory.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:90-103, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The socioecological model (SEM) is a popular collection of controversial models purporting to explain mating systems in terms of ecological and social parameters. Despite its guise of objectivity, several of its hypotheses assume Victorian gender stereotypes of active, competing males heedlessly sowing their seeds, and cautious, passive females, imprisoned by greater costs of reproduction and their consequent resourceߚdependence. METHODS: We enter this debate by taking a previously neglected explanatory approach borrowed from species theory. According to the Recognition Concept of sexual species, the unit of reproductive success/fitness is irreducible to fewer than two integrated subparts (minimally a male and a female). Phyletic changes in mating systems logically effect changes in fertilization systems, leading to reproductive isolation. We take our primary assumption of the average equivalence of female and male contributions to successful reproduction from the writings of the natural philosopher, Antoinette Blackwell. RESULTS: We revisit the SEM with its contradictions and extrapolations, and develop a genderߚneutral alternative hypothesis termed SpecificߚMate Contact (SMC), centered on two fundamental mating strategies: sexual animals may behave as synchronous mateߚattractors or asynchronous mateߚseekers, generating four possible mating system combinations (monogamy: two attractors; promiscuity: two seekers; polygyny: male attractor and female seeker; polyandry: female attractor and male seeker). CONCLUSIONS: Our approach predicts all known primate mating systems using a neutral (nonߚsexist) principle. The approach is also neutral in the sense that it does not invoke either competition or cooperation: fertilization success is considered a posteriori and males and females are coߚadapted to this end rather than cognitively cooperative.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia
Primatas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Evolução Biológica
Ecologia
Feminino
Aptidão Genética
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Casamento
Modelos Teóricos
Sociologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23383


  2 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380882
[Au] Autor:Turner TR; Bernstein RM; Taylor AB; Asangba A; Bekelman T; Cramer JD; Elton S; Harvati K; Williams-Hatala EM; Kauffman L; Middleton E; Richtsmeier J; Szathmáry E; Torres-Rouff C; Thayer Z; Villaseñor A; Vogel E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
[Ti] Título:Participation, representation, and shared experiences of women scholars in biological anthropology.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:126-157, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) membership surveys from 1996 and 1998 revealed significant gender disparities in academic status. A 2014 follow-up survey showed that gender equality had improved, particularly with respect to the number of women in tenure-stream positions. However, although women comprised 70% of AAPA membership at that time, the percentage of women full professors remained low. Here, we continue to consider the status of women in biological anthropology by examining the representation of women through a quantitative analysis of their participation in annual meetings of the AAPA during the past 20 years. We also review the programmatic goals of the AAPA Committee on Diversity Women's Initiative (COD-WIN) and provide survey results of women who participated in COD-WIN professional development workshops. Finally, we examine the diversity of women's career paths through the personal narratives of 14 women biological anthropologists spanning all ranks from graduate student to Professor Emeritus. We find that over the past 20 years, the percentage of women first authors of invited symposia talks has increased, particularly in the sub-disciplines of bioarchaeology, genetics, and paleoanthropology. The percentage of women first authors on contributed talks and posters has also increased. However, these observed increases are still lower than expected given the percentage of graduate student women and women at the rank of assistant and associate professor. The personal narratives highlight first-hand the impact of mentoring on career trajectory, the challenges of achieving work-life satisfaction, and resilience in the face of the unexpected. We end with some suggestions for how to continue to improve equality and equity for women in biological anthropology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia
Docentes
Mulheres/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia/organização & administração
Antropologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Biologia/organização & administração
Biologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Escolha da Profissão
Docentes/psicologia
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Mães/psicologia
Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração
Sociedades Científicas/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23386


  3 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380885
[Au] Autor:Turner TR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
[Ti] Título:Preface 2018 Yearbook.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:3, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia
Biologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:INTRODUCTORY JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23389


  4 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380881
[Au] Autor:Antón SC; Malhi RS; Fuentes A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, New York University.
[Ti] Título:Race and diversity in U.S. Biological Anthropology: A decade of AAPA initiatives.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:158-180, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Biological Anthropology studies the variation and evolution of living humans, non-human primates, and extinct ancestors and for this reason the field should be in an ideal position to attract scientists from a variety of backgrounds who have different views and experiences. However, the origin and history of the discipline, anecdotal observations, self-reports, and recent surveys suggest the field has significant barriers to attracting scholars of color. For a variety of reasons, including quantitative research that demonstrates that diverse groups do better science, the discipline should strive to achieve a more diverse composition. Here we discuss the background and underpinnings of the current and historical dearth of diversity in Biological Anthropology in the U.S. specifically as it relates to representation of minority and underrepresented minority (URM) (or racialized minority) scholars. We trace this lack of diversity to underlying issues of recruitment and retention in the STEM sciences generally, to the history of Anthropology particularly around questions of race-science, and to the absence of Anthropology at many minority-serving institutions, especially HBCUs, a situation that forestalls pathways to the discipline for many minority students. The AAPA Committee on Diversity (COD) was conceived as a means of assessing and improving diversity within the discipline, and we detail the history of the COD since its inception in 2006. Prior to the COD there were no systematic AAPA efforts to consider ethnoracial diversity in our ranks and no programming around questions of diversity and inclusion. Departmental survey data collected by the COD indicate that undergraduate majors in Biological Anthropology are remarkably diverse, but that the discipline loses these scholars between undergraduate and graduate school and systematically up rank. Our analysis of recent membership demographic survey data (2014 and 2017) shows Biological Anthropology to have less ethnoracial diversity than even the affiliated STEM disciplines of Biology and Anatomy; nearly 87% of AAPA members in the United States identify as white and just 7% as URM scholars. These data also suggest that the intersection of race and gender significantly influence scholarly representation. In response to these data, we describe a substantial body of programs that have been developed by the COD to improve diversity in our ranks. Through these programs we identify principal concerns that contribute to the loss of scholars of color from the discipline at different stages in their careers, propose other directions that programming for recruitment should take, and discuss the beginnings of how to develop a more inclusive discipline at all career stages.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia/organização & administração
Biologia/organização & administração
Biologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Diversidade Cultural
Seres Humanos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23382


  5 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29351319
[Au] Autor:Cataldo DM; Migliano AB; Vinicius L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Speech, stone tool-making and the evolution of language.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191071, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction. The results provide evidence that gesture was likely to be selected over speech as a teaching aid in the earliest hominin tool-makers; that speech could not have replaced gesturing as a tool-making teaching aid in later hominins, possibly explaining the functional retention of gesturing in the full language of modern humans; and that speech may have evolved for reasons unrelated to tool-making. We conclude that speech is unlikely to have evolved as tool-making teaching aid superior to gesture, as claimed by the technological hypothesis, and therefore alternative views should be considered. For example, gestural language may have evolved to enable tool-making in earlier hominins, while speech may have later emerged as a response to increased trade and more complex inter- and intra-group interactions in Middle Pleistocene ancestors of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens; or gesture and speech may have evolved in parallel rather than in sequence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia
Linguagem
Fala
Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Homem de Neandertal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191071


  6 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29265666
[Au] Autor:Hoffecker JF; Hoffecker IT
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309-0450.
[Ti] Título:Technological complexity and the global dispersal of modern humans.
[So] Source:Evol Anthropol;26(6):285-299, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6505
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) dispersed out of Africa roughly 120,000 years ago and again after 75,000 years ago. The early dispersal was geographically restricted to the Arabian Peninsula, Levant, and possibly parts of southern Asia. The later dispersal was ultimately global in scope, including areas not previously occupied by Homo. One explanation for the contrast between the two out-of-Africa dispersals is that the modern humans who expanded into Eurasia 120,000 years ago lacked the functionally and structurally complex technology of recent hunter-gatherers. This technology, which includes, for example, mechanical projectiles, snares and traps, and sewn clothing, provides not only expanded dietary breadth and increased rates of foraging efficiency and success in places where plant and animal productivity is low, but protection from cold weather in places where winter temperatures are low. The absence of complex technology before 75,000 years ago also may explain why modern humans in the Levant did not develop sedentary settlements and agriculture 120,000 years ago (i.e., during the Last Interglacial).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vestuário/história
Migração Humana/história
Tecnologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Agricultura/história
Antropologia
Ásia
Australásia
Cavernas
Evolução Cultural/história
Dieta Paleolítica
Europa (Continente)
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/evan.21553


  7 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29265661
[Au] Autor:O'Brien MJ; Buchanan B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Texas A&M University-San Antonio.
[Ti] Título:Cultural learning and the Clovis colonization of North America.
[So] Source:Evol Anthropol;26(6):270-284, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6505
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The timing of the earliest colonization of North America is debatable, but what is not at issue is the point of origin of the early colonists: Humans entered the continent from Beringia and then made their way south along or near the Pacific Coast and/or through a corridor that ran between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets in western North America. At some point, they abandoned their Arctic-based tool complex for one more adapted to an entirely different environment. That new techno-complex is termed "Clovis"; its dispersal allows us to examine, at a fine scale, how colonization processes played out across a vast continent that at the time had, at best, a very small resident population. Clovis has figured prominently in American archeology since the first Clovis points were identified in eastern New Mexico in the 1930s. However, the successful marriage of learning models grounded in evolutionary theory and modern analytical methods that began roughly a decade ago has begun to pay significant dividends in terms of what we know about the rapid spread of human groups across the last sizable landmass to witness human occupation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Cultural/história
Migração Humana
Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia
Aprendizado Social
Tecnologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
América do Norte
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/evan.21550


  8 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28450590
[Au] Autor:Gibbons A
[Ad] Endereço:New Orleans, Louisiana.
[Ti] Título:In surprise, tooth decay afflicts hunter-gatherers.
[So] Source:Science;356(6336):362, 2017 Apr 28.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cárie Dentária/história
Dieta/efeitos adversos
Saúde Bucal/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia
Cárie Dentária/patologia
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/história
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/patologia
Feminino
Ficus/efeitos adversos
História Antiga
Mel/efeitos adversos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tanzânia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.356.6336.362


  9 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29027331
[Au] Autor:Mohlenhoff KA; Codding BF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Utah.
[Ti] Título:When does it pay to invest in a patch? The evolution of intentional niche construction.
[So] Source:Evol Anthropol;26(5):218-227, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6505
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Humans modify their environments in ways that significantly transform the earth's ecosystems. Recent research suggests that such niche-constructing behaviors are not passive human responses to environmental variation, but instead should be seen as active and intentional management of the environment. Although such research is useful in highlighting the interactive dynamics between humans and their natural world, the niche-construction framework, as currently applied, fails to explain why people would decide to modify their environments in the first place. To help resolve this problem, we use a model of technological intensification to analyze the cost-benefit trade-offs associated with niche construction as a form of patch investment. We use this model to assess the costs and benefits of three paradigmatic cases of intentional niche construction in Western North America: the application of fire in acorn groves, the manufacture of fishing weirs, and the adoption of maize agriculture. Intensification models predict that investing in patch modification (niche construction) only provides a net benefit when the amount of resources needed crosses a critical threshold that makes the initial investment worthwhile. From this, it follows that low-cost investments, such as burning in oak groves, should be quite common, while more costly investments, such as maize agriculture, should be less common and depend on the alternatives available in the local environment. We examine how patterns of mobility, risk management, territoriality, and private property also co-evolve with the costs and benefits of niche construction. This approach illustrates that explaining niche-constructing behavior requires understanding the economic trade-offs involved in patch investment. Integrating concepts from niche construction and technological intensification models within a behavioral ecological framework provides insights into the coevolution and active feedback between adaptive behaviors and environmental change across human history.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura
Antropologia
Evolução Biológica
Ecossistema
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pesqueiros
Seres Humanos
Zea mays
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171014
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/evan.21534


  10 / 2276 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28859116
[Au] Autor:Alterauge A; Kellinghaus M; Jackowski C; Shved N; Rühli F; Maixner F; Zink A; Rosendahl W; Lösch S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physical Anthropology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:The Sommersdorf mummies-An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183588, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: DNA Antigo/análise
DNA Mitocondrial/análise
Fósseis
Múmias
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia
Arqueologia
DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Alemanha
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ancient); 0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183588



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