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Pesquisa : G01.311.169 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29191884
[Au] Autor:Simicevic V
[Ad] Endereço:Rijeka, Croatia.
[Ti] Título:Poachers threaten Balkans' underground biodiversity.
[So] Source:Science;358(6367):1116-1117, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodiversidade
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Península Balcânica
Cavernas
Gastrópodes
Proteidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.358.6367.1116


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[PMID]:29280363
[Au] Autor:Wang CX; Xu X; Li SQ
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
[Ti] Título:Integrative taxonomy of spiders (Araneae, Leptonetidae), with descriptions of 46 new species.
[So] Source:Zool Res;38(6):321-448, 2017 Nov 18.
[Is] ISSN:2095-8137
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment ( ). The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 species, including the type species (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971). Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. (Tong & Li, 2008) comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Simon, 1872; the genus Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. is transferred from . The genus Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of ; (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. and (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. are transferred from ; Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for (Chen et al., 2010) because is preoccupied.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aranhas/anatomia & histologia
Aranhas/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Distribuição Animal
Animais
Cavernas
China
Ecossistema
Especificidade da Espécie
Aranhas/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.076


  3 / 624 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29364607
[Ti] Título:[Role of the Microbial Community in Formation of Speleothem (Moonmilk) in the Snezhnaya Carst Cave (Abkhazia).]
[So] Source:Mikrobiologiia;85(5):598-608, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0026-3656
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:The resi Its of investigation of speleothem (moonmilk) from the Snezhnaya cave (West Caucasus, Abkhazia) are-reported. The structure of microbial complexes from moonmilk was investigated by quantita- tive PCR; strains of culturable microorganisms were isolated and their preferred temperature and carbon sources were determined. Among eubacteria, -34% belonged to the iron bacteria (Rhodoferax). Most bacte- rial strains were shown to be facultative psychrophiles with the maximum growth rate at 4C. The microstruc- ture and elemental composition of mionmilk were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (EVO- 40HV, Carl Zeiss) and silicon drifi X-ay detector X-MAX 80 ffM2' The visually plastic and homogeneous mass of moonmilk was shown to be highly heterogeneous, containing various microstructures. The elemental composition of some nanostructures depended on the structure of bacterial biofilms. Some loci of the biofilm were found to contain up to 46% (wt/wt) of iron oxides. Calcium content was high, up to 61.5% (wt/wt) only in cubic crystalline structures which were not involved in microbiological processes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carbonato de Cálcio/química
Cavernas/microbiologia
Comamonadaceae/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cálcio/química
Temperatura Baixa
Comamonadaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Compostos Férricos/química
Federação Russa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ferric Compounds); 1K09F3G675 (ferric oxide); H0G9379FGK (Calcium Carbonate); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180208
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180208
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180125
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28467343
[Au] Autor:Badino P; Licata M; Martini M; Iorio S
[Ad] Endereço:. silvia.iorio@uniroma1.it.
[Ti] Título:A reading of archaeological and anthropological results of the second half of the 19th Century on paleoanthropological skull in a Prehistoric cave of North West Lombardy.
[So] Source:Acta Biomed;88(1):97-100, 2017 Apr 28.
[Is] ISSN:0392-4203
[Cp] País de publicação:Italy
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:N/A.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arqueologia
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Cavernas
Cefalometria
História do Século XIX
Seres Humanos
Itália
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.23750/abm.v88i1.5379


  5 / 624 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28450384
[Au] Autor:Slon V; Hopfe C; Weiß CL; Mafessoni F; de la Rasilla M; Lalueza-Fox C; Rosas A; Soressi M; Knul MV; Miller R; Stewart JR; Derevianko AP; Jacobs Z; Li B; Roberts RG; Shunkov MV; de Lumley H; Perrenoud C; Gusic I; Kucan Z; Rudan P; Aximu-Petri A; Essel E; Nagel S; Nickel B; Schmidt A; Prüfer K; Kelso J; Burbano HA; Pääbo S; Meyer M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. viviane_slon@eva.mpg.de mmeyer@eva.mpg.de.
[Ti] Título:Neandertal and Denisovan DNA from Pleistocene sediments.
[So] Source:Science;356(6338):605-608, 2017 05 12.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although a rich record of Pleistocene human-associated archaeological assemblages exists, the scarcity of hominin fossils often impedes the understanding of which hominins occupied a site. Using targeted enrichment of mitochondrial DNA, we show that cave sediments represent a rich source of ancient mammalian DNA that often includes traces of hominin DNA, even at sites and in layers where no hominin remains have been discovered. By automation-assisted screening of numerous sediment samples, we detected Neandertal DNA in eight archaeological layers from four caves in Eurasia. In Denisova Cave, we retrieved Denisovan DNA in a Middle Pleistocene layer near the bottom of the stratigraphy. Our work opens the possibility of detecting the presence of hominin groups at sites and in areas where no skeletal remains are found.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação
DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação
Hominidae/classificação
Hominidae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cavernas
DNA Antigo/análise
DNA Mitocondrial/análise
Europa (Continente)
Fósseis
Sedimentos Geológicos/química
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ancient); 0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aam9695


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[PMID]:29265666
[Au] Autor:Hoffecker JF; Hoffecker IT
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309-0450.
[Ti] Título:Technological complexity and the global dispersal of modern humans.
[So] Source:Evol Anthropol;26(6):285-299, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6505
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) dispersed out of Africa roughly 120,000 years ago and again after 75,000 years ago. The early dispersal was geographically restricted to the Arabian Peninsula, Levant, and possibly parts of southern Asia. The later dispersal was ultimately global in scope, including areas not previously occupied by Homo. One explanation for the contrast between the two out-of-Africa dispersals is that the modern humans who expanded into Eurasia 120,000 years ago lacked the functionally and structurally complex technology of recent hunter-gatherers. This technology, which includes, for example, mechanical projectiles, snares and traps, and sewn clothing, provides not only expanded dietary breadth and increased rates of foraging efficiency and success in places where plant and animal productivity is low, but protection from cold weather in places where winter temperatures are low. The absence of complex technology before 75,000 years ago also may explain why modern humans in the Levant did not develop sedentary settlements and agriculture 120,000 years ago (i.e., during the Last Interglacial).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vestuário/história
Migração Humana/história
Tecnologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Agricultura/história
Antropologia
Ásia
Australásia
Cavernas
Evolução Cultural/história
Dieta Paleolítica
Europa (Continente)
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/evan.21553


  7 / 624 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28449118
[Au] Autor:Kostanjsek R; Vittori M; Srot V; van Aken PA; Strus J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
[Ti] Título:Polyphosphate-accumulating bacterial community colonizing the calcium bodies of terrestrial isopod crustaceans Titanethes albus and Hyloniscus riparius.
[So] Source:FEMS Microbiol Ecol;93(6), 2017 06 01.
[Is] ISSN:1574-6941
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Terrestrial isopods from the group Trichoniscidae accumulate calcium in specialized organs, known as the calcium bodies. These consist of two pairs of epithelial sacs located alongside the digestive system. These organs contain various forms of calcium and constantly present bacteria. To elucidate their origin and role, we analyzed the bacteria of the calcium bodies in the cave-dwelling isopod Titanethes albus and the epigean species Hyloniscus riparius, by microscopy, histochemistry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, 16S rRNA analysis and in situ hybridization. The calcium bodies of both species comprise numerous and diverse bacterial communities consisting of known soil bacteria. Despite their diversity, these bacteria share the polyphosphate-accumulation ability. We present the model of phosphorous dynamics in the calcium bodies during the molting cycle and potentially beneficial utilization of the symbiotic phosphate by the host in cyclic regeneration of the cuticle. Although not fully understood, this unique symbiosis represents the first evidence of polyphosphate-accumulating bacterial symbionts in the tissue of a terrestrial animal.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/classificação
Isópodes/microbiologia
Microbiota/genética
Aranhas/microbiologia
Simbiose/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bactérias/genética
Bactérias/metabolismo
Carbonato de Cálcio
Cavernas
Filogenia
Polifosfatos/metabolismo
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Microbiologia do Solo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Polyphosphates); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); H0G9379FGK (Calcium Carbonate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/femsec/fix053


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[PMID]:28450591
[Au] Autor:Wade L
[Ti] Título:DNA from cave soil reveals ancient human occupants.
[So] Source:Science;356(6336):363, 2017 Apr 28.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cavernas
DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação
Homem de Neandertal/genética
Paleontologia/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sedimentos Geológicos/química
Seres Humanos
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Solo/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ancient); 0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.356.6336.363


  9 / 624 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29016667
[Au] Autor:Carlini DB; Fong DW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, American University, Washington DC, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The transcriptomes of cave and surface populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) provide evidence for positive selection on cave downregulated transcripts.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186173, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is an excellent model for investigating evolutionary adaptation to the subterranean environment. RNA-Seq was conducted on one pair of morphologically distinct sister populations inhabiting surface and cave habitats to identify genes that were differentially expressed in the two populations, as well as to compare levels and patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. Of the 104,630 transcripts identified in the transcriptome assembly, 57% had higher average levels of expression in the cave population. After Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple tests, 1517 and 551 transcripts were significantly upregulated or downregulated, respectively, in the cave population, indicating an almost three-fold enrichment of cave-upregulated genes. The average level of nucleotide diversity across all transcripts was significantly lower in the cave population. Within the cave population, where the average nucleotide diversity of cave-downregulated transcripts was 75% that of the cave-upregulated transcripts, a highly significant difference, whereas within the spring population the nucleotide diversities of cave-downregulated and cave-upregulated transcripts was virtually identical. Three lines of evidence suggest that the reduced variation in cave downregulated transcripts is due to positive selection in the cave population: 1) the average neutrality index of cave-downregulated genes was < 1, consistent with positive selection, and significantly less than that of cave-upregulated genes; 2) Tajima's D was positively correlated with the cave:surface expression ratio, and 3) cave-downregulated transcripts were significantly more likely to be highly diverged from their surface homologs than cave-upregulated transcripts. Five transcripts had fixed premature termination codons in the cave population. The expression patterns and sequence variation in one such transcript, encoding the DNA repair protein photolyase, were examined in more detail and provide the first evidence for the relaxation of functional constraint in this light-dependent protein in a subterranean population.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anfípodes/genética
Seleção Genética/genética
Transcriptoma/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anfípodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Animais
Cavernas
Ecossistema
Água Doce
Regulação da Expressão Gênica
Genética Populacional
Ativação Transcricional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186173


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[PMID]:28982148
[Au] Autor:de la Peña P; Wadley L
[Ad] Endereço:Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Technological variability at Sibudu Cave: The end of Howiesons Poort and reduced mobility strategies after 62,000 years ago.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185845, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We evaluate the cultural variation between the youngest Howiesons Poort layer (GR) and the oldest post-Howiesons Poort layers (RB-YA) of Sibudu Cave (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa). We first conducted a technological analysis, secondly we performed a cladistic study with all the technological traits and, finally, we compare the technological variability with other data from Sibudu (ochre, micromorphology, fauna and plant remains). The synapomorphies of the cladistical analysis show numerous lithic technological changes between the youngest Howiesons Poort and the oldest post-Howiesons Poort layers as previously concluded. However, some technological strategies that are present, yet uncommon, in the Howiesons Poort become abundant in the overlying layers, whereas others that were fundamental to the Howiesons Poort continue, but are poorly represented in the overlying layers. We further show that lithic technological strategies appear and disappear as pulses in the post-Howiesons Poort layers studied. Among the most notable changes in the post-Howiesons Poort layers is the importance of flake production from discoidal knapping methods, the unstandardized retouched pieces and their infrequent representation, and the higher than usual frequency of grindstones. We evaluate various hypotheses to explain the transformation of a Howiesons Poort formal industry to a more 'expedient' assemblage. Since no marked environmental changes are contemporary with the technological transformation, a change in residential mobility patterns seems a plausible explanation. This hypothesis is supported by the changes observed in stratigraphy, lithic technology, site management, ochre and firewood collection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cavernas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Arqueologia
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185845



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