Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : G01.060.075.730.700.625 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29326269
[Au] Autor:Dundas CM; Bramson AM; Ojha L; Wray JJ; Mellon MT; Byrne S; McEwen AS; Putzig NE; Viola D; Sutton S; Clark E; Holt JW
[Ad] Endereço:Astrogeology Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 2255 N. Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA.
[Ti] Título:Exposed subsurface ice sheets in the Martian mid-latitudes.
[So] Source:Science;359(6372):199-201, 2018 01 12.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Thick deposits cover broad regions of the Martian mid-latitudes with a smooth mantle; erosion in these regions creates scarps that expose the internal structure of the mantle. We investigated eight of these locations and found that they expose deposits of water ice that can be >100 meters thick, extending downward from depths as shallow as 1 to 2 meters below the surface. The scarps are actively retreating because of sublimation of the exposed water ice. The ice deposits likely originated as snowfall during Mars' high-obliquity periods and have now compacted into massive, fractured, and layered ice. We expect the vertical structure of Martian ice-rich deposits to preserve a record of ice deposition and past climate.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Camada de Gelo
Marte
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aao1619


  2 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28460085
[Au] Autor:Wadsworth J; Cockell CS
[Ad] Endereço:UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH10 4EP, UK.
[Ti] Título:The Janus face of iron on anoxic worlds: iron oxides are both protective and destructive to life on the early Earth and present-day Mars.
[So] Source:FEMS Microbiol Ecol;93(5), 2017 05 01.
[Is] ISSN:1574-6941
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The surface of the early Earth was probably subjected to a higher flux of ultraviolet (UV) radiation than today. UV radiation is known to severely damage DNA and other key molecules of life. Using a liquid culture and a rock analogue system, we investigated the interplay of protective and deleterious effects of iron oxides under UV radiation on the viability of the model organism, Bacillus subtilis. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, there exists a fine balance between iron oxide's protective effects against this radiation and its deleterious effects caused by Photo-Fenton reactions. The maximum damage was caused by a concentration of hematite of ∼1 mg/mL. Concentrations above this confer increasing protection by physical blockage of the UV radiation, concentrations below this cause less effective UV radiation blockage, but also a correspondingly less effective Photo-Fenton reaction, providing an overall advantage. These results show that on anoxic worlds, surface habitability under a high UV flux leaves life precariously poised between the beneficial and deleterious effects of iron oxides. These results have relevance to the Archean Earth, but also the habitability of the Martian surface, where high levels of UV radiation in combination with iron oxides and hydrogen peroxide can be found.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bacillus subtilis/genética
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação
Compostos Férricos/farmacologia
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia
Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: DNA/efeitos dos fármacos
DNA/efeitos da radiação
Terra (Planeta)
Ferro/química
Marte
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ferric Compounds); 1K09F3G675 (ferric oxide); 9007-49-2 (DNA); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide); E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171224
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171224
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/femsec/fix056


  3 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28720182
[Au] Autor:Cavanagh P; Rice A; Glauberman M; Sudduth A; Cherones A; Davis S; Lewis M; Hanson A; Wilt G
[Ti] Título:Ground Reaction Forces During Reduced Gravity Running in Parabolic Flight.
[So] Source:Aerosp Med Hum Perform;88(8):730-736, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:2375-6314
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Treadmills have been employed as both a form of exercise and a countermeasure to prevent changes in the musculoskeletal system on almost all NASA missions and many Russian missions since the early Space Shuttle flights. It is possible that treadmills may also be part of exercise programs on future Mars missions and that they may be a component of exercise facilities in lunar or Martian habitats. METHODS: In order to determine if the ambient gravity on these destinations will provide osteogenic effects while performing exercise on a treadmill, ground reactions forces (GRFs) were measured on eight subjects (six women and two men) running at 6 mph during parabolic flight in Martian and lunar gravity conditions. RESULTS: On average, stride length increased as gravity decreased. The first and second peaks of the GRFs decreased by 0.156 and 0.196 bodyweights, respectively, per 1/10 g change in ambient gravity. DISCUSSION: Based on comparisons with previously measured GRF during loaded treadmill running on the International Space Station, we conclude that unloaded treadmill running under lunar and Martian conditions during exploration missions is not likely to be an osteo-protective exercise.Cavanagh P, Rice A, Glauberman M, Sudduth A, Cherones A, Davis S, Lewis M, Hanson A, Wilt G. Ground reaction forces during reduced gravity running in parabolic flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):730-736.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hipogravidade
Corrida/fisiologia
Simulação de Ambiente Espacial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Medicina Aeroespacial
Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Marte
Lua
Suporte de Carga
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; S
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170720
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4779.2017


  4 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28418706
[Au] Autor:Georgiou CD; Zisimopoulos D; Kalaitzopoulou E; Quinn RC
[Ad] Endereço:1 Department of Biology, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .
[Ti] Título:Radiation-Driven Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Oxychlorine-Containing Mars Surface Analogues.
[So] Source:Astrobiology;17(4):319-336, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8070
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The present study demonstrates that γ-radiolyzed perchlorate-containing Mars soil salt analogues (in a CO atmosphere) generate upon H O wetting the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide radical (O ), hydrogen peroxide (H O ), and hydroxyl radicals ( OH). This study also validates that analogue radiolysis forms oxychlorine species that, in turn, can UV-photolyze to OH upon UV photolysis. This investigation was made possible by the development of a new assay for inorganic-origin O and H O determination and by the modification of a previous assay for soil OH. Results show that radiolyzed Mg(ClO ) generates H O and OH; and when included as part of a mixture analogous to the salt composition of samples analyzed at the Mars Phoenix site, the analogue generated O , H O , and OH, with OH levels 150-fold higher than in the radiolyzed Mg(ClO ) samples. Radiolyzed Mars Phoenix site salt analogue that did not contain Mg(ClO ) generated only OH also at 150-fold higher concentration than Mg(ClO ) alone. Additionally, UV photolysis of the perchlorate γ radiolysis product chlorite (ClO ) generated the oxychlorine products trihalide (Cl ), chlorine dioxide (ClO ), and hypochlorite (ClO ), with the formation of OH by UV photolysis of ClO . While the generation of ROS may have contributed in part to CO production in the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment and O (g) release in the Viking Gas Exchange (GEx) experiment, our results indicate that they are not likely to be the major contributor to the LR and GEx results. However, due to their highly reactive nature, they are expected to play a significant role in the alteration of organics on Mars. Additionally, experiments with hypochlorite show that the thermal stability of NaClO is in the range of the thermal stability observed for thermally liable oxidant responsible for the Viking LR results. Key Words: Mars-Oxygen-Salts-Radiation-Habitability. Astrobiology 17, 319-336.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cloro/química
Radiação Cósmica
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Marte
Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cloratos/química
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química
Radical Hidroxila/química
Compostos de Magnésio/química
Fotólise
Radiólise de Impulso
Superóxidos/química
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chlorates); 0 (Magnesium Compounds); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 11062-77-4 (Superoxides); 3352-57-6 (Hydroxyl Radical); 4R7X1O2820 (Chlorine); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide); M536P01U3N (magnesium chlorate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170508
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170508
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170419
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/ast.2016.1539


  5 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28323456
[Au] Autor:Khodadad CL; Wong GM; James LM; Thakrar PJ; Lane MA; Catechis JA; Smith DJ
[Ad] Endereço:1 Sierra Lobo, Inc., Kennedy Space Center , Florida.
[Ti] Título:Stratosphere Conditions Inactivate Bacterial Endospores from a Mars Spacecraft Assembly Facility.
[So] Source:Astrobiology;17(4):337-350, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8070
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Every spacecraft sent to Mars is allowed to land viable microbial bioburden, including hardy endospore-forming bacteria resistant to environmental extremes. Earth's stratosphere is severely cold, dry, irradiated, and oligotrophic; it can be used as a stand-in location for predicting how stowaway microbes might respond to the martian surface. We launched E-MIST, a high-altitude NASA balloon payload on 10 October 2015 carrying known quantities of viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (4.07 × 10 spores per sample), a radiation-tolerant strain collected from a spacecraft assembly facility. The payload spent 8 h at ∼31 km above sea level, exposing bacterial spores to the stratosphere. We found that within 120 and 240 min, spore viability was significantly reduced by 2 and 4 orders of magnitude, respectively. By 480 min, <0.001% of spores carried to the stratosphere remained viable. Our balloon flight results predict that most terrestrial bacteria would be inactivated within the first sol on Mars if contaminated spacecraft surfaces receive direct sunlight. Unfortunately, an instrument malfunction prevented the acquisition of UV light measurements during our balloon mission. To make up for the absence of radiometer data, we calculated a stratosphere UV model and conducted ground tests with a 271.1 nm UVC light source (0.5 W/m ), observing a similarly rapid inactivation rate when using a lower number of contaminants (640 spores per sample). The starting concentration of spores and microconfiguration on hardware surfaces appeared to influence survivability outcomes in both experiments. With the relatively few spores that survived the stratosphere, we performed a resequencing analysis and identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms compared to unexposed controls. It is therefore plausible that bacteria enduring radiation-rich environments (e.g., Earth's upper atmosphere, interplanetary space, or the surface of Mars) may be pushed in evolutionarily consequential directions. Key Words: Planetary protection-Stratosphere-Balloon-Mars analog environment-E-MIST payload-Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. Astrobiology 17, 337-350.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atmosfera
Bacillus/fisiologia
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Marte
Astronave
Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Terra (Planeta)
Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170508
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170508
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170322
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/ast.2016.1549


  6 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28282220
[Au] Autor:Smith SA; Benardini JN; Anderl D; Ford M; Wear E; Schrader M; Schubert W; DeVeaux L; Paszczynski A; Childers SE
[Ad] Endereço:1 School of Food Science, University of Idaho , Moscow, Idaho.
[Ti] Título:Identification and Characterization of Early Mission Phase Microorganisms Residing on the Mars Science Laboratory and Assessment of Their Potential to Survive Mars-like Conditions.
[So] Source:Astrobiology;17(3):253-265, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8070
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Planetary protection is governed by the Outer Space Treaty and includes the practice of protecting planetary bodies from contamination by Earth life. Although studies are constantly expanding our knowledge about life in extreme environments, it is still unclear what the probability is for terrestrial organisms to survive and grow on Mars. Having this knowledge is paramount to addressing whether microorganisms transported from Earth could negatively impact future space exploration. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivable microorganisms collected from the surface of the Mars Science Laboratory, to distinguish which of the cultivable microorganisms can utilize energy sources potentially available on Mars, and to determine the survival of the cultivable microorganisms upon exposure to physiological stresses present on the martian surface. Approximately 66% (237) of the 358 microorganisms identified are related to members of the Bacillus genus, although surprisingly, 22% of all isolates belong to non-spore-forming genera. A small number could grow by reduction of potential growth substrates found on Mars, such as perchlorate and sulfate, and many were resistant to desiccation and ultraviolet radiation (UVC). While most isolates either grew in media containing ≥10% NaCl or at 4°C, many grew when multiple physiological stresses were applied. The study yields details about the microorganisms that inhabit the surfaces of spacecraft after microbial reduction measures, information that will help gauge whether microorganisms from Earth pose a forward contamination risk that could impact future planetary protection policy. Key Words: Planetary protection-Spore-Bioburden-MSL-Curiosity-Contamination-Mars. Astrobiology 17, 253-265.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/metabolismo
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Laboratórios
Marte
Viabilidade Microbiana
Astronave
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aerobiose
Anaerobiose
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Bactérias/efeitos da radiação
Dessecação
Elétrons
Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos
Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação
Peróxidos/toxicidade
Filogenia
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Peroxides)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170311
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/ast.2015.1417


  7 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28234699
[Au] Autor:Boice JD
[Ad] Endereço:*National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095.
[Ti] Título:Space: The Final Frontier-Research Relevant to Mars.
[So] Source:Health Phys;112(4):392-397, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1538-5159
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A critically important gap in knowledge surrounds the health consequences of exposure to radiation received gradually over time. Much is known about the health effects of brief high-dose exposures, such as from the atomic bombings in Japan, but the concerns today focus on the frequent low-dose exposures received by members of the public, workers, and, as addressed in this paper, astronauts. Additional guidance is needed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for planning long-term missions where the rate of radiation exposure is gradual over years and the cumulative amounts high. The direct study of low doses and low-dose rates is of immeasurable value in understanding the possible range of health effects from gradual exposures and in providing guidance for radiation protection, not only of workers and the public but also astronauts. The ongoing Million Person Study (MPS) is 10 times larger than the study of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of 86,000 survivors with estimated doses. The number of workers with >100 mSv career dose is substantially greater. The large study size, broad range of doses, and long follow-up indicate substantial statistical ability to quantify the risk of exposures that are received gradually over time. The study consists of 360,000 U.S. Department of Energy workers from the Manhattan Project; 150,000 nuclear utility workers from the inception of the nuclear age; 115,000 atomic veterans who participated in above-ground atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site and the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and Johnston Island in the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG); 250,000 radiologists and medical workers; and 130,000 industrial radiographers. NASA uses an individual risk-based system for radiation protection in contrast to the system of dose limits for occupational exposures used by terrestrial-based organizations. The permissible career exposure limit set by NASA for each astronaut is a 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID) from cancer at a 95% confidence level to account for uncertainties in risk projections. The large size of the MPS will reduce the uncertainty in the risk estimates, narrowing the 95% confidence interval, and thus allow more time in space for astronauts. Further differences between men and women in their response to radiation can be more fully examined, and non-cancer outcomes, such as neurological disorders and cardiovascular disease, can be evaluated in a way not hitherto possible.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências
Marte
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia
Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos
Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos
Voo Espacial/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Radiação de Fundo
Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Dose de Radiação
Medição de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170630
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170630
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170225
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/HP.0000000000000656


  8 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28202987
[Au] Autor:Livio M
[Ti] Título:Winston Churchill's essay on alien life found.
[So] Source:Nature;542(7641):289-291, 2017 02 15.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Astronomia/história
Exobiologia/história
Redação/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Astronomia/tendências
Exobiologia/tendências
História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
Ciências Humanas
Marte
Missouri
Museus
Origem da Vida
Reprodução
Ciência/história
Ciência/tendências
Reino Unido
Vênus
II Guerra Mundial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Churchill W
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170628
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170628
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/542289a


  9 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28177270
[Au] Autor:Hays LE; Graham HV; Des Marais DJ; Hausrath EM; Horgan B; McCollom TM; Parenteau MN; Potter-McIntyre SL; Williams AJ; Lynch KL
[Ad] Endereço:1 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, California.
[Ti] Título:Biosignature Preservation and Detection in Mars Analog Environments.
[So] Source:Astrobiology;17(4):363-400, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8070
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This review of material relevant to the Conference on Biosignature Preservation and Detection in Mars Analog Environments summarizes the meeting materials and discussions and is further expanded upon by detailed references to the published literature. From this diverse source material, there is a detailed discussion on the habitability and biosignature preservation potential of five primary analog environments: hydrothermal spring systems, subaqueous environments, subaerial environments, subsurface environments, and iron-rich systems. Within the context of exploring past habitable environments on Mars, challenges common to all of these key environments are laid out, followed by a focused discussion for each environment regarding challenges to orbital and ground-based observations and sample selection. This leads into a short section on how these challenges could influence our strategies and priorities for the astrobiological exploration of Mars. Finally, a listing of urgent needs and future research highlights key elements such as development of instrumentation as well as continued exploration into how Mars may have evolved differently from Earth and what that might mean for biosignature preservation and detection. Key Words: Biosignature preservation-Biosignature detection-Mars analog environments-Conference report-Astrobiological exploration. Astrobiology 17, 363-400.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exobiologia
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Marte
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Terra (Planeta)
Ferro/química
Água/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
059QF0KO0R (Water); E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170714
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/ast.2016.1627


  10 / 1618 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28154030
[Au] Autor:Voosen P
[Ti] Título:Mars rover steps up hunt for molecular signs of life.
[So] Source:Science;355(6324):444-445, 2017 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exobiologia
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química
Marte
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.355.6324.444



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