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Pesquisa : G07.110.232.889.249 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:28277954
[Au] Autor:Smith ME; Secor SM
[Ti] Título:Physiological Responses to Fasting and Estivation for the Three-Toed Amphiuma (Amphiuma tridactylum).
[So] Source:Physiol Biochem Zool;90(2):240-256, 2017 Mar/Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1537-5293
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Species of Amphiuma enter a state of subterranean estivation with the drying of their aquatic habitat. Characteristic of amphibian fasting and estivation is an initial depression of metabolism and tissue mass and function with fasting, followed by a more pronounced adaptive decrease in metabolism and tissue function with estivation. We hypothesized that Amphiuma likewise experiences a two-stage set of responses to estivation. Therefore, we examined the physiological responses of the three-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma tridactylum) to fasting and estivation treatments. Recently fed A. tridactylum served as controls for fasting treatments of 1, 3, and 6 mo (in water) and estivation treatments of 3 and 6 mo (buried in dried substrate). After a 1-mo fast, A. tridactylum experienced no further depression of metabolic rate following 3 or 6 mo of fasting or estivation. For all fasting and estivation trials, A. tridactylum maintained blood chemistry homeostasis, with the exception of an increase in blood urea following 6 mo of estivation. Compared with fed controls, the mass of most organs did not vary even after 6 mo of fasting and estivation. Only the small intestine (decreasing) and the full gall bladder (increasing) experienced significant changes in mass with fasting or estivation. The fasting decrease in small intestinal mass was in part due to enterocyte atrophy, which resulted in a decrease in mucosa/submucosa thickness. In contrast to many estivating anurans and the ecologically convergent sirens, A. tridactylum does not surround itself in a cocoon of dried skin or mucus during estivation. The thickness and architecture of their skin remains unchanged even after 6 mo of estivation. Following months of fasting or estivation, individuals still maintain gastric acid production, pancreatic enzyme activity, and intestinal enzyme and transporter activities. Contrary to our hypothesis that A. tridactylum experiences two stages of metabolic depression and tissue downregulation, first with fasting and second with estivation, we observed a relatively modest single-stage response to both. Rather than becoming dormant and engaging in mechanisms to depress metabolism and tissue performance with estivation, A. tridactylum employs an alternative strategy of remaining alert and possibly eating to survive extended periods when their aquatic habitats become dry.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estivação/fisiologia
Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia
Urodelos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica
Hidrolases/genética
Hidrolases/metabolismo
Intestinos/enzimologia
Intestinos/metabolismo
Masculino
Pâncreas/enzimologia
Pâncreas/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 3.- (Hydrolases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170727
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170727
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170310
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1086/689216


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[PMID]:28184997
[Au] Autor:Ong JL; Chng YR; Ching B; Chen XL; Hiong KC; Wong WP; Chew SF; Ip YK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Road, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.
[Ti] Título:Molecular characterization of myostatin from the skeletal muscle of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and changes in its mRNA and protein expression levels during three phases of aestivation.
[So] Source:J Comp Physiol B;187(4):575-589, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1432-136X
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:African lungfishes can aestivate and remain torpid without food and water for years, but disuse muscle atrophy is not prominent during aestivation. This study aimed to clone myostatin (mstn/Mstn), a factor associated with disuse muscle atrophy in mammals, from the skeletal muscle of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine its mRNA expression level and protein abundance therein during the induction, maintenance, and arousal phases of aestivation. The complete coding cDNA sequence of mstn comprised 1128 bp, encoding for 376 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 42.9 kDa. It was grouped together with Mstn/MSTN of coelacanth and tetrapods in a clade separated from teleost Mstn. After 6 days (the induction phase) of aestivation, the mstn transcript level in the muscle increased significantly, while the protein abundance of Mstn remained comparable to the control. Following that, a significant increase in the expression levels of mstn/Mstn occurred on day 12 (the early maintenance phase) of aestivation. After 6 months of aestivation (the prolonged maintenance phase), the expression levels of mstn/Mstn returned to control levels, indicating the possible impediment of a drastic increase in muscle degradation to prevent muscle atrophy. During 1-3 days of arousal from aestivation, the expression levels of mstn/Mstn in the muscle remained comparable to the control. Hence, tissue reconstruction/regeneration of certain organs might not involve the mobilization of amino acids from the muscle during the early arousal. These results provide insights into how aestivating P. annectens regulates the expression of mstn/Mstn possibly to ameliorate disuse muscle atrophy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estivação/fisiologia
Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo
Peixes/fisiologia
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
Miostatina/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Sequência de Bases
Clonagem Molecular
Proteínas de Peixes/genética
Regulação da Expressão Gênica
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
Miostatina/genética
Filogenia
RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fish Proteins); 0 (Myostatin); 0 (RNA, Messenger)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170211
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00360-017-1057-x


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[PMID]:26497253
[Au] Autor:Adamson KJ; Wang T; Rotgans BA; Kruangkum T; Kuballa AV; Storey KB; Cummins SF
[Ad] Endereço:Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Genes and associated peptides involved with aestivation in a land snail.
[So] Source:Gen Comp Endocrinol;246:88-98, 2017 May 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6840
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Some animals can undergo a remarkable transition from active normal life to a dormant state called aestivation; entry into this hypometabolic state ensures that life continues even during long periods of environmental hardship. In this study, we aimed to identify those central nervous system (CNS) peptides that may regulate metabolic suppression leading to aestivation in land snails. Mass spectral-based neuropeptidome analysis of the CNS comparing active and aestivating states, revealed 19 differentially produced peptides; 2 were upregulated in active animals and 17 were upregulated in aestivated animals. Of those, the buccalin neuropeptide was further investigated since there is existing evidence in molluscs that buccalin modulates physiology by muscle contraction. The Theba pisana CNS contains two buccalin transcripts that encode precursor proteins that are capable of releasing numerous buccalin peptides. Of these, Tpi-buccalin-2 is most highly expressed within our CNS transcriptome derived from multiple metabolic states. No significant difference was observed at the level of gene expression levels for Tpi-buccalin-2 between active and aestivated animals, suggesting that regulation may reside at the level of post-translational control of peptide abundance. Spatial gene and peptide expression analysis of aestivated snail CNS demonstrated that buccalin-2 has widespread distribution within regions that control several physiological roles. In conclusion, we provide the first detailed molecular analysis of the peptides and associated genes that are related to hypometabolism in a gastropod snail known to undergo extended periods of aestivation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomarcadores/análise
Estivação/fisiologia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica
Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo
Proteoma/análise
Caramujos/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo
Hibridização In Situ
Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética
RNA Mensageiro/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
Caramujos/genética
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Peptide Fragments); 0 (Proteome); 0 (RNA, Messenger)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170515
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170515
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151027
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27858264
[Au] Autor:MacLean IA; Mattice AM; Adam NJ; Storey KB
[Ad] Endereço:, 1125 Colonel By Dr, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase in the Foot Muscle and Hepatopancreas of Otala lactea.
[So] Source:Protein J;35(6):467-480, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1875-8355
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has a crucial role in maintaining ATP production as the terminal enzyme in anaerobic glycolysis. This study will determine the effect of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on the activity of LDH in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas of an estivating snail, Otala lactea. LDH in foot muscle of O. lactea was purified to homogeneity and partially purified in hepatopancreas in a two-step and three-step process, respectively. The kinetic properties and stability of these isoforms were determined where there was a significant difference in K and I values with pyruvate and urea separately in foot muscle; however, hepatopancreas exhibited significant differences in K and I in salt between control and stress. Interestingly, hepatopancreas has a higher affinity for pyruvate in the control state whereas foot muscle has a higher affinity for its substrate in the estivated state. PTMs of each isoform were identified using immunoblotting and dot blots, which prove to be significantly higher in the control state. Overall, foot muscle LDH enters a low phosphorylation state during estivation allowing more efficiency in consuming pyruvate with higher thermal stability but less structural stability. Hepatopancreas LDH becomes dephosphorylated in the estivating snail that decreases the efficiency of the enzyme in the forward direction; however, the snail has an increased tolerance to the presence of salt when water becomes scarce. Such tissue-specific regulations indicate the organism's ability to reduce energy consumption when undergoing metabolic depression.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hepatopâncreas/enzimologia
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
Músculos/enzimologia
Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo
Caramujos/enzimologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Estabilidade Enzimática
Estivação/fisiologia
Hepatopâncreas/química
Isoenzimas/isolamento & purificação
Isoenzimas/metabolismo
Cinética
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/isolamento & purificação
Músculos/química
Especificidade de Órgãos
Fosforilação
Caramujos/química
Especificidade por Substrato
Ureia/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Isoenzymes); 8558G7RUTR (Pyruvic Acid); 8W8T17847W (Urea); EC 1.1.1.27 (L-Lactate Dehydrogenase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171027
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171027
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161119
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27601256
[Au] Autor:Zhu A; Chen M; Zhang X; Storey KB
[Ad] Endereço:Fisheries College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Gene structure, expression, and DNA methylation characteristics of sea cucumber cyclin B gene during aestivation.
[So] Source:Gene;594(1):82-88, 2016 Dec 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is a good model for studying environmentally-induced aestivation by a marine invertebrate. One of the central requirements of aestivation is the repression of energy-expensive cellular processes such as cell cycle progression. The present study identified the gene structure of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin B, and detected the expression levels of this gene over three stages of the annual aestivation-arousal cycle. Furthermore, the DNA methylation characteristics of cyclin B were analyzed in non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages of sea cucumbers. We found that the cyclin B promoter contains a CpG island, three CCAAT-boxes and three cell cycle gene homology regions (CHRs). Application of qRT-PCR analysis showed significant downregulation of cyclin B transcript levels during deep-aestivation in comparison with non-aestivation in both intestine and longitudinal muscle, and these returned to basal levels after arousal from aestivation. Methylation analysis of the cyclin B core promoter revealed that its methylation level showed significant differences between non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages (p<0.05) and interestingly, a positive correlation between Cyclin B transcripts expression and methylation levels of the core promoter was also observed. Our findings suggest that cell cycle progression may be reversibly arrested during aestivation as indicated by the changes in cyclin B expression levels and we propose that DNA methylation is one of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cyclin B transcriptional variation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ciclina B
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia
Estivação/fisiologia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/fisiologia
Pepinos-do-Mar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ciclina B/biossíntese
Ciclina B/genética
Pepinos-do-Mar/genética
Pepinos-do-Mar/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cyclin B)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170828
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170828
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160908
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27568195
[Au] Autor:Samanta L; Paital B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, Odisha, 753003, India.
[Ti] Título:Effects of seasonal variation on oxidative stress physiology in natural population of toad Bufo melanostictus; clues for analysis of environmental pollution.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;23(22):22819-22831, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (<10 °C). Soil and air of the sampling site, although varying seasonally, were mostly found to be unpolluted, except for suspended particulate matter and respiratory particulate matter that were above recommended value. The magnitude of both ELPx and ILPx levels in most of the tissues, for example, ELPx in liver, cerebral hemisphere and ovary, and ILPx in liver of males and ovary, were found to be higher in rainy season in comparison to the other seasons. Nevertheless, levels of both ELPx and ILPx were low in testes in rainy season in comparison to the other two seasons. No correlation was observed between temperature and the studied OS parameters except a positive correlation with SOD and negative correlations with non-enzymatic small redox regulatory molecules in some selected tissues. Conversely, discriminant function analysis reveals a clear impact of the changing season on OS physiology of the toad. It implies that season considerably modulates OS physiology which be a reflection of the toads to abiotic pollutants alone and/or as results of metabolic changes under hibernation, aestivation and due to reproductive activities. Therefore, seasonal changes in OS physiological responses in poikilothermic models especially in toads must be cautiously used as indicators to assess environmental impact, mainly soil pollution. Results of the present study may be used as baseline data for any future analyses of the physiological impacts of environmental changes using toads as model organism.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bufonidae/metabolismo
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Estresse Oxidativo
Estações do Ano
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antioxidantes/metabolismo
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo
Biomarcadores/metabolismo
Catalase/metabolismo
Análise Discriminante
Poluição Ambiental/análise
Estivação
Feminino
Glutationa/metabolismo
Índia
Peroxidação de Lipídeos
Masculino
Material Particulado/análise
Caracteres Sexuais
Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Particulate Matter); EC 1.11.1.6 (Catalase); EC 1.15.1.1 (Superoxide Dismutase); GAN16C9B8O (Glutathione); PQ6CK8PD0R (Ascorbic Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160829
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27376927
[Au] Autor:Chen M; Li X; Zhu A; Storey KB; Sun L; Gao T; Wang T
[Ad] Endereço:Fisheries College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, PR China. Electronic address: chenmuyan@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.
[So] Source:Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics;19:78-89, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1878-0407
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
Estivação/fisiologia
Proteoma/análise
Proteômica/métodos
Pepinos-do-Mar/metabolismo
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Western Blotting
Biologia Computacional
Pepinos-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Proteome)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160705
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27318654
[Au] Autor:Bose U; Centurion E; Hodson MP; Shaw PN; Storey KB; Cummins SF
[Ad] Endereço:Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia; School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Global metabolite analysis of the land snail Theba pisana hemolymph during active and aestivated states.
[So] Source:Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics;19:25-33, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1878-0407
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The state of metabolic dormancy has fascinated people for hundreds of years, leading to research exploring the identity of natural molecular components that may induce and maintain this state. Many animals lower their metabolism in response to high temperatures and/or arid conditions, a phenomenon called aestivation. The biological significance for this is clear; by strongly suppressing metabolic rate to low levels, animals minimize their exposure to stressful conditions. Understanding blood or hemolymph metabolite changes that occur between active and aestivated animals can provide valuable insights relating to those molecular components that regulate hypometabolism in animals, and how they afford adaptation to their different environmental conditions. In this study, we have investigated the hemolymph metabolite composition from the land snail Theba pisana, a remarkably resilient mollusc that displays an annual aestivation period. Using LC-MS-based metabolomics analysis, we have identified those hemolymph metabolites that show significant changes in relative abundance between active and aestivated states. We show that certain metabolites, including some phospholipids [e.g. LysoPC(14:0)], and amino acids such as l-arginine and l-tyrosine, are present at high levels within aestivated snails. Further investigation of our T. pisana RNA-sequencing data elucidated the entire repertoire of phospholipid-synthesis genes in the snail digestive gland, as a precursor towards future comparative investigation between the genetic components of aestivating and non-aestivating species. In summary, we have identified a large number of metabolites that are elevated in the hemolymph of aestivating snails, supporting their role in protecting against heat or desiccation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estivação/fisiologia
Hemolinfa/metabolismo
Metaboloma
Metabolômica/métodos
Caramujos/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cromatografia Líquida
Espectrometria de Massas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160620
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27107492
[Au] Autor:Holmstrup M; Slotsbo S; Henriksen PG; Bayley M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark. Electronic address: martin.holmstrup@bios.au.dk.
[Ti] Título:Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.
[So] Source:Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol;199:8-13, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1531-4332
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (< -2MPa) substantially increased the concentration of FAAs and in particular alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650µmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300µmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alanina/metabolismo
Secas
Ecossistema
Oligoquetos/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Fisiológica
Análise de Variância
Animais
Estivação
Oligoquetos/classificação
Prolina/metabolismo
Solo/química
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil); 9DLQ4CIU6V (Proline); OF5P57N2ZX (Alanine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160425
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27065167
[Au] Autor:Staples JF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Metabolic Flexibility: Hibernation, Torpor, and Estivation.
[So] Source:Compr Physiol;6(2):737-71, 2016 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:2040-4603
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Many environmental conditions can constrain the ability of animals to obtain sufficient food energy, or transform that food energy into useful chemical forms. To survive extended periods under such conditions animals must suppress metabolic rate to conserve energy, water, or oxygen. Amongst small endotherms, this metabolic suppression is accompanied by and, in some cases, facilitated by a decrease in core body temperature-hibernation or daily torpor-though significant metabolic suppression can be achieved even with only modest cooling. Within some ectotherms, winter metabolic suppression exceeds the passive effects of cooling. During dry seasons, estivating ectotherms can reduce metabolism without changes in body temperature, conserving energy reserves, and reducing gas exchange and its inevitable loss of water vapor. This overview explores the similarities and differences of metabolic suppression among these states within adult animals (excluding developmental diapause), and integrates levels of organization from the whole animal to the genome, where possible. Several similarities among these states are highlighted, including patterns and regulation of metabolic balance, fuel use, and mitochondrial metabolism. Differences among models are also apparent, particularly in whether the metabolic suppression is intrinsic to the tissue or depends on the whole-animal response. While in these hypometabolic states, tissues from many animals are tolerant of hypoxia/anoxia, ischemia/reperfusion, and disuse. These natural models may, therefore, serve as valuable and instructive models for biomedical research.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Metabolismo Energético
Estivação/fisiologia
Hibernação/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cphy.c140064



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