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Pesquisa : G07.203.300.456.716 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:27770467
[Au] Autor:Forsberg A; West CE; Prescott SL; Jenmalm MC
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Neuro and Inflammation Sciences, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Pre- and probiotics for allergy prevention: time to revisit recommendations?
[So] Source:Clin Exp Allergy;46(12):1506-1521, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reduced intensity and diversity of microbial exposure is considered a major factor driving abnormal postnatal immune maturation and increasing allergy prevalence, particularly in more affluent regions. Quantitatively, the largest important source of early immune-microbial interaction, the gut microbiota, is of particular interest in this context, with variations in composition and diversity in the first months of life associated with subsequent allergy development. Attempting to restore the health consequences of the 'dysbiotic drift' in modern society, interventions modulating gut microbiota for allergy prevention have been evaluated in several randomized placebo-controlled trials. In this review, we provide an overview of these trials and discuss recommendations from international expert bodies regarding prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic interventions. Recent guidelines from the World Allergy Organization recommend the use of probiotics for the primary prevention of eczema in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers of infants at high risk for developing allergy and in high-risk infants. It is however stressed that these recommendations are conditional, based on very low-quality evidence and great heterogeneity between studies, which also impedes specific and practical advice to consumers on the most effective regimens. We discuss how the choice of probiotic strains, timing and duration of administration can critically influence the outcome due to different effects on immune modulation and gut microbiota composition. Furthermore, we propose strategies to potentially improve allergy-preventive effects and enable future evidence-based implementation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle
Prebióticos/administração & dosagem
Probióticos/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos
Eczema/genética
Eczema/imunologia
Eczema/metabolismo
Eczema/prevenção & controle
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Hipersensibilidade/genética
Hipersensibilidade/imunologia
Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo
Imunomodulação
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa
Microbiota/imunologia
Gravidez
Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Prebiotics)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cea.12838


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[PMID]:28583137
[Au] Autor:Jafarpour D; Shekarforoush SS; Ghaisari HR; Nazifi S; Sajedianfard J; Eskandari MH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
[Ti] Título:Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):291, 2017 Jun 05.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes oxidative stress and has toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two probiotics along with a prebiotic in preventing the toxic effects of cadmium in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups namely control, cadmium only, cadmium along with Lactobacillus plantarum (1 × 109 CFU/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff) and cadmium along with Bacillus coagulans (1 × 109 spore/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff). Cadmium treated groups received 200 µg/rat/day CdCl2 administered by gavage. During the 42-day experimental period, they were weighed weekly. For evaluation of changes in oxidative stress, the levels of some biochemicals and enzymes of serum including SOD, GPX, MDA, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and creatinine, and also SOD level of livers were measured at day 21 and 42 of treatment. The cadmium content of kidney and liver was determined by using atomic absorption mass spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's post hoc test. RESULTS: Treatment of cadmium induced rats with synbiotic diets significantly improved the liver enzymes and biochemical parameters that decreased AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and metal accumulation in the liver and kidney and increased body weight, serum and liver SOD values in comparison with the cadmium-treated group. No significant differences were observed with MDA and GP values between all groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that synbiotic diets containing probiotics (L. plantarum and B. coagulans) in combination with the prebiotic (inulin) can reduce the level of cadmium in the liver and kidney, preventing their damage and recover antioxidant enzymes in acute cadmium poisoning in rat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bacillus coagulans/fisiologia
Intoxicação por Cádmio/prevenção & controle
Cádmio/toxicidade
Inulina/administração & dosagem
Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia
Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem
Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doença Aguda/terapia
Animais
Intoxicação por Cádmio/microbiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Wistar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Protective Agents); 00BH33GNGH (Cadmium); 9005-80-5 (Inulin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170821
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170821
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170607
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1803-3


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[PMID]:28490394
[Au] Autor:Zamani B; Farshbaf S; Golkar HR; Bahmani F; Asemi Z
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Gastroenterology,Kashan University of Medical Sciences,Kashan PO Box 8715988141,Iran.
[Ti] Título:Synbiotic supplementation and the effects on clinical and metabolic responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
[So] Source:Br J Nutr;117(8):1095-1102, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2662
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Synbiotic intake may be associated with reduced inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to optimised inflammatory markers, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. This research was conducted to assess the effects of synbiotic supplementation on the clinical and metabolic parameters of patients with RA. A total of fifty-four patients with RA were allocated into two groups to receive either a synbiotic capsule (n 27) or a placebo (n 27) for 8 weeks in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and week 8 of the study to quantify related markers. After the 8-week intervention, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (-1427·8 (sd 3267·2) v. +2833·4 (sd 5639·7) ng/ml, P=0·001). In addition, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation improved disease activity score-28 joints (DAS-28) (-1·6 (sd 0·8) v. -0·3 (sd 0·5), P<0·001) and visual analogue scales (VAS) pain (-30·4 (sd 18·7) v. -11·5 (sd 15·9), P<0·001). In addition, a significant elevation in plasma nitric oxide (NO) (+0·8 (sd 4·4) v. -2·6 (sd 4·5) µmol/l, P=0·008), and significant reductions in insulin values (-13·8 (sd 26·4) v. +4·2 (sd 28·2) pmol/l, P=0·01), homoeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0·5 (sd 1·0) v.+0·1 (sd 1·1), P=0·03) and homoeostatic model assessment-ß-cell function (HOMA-B) (-9·4 (sd 17·9) v. +3·3 (sd 18·9), P=0·01) following supplementation with the synbiotic compared with the placebo. Compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in plasma GSH (+36·6 (sd 63·5) v. -58·5 (sd 154·4) µmol/l, P=0·005). Overall, our study demonstrated that synbiotic supplementation for 8 weeks among patients with RA had beneficial effects on hs-CRP, DAS-28, VAS, NO, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and GSH levels.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Artrite Reumatoide/terapia
Bifidobacterium bifidum
Suplementos Nutricionais
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactobacillus casei
Simbióticos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico
Método Duplo-Cego
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico
Masculino
Metotrexato/uso terapêutico
Meia-Idade
Prednisolona/uso terapêutico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antirheumatic Agents); 4QWG6N8QKH (Hydroxychloroquine); 9PHQ9Y1OLM (Prednisolone); YL5FZ2Y5U1 (Methotrexate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170724
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170724
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170512
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S000711451700085X


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[PMID]:28390936
[Au] Autor:Baffoni L; Gaggìa F; Garofolo G; Di Serafino G; Buglione E; Di Giannatale E; Di Gioia D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Evidence of Campylobacter jejuni reduction in broilers with early synbiotic administration.
[So] Source:Int J Food Microbiol;251:41-47, 2017 Jun 19.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3460
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:C. jejuni is considered a food safety concern to both public health authorities and consumers since it is the leading bacterial cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. A high incidence of C. jejuni in broiler flocks is often correlated to pathogen recovery in retail poultry meat, which is the main source of human infection. In this work broiler chickens were fed with a synbiotic product mixed with conventional feed using two different administration strategies. The synbiotic was formulated with the microencapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium longum PCB133 and a xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). 1-day old chicks were infected with C. jejuni strain M1 (10 cells) and the synbiotic mixture was then administered starting from the first and the 14th day of chicken life (for animal groups GrpC and GrpB respectively). The goal of this study was to monitor C. jejuni load at caecum level at different sampling time by real-time PCR, identifying the best administration strategy. The microbiological analysis of the caecal content also considered the quantification of Campylobacter spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum. The supplemented synbiotic was more successful in reducing C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. when administered lifelong, compared to the shorter supplementation (GrpB). Bifidobacterium spp. quantification did not show significant differences among treatments and B. longum PCB133 was detected in both supplemented groups evidencing the successful colonization of the strain. Moreover, the samples of the control group (GrpA) and GrpC were analysed with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to compare the caecal microbial community profiles at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Pattern analysis evidenced the strong influence of the early synbiotic supplementation, although a physiological change in the microbial community, occurring during growth, could be observed. Experimental results demonstrate that the synbiotic approach at farm level can be an effective strategy, combined with biosecurity measures, to improve the safety of poultry meat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação
Agentes de Controle Biológico/administração & dosagem
Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação
Ceco/microbiologia
Galinhas/microbiologia
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle
Glucuronatos/farmacologia
Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia
Probióticos/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bifidobacterium/genética
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária
Campylobacter jejuni/genética
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia
Seres Humanos
Tipagem Molecular
Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Simbióticos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biological Control Agents); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Glucuronates); 0 (Oligosaccharides); 0 (xylooligosaccharide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170410
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28363588
[Au] Autor:Safari O; Paolucci M; Motlagh HA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: omidsafari@um.ac.ir.
[Ti] Título:Effects of synbiotics on immunity and disease resistance of narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823).
[So] Source:Fish Shellfish Immunol;64:392-400, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9947
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prebiotics (mannanoligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide), probiotics (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) and synbiotics for 126 days on the immune responses, hemolymph indices, antioxidant enzymes, and biological responses after a 48-hour Aeromonas hydrophila exposure of sub-adult crayfish (11.45 ± 1.87 g). Most antibacterial activities were observed in the shell mucus of crayfish fed a diet containing xylooligosaccharide + E. faecalis and mannanoligosaccharide + Pediococcus acidilactici against Nocardia brasilience and Vibrio harveyi (p < 0.05). Feeding crayfish a xylooligosaccharide + E. faecalis diet increased protein levels and the activities of alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme in the shell mucus after the feeding trial and 48 h after the A. hydrophila-injection challenge (p < 0.05). The highest ratio of the lactobacillus count to the total viable count was observed in synbiotic diets (p < 0.05). Feeding crayfish a xylooligosaccharide + E. faecalis diet increased the growth rate and the resistance to the A. hydrophila-injection challenge (p < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding crayfish with synbiotic diets was more effective than a single administration with prebiotics and probiotics.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia
Antioxidantes/metabolismo
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
Imunidade Inata
Prebióticos/análise
Simbióticos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal/análise
Animais
Astacoidea/imunologia
Astacoidea/microbiologia
Dieta
Hemolinfa/metabolismo
Probióticos/farmacologia
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Prebiotics)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170628
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170628
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170402
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28345499
[Au] Autor:Mofidi F; Poustchi H; Yari Z; Nourinayyer B; Merat S; Sharafkhah M; Malekzadeh R; Hekmatdoost A
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics,National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science,Tehran19816,Iran.
[Ti] Título:Synbiotic supplementation in lean patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.
[So] Source:Br J Nutr;117(5):662-668, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2662
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading aetiology of liver disorders in the world, there is no proven treatment for NAFLD patients with normal or low BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of synbiotics supplementation in NAFLD patients with normal or low BMI. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, fifty patients with NAFLD were assigned to take either a synbiotic supplement or a placebo capsule for 28 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow a healthy lifestyle. At the end of the study, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis reduced in both groups; however, the mean reduction was significantly greater in the synbiotic group rather than in the placebo group (P<0·001). Furthermore, serum levels of fasting blood sugar, TAG and most of the inflammatory mediators reduced in the synbiotic group significantly compared with the placebo group (P<0·05). Our results provide evidence that synbiotic supplementation improves the main features of NAFLD in patients with normal and low BMI, at least partially through reduction in inflammatory indices. Further studies are needed to address the exact mechanism of action of these effects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Índice de Massa Corporal
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia
Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Glicemia/análise
Suplementos Nutricionais
Método Duplo-Cego
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Inflamação/terapia
Fígado/patologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
Placebos
Resultado do Tratamento
Triglicerídeos/sangue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Placebos); 0 (Triglycerides)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170420
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170420
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170328
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0007114517000204


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[PMID]:28336489
[Au] Autor:Huynh TG; Shiu YL; Nguyen TP; Truong QP; Chen JC; Liu CH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan, ROC; College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, CanTho University, CanTho, Viet Nam.
[Ti] Título:Current applications, selection, and possible mechanisms of actions of synbiotics in improving the growth and health status in aquaculture: A review.
[So] Source:Fish Shellfish Immunol;64:367-382, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9947
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Synbiotics, a conjunction between prebiotics and probiotics, have been used in aquaculture for over 10 years. However, the mechanisms of how synbiotics work as growth and immunity promoters are far from being unraveled. Here, we show that a prebiotic as part of a synbiotic is hydrolyzed to mono- or disaccharides as the sole carbon source with diverse mechanisms, thereby increasing biomass and colonization that is established by specific crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the surface of intestinal epithelial cells of the host. Synbiotics may indirectly and directly promote the growth of aquatic animals through releasing extracellular bacterial enzymes and bioactive products from synbiotic metabolic processes. These compounds may activate precursors of digestive enzymes of the host and augment the nutritional absorptive ability that contributes to the efficacy of food utilization. In fish immune systems, synbiotics cause intestinal epithelial cells to secrete cytokines which modulate immune functional cells as of dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, and induce the ability of lipopolysaccharides to trigger tumor necrosis factor-α and Toll-like receptor 2 gene transcription leading to increased respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis, and nitric oxide production. In shellfish, synbiotics stimulate the proliferation and degranulation of hemocytes of shrimp due to the presence of bacterial cell walls. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns are subsequently recognized and bound by specific pattern-recognition proteins, triggering melanization and phagocytosis processes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aquicultura
Prebióticos/análise
Probióticos/análise
Simbióticos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Crustáceos/fisiologia
Peixes/fisiologia
Moluscos/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Prebiotics)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170628
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170628
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170325
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28286605
[Au] Autor:Kleniewska P; Pawliczak R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Immunopathology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Postgraduate Training, Medical University of Lodz, 7/9 Zeligowskiego St, 90-752 Lodz, Poland.
[Ti] Título:Influence of Synbiotics on Selected Oxidative Stress Parameters.
[So] Source:Oxid Med Cell Longev;2017:9315375, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1942-0994
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of the present study was to assess synbiotic ( + inulin) influence on oxidative stress parameters such as concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H O ), glutathione, and free sulfhydryl groups content. Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers ( = 32). The subjects were divided into women group ( = 16) and men group ( = 16) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 wks, at the end of the study. The administration of synbiotic resulted in a significant decrease in MDA ( < 0.01), H O ( < 0.01), and GSSG concentrations ( < 0.05) as compared with the control groups and significant increase in the concentrations of GSHt ( < 0.001), GSH ( < 0.01), and -SH group content ( < 0.05) versus control. Synbiotics containing plus inulin may have positive influence on selected oxidative stress markers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inulina/administração & dosagem
Lactobacillus casei/metabolismo
Estresse Oxidativo
Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Biomarcadores/sangue
Feminino
Glutationa/sangue
Voluntários Saudáveis
Seres Humanos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/sangue
Inulina/metabolismo
Lactobacillus casei/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Masculino
Malondialdeído/sangue
Polônia
Compostos de Sulfidrila/sangue
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Sulfhydryl Compounds); 4Y8F71G49Q (Malondialdehyde); 9005-80-5 (Inulin); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide); GAN16C9B8O (Glutathione)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170322
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170322
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170314
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2017/9315375


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[PMID]:28270698
[Au] Autor:Alexander JL; Wilson ID; Teare J; Marchesi JR; Nicholson JK; Kinross JM
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Digestive and Gut Health, Department of Surgery &Cancer, 10th Floor QEQM Building, St Mary's Hospital Campus, Praed Street, Imperial College London, London, W2 1NY, UK.
[Ti] Título:Gut microbiota modulation of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity.
[So] Source:Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol;14(6):356-365, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1759-5053
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Evidence is growing that the gut microbiota modulates the host response to chemotherapeutic drugs, with three main clinical outcomes: facilitation of drug efficacy; abrogation and compromise of anticancer effects; and mediation of toxicity. The implication is that gut microbiota are critical to the development of personalized cancer treatment strategies and, therefore, a greater insight into prokaryotic co-metabolism of chemotherapeutic drugs is now required. This thinking is based on evidence from human, animal and in vitro studies that gut bacteria are intimately linked to the pharmacological effects of chemotherapies (5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, gemcitabine, methotrexate) and novel targeted immunotherapies such as anti-PD-L1 and anti-CLTA-4 therapies. The gut microbiota modulate these agents through key mechanisms, structured as the 'TIMER' mechanistic framework: Translocation, Immunomodulation, Metabolism, Enzymatic degradation, and Reduced diversity and ecological variation. The gut microbiota can now, therefore, be targeted to improve efficacy and reduce the toxicity of current chemotherapy agents. In this Review, we outline the implications of pharmacomicrobiomics in cancer therapeutics and define how the microbiota might be modified in clinical practice to improve efficacy and reduce the toxic burden of these compounds.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
Neoplasias/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo
Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia
Translocação Bacteriana/fisiologia
Biodiversidade
Biomarcadores
Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores
Dieta
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Previsões
Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente
Seres Humanos
Imunomodulação/fisiologia
Imunoterapia/métodos
Camundongos
Prebióticos/microbiologia
Probióticos/farmacologia
Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores
Simbióticos
Biologia Sintética/tendências
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (CTLA-4 Antigen); 0 (PDCD1 protein, human); 0 (Prebiotics); 0 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170807
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170807
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170309
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.20


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[PMID]:28262216
[Au] Autor:Yu T; Zheng YP; Tan JC; Xiong WJ; Wang Y; Lin L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing , Jiangsu Province, China.
[Ti] Título:Effects of Prebiotics and Synbiotics on Functional Constipation.
[So] Source:Am J Med Sci;353(3):282-292, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1538-2990
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to determine the quality of the trials. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to analyze for publication bias. We included 5 RCTs involving 199 patients who were administered prebiotics and 8 RCTs involving 825 patients who were administered synbiotics. Prebiotics increased weekly stool frequency (MD: 1.01bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.04-1.99) and improved stool consistency (SMD: -0.59, 95% CI: -1.16 to -0.02). Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for galacto-oligosaccharides on stool frequency, consistency, ease of defecation and abdominal pain. Synbiotics significantly improved stool frequency (MD: 1.15bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.58-1.71), consistency (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92) and reduced whole-gut transit time (MD: 13.52, 95% CI: -26.56 to -0.49) in patients with FC. Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic combinations on stool frequency, consistency, straining defecation and bloating. Galacto-oligosaccharides and synbiotics made up of fructo-oligosaccharides with probiotic combinations may improve stool frequency, consistency and some other symptoms related to constipation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Constipação Intestinal/terapia
Prebióticos
Simbióticos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Prebiotics)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170512
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170512
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170307
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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