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[PMID]:28358088
[Au] Autor:Morais H; Namouni F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Statistics, Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Institute of Geosciences and Exact Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 13506-900 Rio Claro, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Planetary science: Reckless orbiting in the Solar System.
[So] Source:Nature;543(7647):635-636, 2017 03 29.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planetas
Sistema Solar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170620
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170620
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170331
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/543635a


  2 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28190871
[Au] Autor:Sakurai T
[Ad] Endereço:Professor Emeritus, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
[Ti] Título:Heating mechanisms of the solar corona.
[So] Source:Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci;93(2):87-97, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1349-2896
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The solar corona is a tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. Its million-degree temperature was discovered spectroscopically in the 1940s, but its origin has been debated since then without complete convergence. Currently there are two classes of models; the wave theory and the microflare/nanoflare theory. Both models have merits and disadvantages, but the essential issues are nearly pinned down. Recent revival of the wave theory is one of the many contributions from Japanese solar observing satellite Hinode launched in 2006.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Calefação
Sistema Solar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fenômenos Magnéticos
Modelos Teóricos
Temperatura Ambiente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170719
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170719
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2183/pjab.93.006


  3 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28150785
[Au] Autor:Lim X
[Ti] Título:How heat from the Sun can keep us all cool.
[So] Source:Nature;542(7639):23-24, 2017 01 31.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ar Condicionado/instrumentação
Ar Condicionado/métodos
Temperatura Baixa
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos
Temperatura Alta
Sistema Solar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ar Condicionado/economia
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia
Seres Humanos
Refrigeração/instrumentação
Refrigeração/métodos
Termodinâmica
Volatilização
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/542023a


  4 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28103108
[Au] Autor:Oreiro R; Solbes J
[Ad] Endereço:Science Education Department, Valencia University , Valencia, Spain .
[Ti] Título:Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues.
[So] Source:Astrobiology;17(1):91-99, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8070
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology. The results indicate that students have significant difficulties understanding the origin of life on Earth, despite exposure to the topic by way of the assigned textbooks. The students were often unaware of past or present achievements in the search for life within the Solar System and beyond, topics that are far less commonly seen in textbooks. Student questionnaire answers also indicated that students had problems in reasoning and critical thinking when asked for their opinions on issues such as the potential for life beyond Earth, the question of whether UFOs exist, or what our place is in the Universe. Astrobiology might help initiate student awareness as to current thinking on these matters and should be considered for general science education. Key Words: Astrobiology-Students' views-Science education. Astrobiology 17, 91-99.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exobiologia/educação
Conhecimento
Instituições Acadêmicas
Percepção Social
Estudantes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Comunicação
Seres Humanos
Origem da Vida
Sistema Solar
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/ast.2015.1445


  5 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28103107
[Au] Autor:Waltham D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London , Egham, UK .
[Ti] Título:Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability.
[So] Source:Astrobiology;17(1):61-77, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8070
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M < M < 1.04 M , and the range for planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M < M < 1.64 M . Key Words: Habitability-Habitable zone-Anthropic-Red dwarfs-Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61-77.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Terra (Planeta)
Exobiologia
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Astros Celestes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Probabilidade
Rotação
Sistema Solar
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/ast.2016.1518


  6 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27098776
[Au] Autor:Jones SD
[Ad] Endereço:Program in History of Science and Technology, University of Minnesota, 100 Ecology, EEB, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA. jone0996@umn.edu.
[Ti] Título:Population Cycles, Disease, and Networks of Ecological Knowledge.
[So] Source:J Hist Biol;50(2):357-391, 2017 05.
[Is] ISSN:1573-0387
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Wildlife populations in the northern reaches of the globe have long been observed to fluctuate or cycle periodically, with dramatic increases followed by catastrophic crashes. Focusing on the early work of Charles S. Elton, this article analyzes how investigations into population cycles shaped the development of Anglo-American animal ecology during the 1920s-1930s. Population cycling revealed patterns that challenged ideas about the "balance" of nature; stimulated efforts to quantify population data; and brought animal ecology into conversation with intellectual debates about natural selection. Elton used the problem of understanding wildlife population cycles to explore a central tension in ecological thought: the relative influences of local conditions (food supply, predation) and universal forces (such as climate change and natural selection) in regulating wild animal populations. He also sought patronage and built research practices and the influential Bureau of Animal Population around questions of population regulation during the 1930s. Focusing on disease as a local population regulator that could interact with global climatic influences, Elton facilitated an interdisciplinary and population-based approach in early animal ecology. Elton created a network of epidemiologists, conservationists, pathologists and mathematicians, who contributed to population cycle research. I argue that, although these people often remained peripheral to ecology, their ideas shaped the young discipline. Particularly important were the concepts of abundance, density, and disease; and the interactions between these factors and natural selection. However, Elton's reliance on density dependence unwittingly helped set up conditions conducive to the development of controversies in animal ecology in later years. While ecologists did not come to consensus on the ultimate causes of population cycles, this phenomenon was an important early catalyst for the development of theory and practice in animal ecology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Selvagens
Ecologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doenças dos Animais/história
Doenças dos Animais/fisiopatologia
Animais
Clima
História do Século XX
Modelos Biológicos
Dinâmica Populacional/história
Sistema Solar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160422
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10739-016-9441-z


  7 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27959273
[Au] Autor:van der Pol E; Mudde YD; Coumans FA; van Leeuwen TG; Sturk A; Nieuwland R
[Ad] Endereço:Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, PO Box 22660, 1100DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Laboratory Experimental Clinical Chemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, PO Box 22660, 1100DD Amsterdam, The N
[Ti] Título:Wound scabs protect regenerating tissue against harmful ultraviolet radiation.
[So] Source:Med Hypotheses;96:39-41, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2777
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Benefits attributed to wound scabs include prevention of blood loss and protection against infection. However, when formation of a wound scab is prevented, the risk of infection is reduced. Moreover, in the absence of a wound scab, wounds heal faster and scar formation is reduced. The question arises why we develop a wound scab. Here we show that wound scabs inhibit transmission of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We compared the UVR transmittance of human wound scabs to sunscreen by measuring the sun protection factor (SPF) with diffuse transmittance spectroscopy. Three wound scabs showed SPFs of 70, 84, and 300, which is more effective than the most protective commercially available sun block. Because our results demonstrate that a wound scab offers natural protection against UVR, and because no beneficial trait is attributed to wound scabs, we hypothesize that the main function of wound scabs is to limit DNA damage in underlying cells during regeneration of wound tissue exposed to sunlight, thereby reducing the risk of developing skin cancer.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Regeneração
Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
Pele/patologia
Pele/efeitos da radiação
Cicatrização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cicatriz
Dano ao DNA
Seres Humanos
Risco
Sistema Solar
Espectrofotometria
Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170803
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170803
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161214
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27629643
[Au] Autor:Burkhardt C; Borg LE; Brennecka GA; Shollenberger QR; Dauphas N; Kleine T
[Ad] Endereço:Origins Laboratory, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
[Ti] Título:A nucleosynthetic origin for the Earth's anomalous (142)Nd composition.
[So] Source:Nature;537(7620):394-8, 2016 09 15.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A long-standing paradigm assumes that the chemical and isotopic compositions of many elements in the bulk silicate Earth are the same as in chondrites. However, the accessible Earth has a greater (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratio than do chondrites. Because (142)Nd is the decay product of the now-extinct (146)Sm (which has a half-life of 103 million years), this (142)Nd difference seems to require a higher-than-chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the accessible Earth. This must have been acquired during global silicate differentiation within the first 30 million years of Solar System formation and implies the formation of a complementary (142)Nd-depleted reservoir that either is hidden in the deep Earth, or lost to space by impact erosion. Whether this complementary reservoir existed, and whether or not it has been lost from Earth, is a matter of debate, and has implications for determining the bulk composition of Earth, its heat content and structure, as well as for constraining the modes and timescales of its geodynamical evolution. Here we show that, compared with chondrites, Earth's precursor bodies were enriched in neodymium that was produced by the slow neutron capture process (s-process) of nucleosynthesis. This s-process excess leads to higher (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios; after correction for this effect, the (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios of chondrites and the accessible Earth are indistinguishable within five parts per million. The (142)Nd offset between the accessible silicate Earth and chondrites therefore reflects a higher proportion of s-process neodymium in the Earth, and not early differentiation processes. As such, our results obviate the need for hidden-reservoir or super-chondritic Earth models and imply a chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the bulk Earth. Although chondrites formed at greater heliocentric distances and contain a different mix of presolar components than Earth, they nevertheless are suitable proxies for Earth's bulk chemical composition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Terra (Planeta)
Evolução Planetária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Meia-Vida
Meteoroides
Sistema Solar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMMENT; LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature18956


  9 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27532050
[Au] Autor:Osinski GR; Ferrière L
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada.; Department of Earth Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?
[So] Source:Sci Adv;2(8):e1600616, 2016 08.
[Is] ISSN:2375-2548
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and "double" cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship D sc = 0.4 D a, where D sc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and D a is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Planetária
Meteoroides
Planetas
Sistema Solar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Terra (Planeta)
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Fenômenos Geológicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170731
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170731
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160818
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/sciadv.1600616


  10 / 855 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27527136
[Au] Autor:Syu YK; Tingare Y; Lin SY; Yeh CY; Wu JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan. hibaby403@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Porphyrin Dye-Sensitized Zinc Oxide Aggregated Anodes for Use in Solar Cells.
[So] Source:Molecules;21(8), 2016 Aug 05.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Porphyrin YD2-o-C8-based dyes were employed to sensitize room-temperature (RT) chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To reduce the acidity of the YD2-o-C8 dye solution, the proton in the carboxyl group of a porphyrin dye was replaced with tetrabuthyl ammonium (TBA⁺) in this work. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSCs is higher than that of the YD2-o-C8-sensitized cells, resulting in the improvement of the efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-based ZnO DSSCs. With an appropriate incorporation of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) as coadsorbate, the Jsc and efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC are enhanced due to the improvement of the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) values in the wavelength range of 400-450 nm. Moreover, a considerable increase in Jsc is achieved by the addition of a light scattering layer in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO photoanodes. Significant IPCE enhancement in the range 475-600 nm is not attainable by tuning the YD2-o-C8-TBA sensitization processes for the anodes without light scattering layers. Using the RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anode with a light scattering layer, an efficiency of 3.43% was achieved in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Porfirinas/química
Sistema Solar/química
Óxido de Zinco/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Corantes/química
Fontes de Energia Elétrica
Eletrodos
Estrutura Molecular
Energia Solar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Coloring Agents); 0 (Porphyrins); SOI2LOH54Z (Zinc Oxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170418
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170418
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160817
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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