Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : G07.345.500.100 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 11044 [refinar]
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  1 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29227993
[Au] Autor:McGurk PD; Swartz ME; Chen JW; Galloway JL; Eberhart JK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:In vivo zebrafish morphogenesis shows Cyp26b1 promotes tendon condensation and musculoskeletal patterning in the embryonic jaw.
[So] Source:PLoS Genet;13(12):e1007112, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7404
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Integrated development of diverse tissues gives rise to a functional, mobile vertebrate musculoskeletal system. However, the genetics and cellular interactions that drive the integration of muscle, tendon, and skeleton are poorly understood. In the vertebrate head, neural crest cells, from which cranial tendons derive, pattern developing muscles just as tendons have been shown to in limb and trunk tissue, yet the mechanisms of this patterning are unknown. From a forward genetic screen, we determined that cyp26b1 is critical for musculoskeletal integration in the ventral pharyngeal arches, particularly in the mandibulohyoid junction where first and second arch muscles interconnect. Using time-lapse confocal analyses, we detail musculoskeletal integration in wild-type and cyp26b1 mutant zebrafish. In wild-type fish, tenoblasts are present in apposition to elongating muscles and condense in discrete muscle attachment sites. In the absence of cyp26b1, tenoblasts are generated in normal numbers but fail to condense into nascent tendons within the ventral arches and, subsequently, muscles project into ectopic locales. These ectopic muscle fibers eventually associate with ectopic tendon marker expression. Genetic mosaic analysis demonstrates that neural crest cells require Cyp26b1 function for proper musculoskeletal development. Using an inhibitor, we find that Cyp26 function is required in a short time window that overlaps the dynamic window of tenoblast condensation. However, cyp26b1 expression is largely restricted to regions between tenoblast condensations during this time. Our results suggest that degradation of RA by this previously undescribed population of neural crest cells is critical to promote condensation of adjacent scxa-expressing tenoblasts and that these condensations are subsequently required for proper musculoskeletal integration.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética
Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética
Morfogênese/genética
Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Padronização Corporal/genética
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
Arcada Osseodentária/embriologia
Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética
Músculo Esquelético/embriologia
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
Tendões/embriologia
Tendões/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
Peixe-Zebra/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 1.14.14.1 (Retinoic Acid 4-Hydroxylase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007112


  2 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28449681
[Au] Autor:Larouche O; Zelditch ML; Cloutier R
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratoire de Paléontologie et de Biologie évolutive, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L 3A1, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Fin modules: an evolutionary perspective on appendage disparity in basal vertebrates.
[So] Source:BMC Biol;15(1):32, 2017 04 27.
[Is] ISSN:1741-7007
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Fishes are extremely speciose and also highly disparate in their fin configurations, more specifically in the number of fins present as well as their structure, shape, and size. How they achieved this remarkable disparity is difficult to explain in the absence of any comprehensive overview of the evolutionary history of fish appendages. Fin modularity could provide an explanation for both the observed disparity in fin configurations and the sequential appearance of new fins. Modularity is considered as an important prerequisite for the evolvability of living systems, enabling individual modules to be optimized without interfering with others. Similarities in developmental patterns between some of the fins already suggest that they form developmental modules during ontogeny. At a macroevolutionary scale, these developmental modules could act as evolutionary units of change and contribute to the disparity in fin configurations. This study addresses fin disparity in a phylogenetic perspective, while focusing on the presence/absence and number of each of the median and paired fins. RESULTS: Patterns of fin morphological disparity were assessed by mapping fin characters on a new phylogenetic supertree of fish orders. Among agnathans, disparity in fin configurations results from the sequential appearance of novel fins forming various combinations. Both median and paired fins would have appeared first as elongated ribbon-like structures, which were the precursors for more constricted appendages. Among chondrichthyans, disparity in fin configurations relates mostly to median fin losses. Among actinopterygians, fin disparity involves fin losses, the addition of novel fins (e.g., the adipose fin), and coordinated duplications of the dorsal and anal fins. Furthermore, some pairs of fins, notably the dorsal/anal and pectoral/pelvic fins, show non-independence in their character distribution, supporting expectations based on developmental and morphological evidence that these fin pairs form evolutionary modules. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the pectoral/pelvic fins and the dorsal/anal fins form two distinct evolutionary modules, and that the latter is nested within a more inclusive median fins module. Because the modularity hypotheses that we are testing are also supported by developmental and variational data, this constitutes a striking example linking developmental, variational, and evolutionary modules.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Nadadeiras de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Evolução Biológica
Padronização Corporal
Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia
Animais
Peixes/anatomia & histologia
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12915-017-0370-x


  3 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29305264
[Au] Autor:Nikolaou S; Hadjikypri X; Ioannou G; Elia A; Georgiades P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus.
[Ti] Título:Functional and phenotypic distinction of the first two trophoblast subdivisions and identification of the border between them during early postimplantation: A prerequisite for understanding early patterning during placentogenesis.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun;496(1):64-69, 2018 01 29.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2104
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The early stages of mouse placentogenesis (placenta formation) involve poorly understood patterning events within polar trophectoderm-derived trophoblast, the progenitor of all placental trophoblast cell types. By early postimplantation [embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5)], this patterning causes early trophoblast to become subdivided into extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) and ectoplacental cone (EPC). A prerequisite to understanding this patterning requires knowing the location of ExE-EPC border and being able to distinguish the entire ExE from EPC at E5.5/E6.5, a time when the proamnioitic cavity within ExE is not fully established. However, these issues are unknown, as they have not been directly addressed. Here, we directly addressed these using trophoblast explant culture to functionally test for the location of ExE-EPC border, combined with phenotypic characterization of trophoblast proximal and distal to it. We show for the first time that the proximal-distal level of ExE-EPC border within E5.5/E6.5 trophoblast coincides with where Reichert's membrane (outermost basement membrane of conceptus) inserts into early trophoblast and with the proximal limit of extraembryonic visceral endoderm (primitive endoderm derivative covering part of early trophoblast). Based on these novel findings, we discovered that (a) the entire E5.5/E6.5 ExE can be distinguished from EPC because it is epithelial and specifically expresses Erf and Claudin4 and (b) at E5.5/E6.5, the entire EPC differs from ExE in that it is not epithelial and specifically expresses Snail. This work is expected to contribute to understanding the cellular and molecular basis of early trophoblast patterning during placentogenesis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Padronização Corporal/fisiologia
Ectoderma/citologia
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia
Endoderma/citologia
Placentação/fisiologia
Trofoblastos/citologia
Trofoblastos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Células Cultivadas
Ectoderma/fisiologia
Endoderma/fisiologia
Feminino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180107
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29298325
[Au] Autor:Xu P; Morrison JP; Foley JF; Stumpo DJ; Ward T; Zeldin DC; Blackshear PJ
[Ad] Endereço:Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Unites States of America.
[Ti] Título:Conditional ablation of the RFX4 isoform 1 transcription factor: Allele dosage effects on brain phenotype.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190561, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Regulatory factor X4 (RFX4) isoform 1 is a recently discovered isoform of the winged helix transcription factor RFX4, which can bind to X-box consensus sequences that are enriched in the promoters of cilia-related genes. Early insertional mutagenesis studies in mice first identified this isoform, and demonstrated that it was crucial for mouse brain development. RFX4 isoform 1 is the only RFX4 isoform significantly expressed in the mouse fetal and adult brain. In this study, we evaluated conditional knock-out (KO) mice in which one or two floxed alleles of Rfx4 were deleted early in development through the use of a Sox2-Cre transgene. Heterozygous deletion of Rfx4 resulted in severe, non-communicating congenital hydrocephalus associated with hypoplasia of the subcommissural organ. Homozygous deletion of Rfx4 resulted in formation of a single ventricle in the forebrain, and severe dorsoventral patterning defects in the telencephalon and midbrain at embryonic day 12.5, a collection of phenotypes that resembled human holoprosencephaly. No anatomical abnormalities were noted outside the brain in either case. At the molecular level, transcripts encoded by the cilia-related gene Foxj1 were significantly decreased, and Foxj1 was identified as a direct gene target of RFX4 isoform 1. The phenotypes were similar to those observed in the previous Rfx4 insertional mutagenesis studies. Thus, we provide a novel conditional KO animal model in which to investigate the downstream genes directly and/or indirectly regulated by RFX4 isoform 1. This model could provide new insights into the pathogenesis of obstructive hydrocephalus and holoprosencephaly in humans, both relatively common and disabling birth defects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alelos
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Fatores de Transcrição de Fator Regulador X/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Padronização Corporal
Homozigoto
Camundongos
Camundongos Knockout
Fenótipo
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors); 0 (Rfx4 protein, mouse)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190561


  5 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29227065
[Au] Autor:Miura T
[Ti] Título:Theoretical Models of Vascular Pattern Formation.
[So] Source:Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi;107(9):161-8, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0016-254X
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pattern formation of vascular structure has been extensively studied in vascular biology. Classically the pattern formation process falls into three categories-vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and remodeling. Mathematical modeling study of these phenomena has been done byrelatively independent of experimental works by applied mathematicians, and not well understood by experimental biologists. In this review I provide intuitive explanations of proposed theoretical models and recent advance in modelling study of vascular development.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vasos Sanguíneos/anatomia & histologia
Padronização Corporal
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Neovascularização Fisiológica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29257948
[Au] Autor:Cutie S; Hoang AT; Payumo AY; Huang GN
[Ad] Endereço:Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
[Ti] Título:Unconventional Functions of Muscles in Planarian Regeneration.
[So] Source:Dev Cell;43(6):657-658, 2017 Dec 18.
[Is] ISSN:1878-1551
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Muscles are traditionally considered in the context of force generation. Scimone et al. (2017), reporting in Nature, now examine muscles in a developmental setting and find unexpected roles for distinct planarian muscle fibers. The authors show that muscles provide patterning signals to promote regeneration and guide tissue growth after injury.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planárias/fisiologia
Regeneração/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Padronização Corporal/fisiologia
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia
Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia
Músculos/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180117
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180117
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171220
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28743798
[Au] Autor:Chen W; Huang H; Hatori R; Kornberg TB
[Ad] Endereço:Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
[Ti] Título:Essential basal cytonemes take up Hedgehog in the wing imaginal disc.
[So] Source:Development;144(17):3134-3144, 2017 09 01.
[Is] ISSN:1477-9129
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Morphogen concentration gradients that extend across developmental fields form by dispersion from source cells. In the wing disc, Hedgehog (Hh) produced by posterior compartment cells distributes in a concentration gradient to adjacent cells of the anterior compartment. We monitored Hh:GFP after pulsed expression, and analyzed the movement and colocalization of Hh, Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) proteins tagged with GFP or mCherry and expressed at physiological levels from bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes. Hh:GFP moved to basal subcellular locations prior to release from posterior compartment cells that express it, and was taken up by basal cytonemes that extend to the source cells. Hh and Ptc were present in puncta that moved along the basal cytonemes and formed characteristic apical-basal distributions in the anterior compartment cells. The basal cytonemes required , , and , and both the Hh gradient and Hh signaling declined under conditions in which the cytonemes were compromised. These findings show that in the wing disc, Hh distributions and signaling are dependent upon basal release and uptake, and on cytoneme-mediated movement. No evidence for apical dispersion was obtained.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo
Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo
Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo
Discos Imaginais/metabolismo
Asas de Animais/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Padronização Corporal
Compartimento Celular
Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo
Transporte Proteico
Transdução de Sinais
Transgenes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drosophila Proteins); 0 (Hedgehog Proteins); 147336-22-9 (Green Fluorescent Proteins); 149291-21-4 (hedgehog protein, Drosophila)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180112
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180112
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1242/dev.149856


  8 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29232705
[Au] Autor:Singh BN; Tahara N; Kawakami Y; Das S; Koyano-Nakagawa N; Gong W; Garry MG; Garry DJ
[Ad] Endereço:Lillehei Heart Institute Regenerative Medicine and Sciences Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Etv2-miR-130a-Jarid2 cascade regulates vascular patterning during embryogenesis.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189010, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Remodeling of the primitive vasculature is necessary for the formation of a complex branched vascular architecture. However, the factors that modulate these processes are incompletely defined. Previously, we defined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in endothelial specification. In the present study, we further examined the Etv2-Cre mediated ablation of DicerL/L and characterized the perturbed vascular patterning in the embryo proper and yolk-sac. We mechanistically defined an important role for miR-130a, an Etv2 downstream target, in the mediation of vascular patterning and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Inducible overexpression of miR-130a resulted in robust induction of vascular sprouts and angiogenesis with increased uptake of acetylated-LDL. Mechanistically, miR-130a directly regulated Jarid2 expression by binding to its 3'-UTR region. Over-expression of Jarid2 in HUVEC cells led to defective tube formation indicating its inhibitory role in angiogenesis. The knockout of miR-130a showed increased levels of Jarid2 in the ES/EB system. In addition, the levels of Jarid2 transcripts were increased in the Etv2-null embryos at E8.5. In the in vivo settings, injection of miR-130a specific morpholinos in zebrafish embryos resulted in perturbed vascular patterning with reduced levels of endothelial transcripts in the miR-130a morphants. Further, co-injection of miR-130a mimics in the miR-130a morphants rescued the vascular defects during embryogenesis. qPCR and in situ hybridization techniques demonstrated increased expression of jarid2a in the miR-130a morphants in vivo. These findings demonstrate a critical role for Etv2-miR-130a-Jarid2 in vascular patterning both in vitro and in vivo.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vasos Sanguíneos/embriologia
Padronização Corporal/genética
Desenvolvimento Embrionário
MicroRNAs/genética
Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética
Fatores de Transcrição/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
Camundongos
Camundongos Knockout
Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (ER71 protein, mouse); 0 (Jarid2 protein, mouse); 0 (MIRN130 microRNA, mouse); 0 (MicroRNAs); 0 (Transcription Factors); EC 2.1.1.43 (Polycomb Repressive Complex 2)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189010


  9 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27773569
[Au] Autor:Leal F; Cohn MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, P.O. Box 103610, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; Department of Biology, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, P.O. Box 103610, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
[Ti] Título:Loss and Re-emergence of Legs in Snakes by Modular Evolution of Sonic hedgehog and HOXD Enhancers.
[So] Source:Curr Biol;26(21):2966-2973, 2016 Nov 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0445
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Limb reduction and loss are hallmarks of snake evolution. Although advanced snakes are completely limbless, basal and intermediate snakes retain pelvic girdles and small rudiments of the femur. Moreover, legs may have re-emerged in extinct snake lineages [1-5], suggesting that the mechanisms of limb development were not completely lost in snakes. Here we report that hindlimb development arrests in python embryos as a result of mutations that abolish essential transcription factor binding sites in the limb-specific enhancer of Sonic hedgehog (SHH). Consequently, SHH transcription is weak and transient in python hindlimb buds, leading to early termination of a genetic circuit that drives limb outgrowth. Our results suggest that degenerate evolution of the SHH limb enhancer played a role in reduction of hindlimbs during snake evolution. By contrast, HOXD digit enhancers are conserved in pythons, and HOXD gene expression in the hindlimb buds progresses to the distal phase, forming an autopodial (digit) domain. Python hindlimb buds then develop transitory pre-chondrogenic condensations of the tibia, fibula, and footplate, raising the possibility that re-emergence of hindlimbs during snake evolution did not require de novo re-evolution of lost structures but instead could have resulted from persistence of embryonic legs. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Padronização Corporal
Boidae/genética
Evolução Molecular
Extremidades/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
Proteínas de Répteis/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Boidae/anatomia & histologia
Boidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Extremidades/anatomia & histologia
Proteínas Hedgehog/genética
Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo
Proteínas de Répteis/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hedgehog Proteins); 0 (Reptilian Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 11044 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28463802
[Au] Autor:Scholes NS; Isalan M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
[Ti] Título:A three-step framework for programming pattern formation.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Chem Biol;40:1-7, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0402
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The spatial organisation of gene expression is essential to create structure and function in multicellular organisms during developmental processes. Such organisation occurs by the execution of algorithmic functions, leading to patterns within a given domain, such as a tissue. Engineering these processes has become increasingly important because bioengineers are seeking to develop tissues ex vivo. Moreover, although there are several theories on how pattern formation can occur in vivo, the biological relevance and biotechnological potential of each of these remains unclear. In this review, we will briefly explain four of the major theories of pattern formation in the light of recent work. We will explore why programming of such patterns is necessary, while discussing a three-step framework for artificial engineering approaches.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Padronização Corporal
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bioengenharia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
Seres Humanos
Medicina Regenerativa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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