Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : G14 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 4692 [refinar]
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[PMID]:29311648
[Au] Autor:Thiagavel J; Cechetto C; Santana SE; Jakobsen L; Warrant EJ; Ratcliffe JM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Auditory opportunity and visual constraint enabled the evolution of echolocation in bats.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):98, 2018 01 08.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Substantial evidence now supports the hypothesis that the common ancestor of bats was nocturnal and capable of both powered flight and laryngeal echolocation. This scenario entails a parallel sensory and biomechanical transition from a nonvolant, vision-reliant mammal to one capable of sonar and flight. Here we consider anatomical constraints and opportunities that led to a sonar rather than vision-based solution. We show that bats' common ancestor had eyes too small to allow for successful aerial hawking of flying insects at night, but an auditory brain design sufficient to afford echolocation. Further, we find that among extant predatory bats (all of which use laryngeal echolocation), those with putatively less sophisticated biosonar have relatively larger eyes than do more sophisticated echolocators. We contend that signs of ancient trade-offs between vision and echolocation persist today, and that non-echolocating, phytophagous pteropodid bats may retain some of the necessary foundations for biosonar.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia
Quirópteros/fisiologia
Ecolocação/fisiologia
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia
Quirópteros/classificação
Olho/anatomia & histologia
Voo Animal/fisiologia
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
Visão Ocular/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02532-x


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[PMID]:29227515
[Au] Autor:Carriazo C; Cosentino MJ
[Ti] Título:A Novel Corneal Remodeling Technique for the Management of Keratoconus.
[So] Source:J Refract Surg;33(12):854-856, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1081-597X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To describe a novel technique to reshape the ectatic cornea by means of crescent keratectomy performed with an excimer laser using a mask. METHODS: A crescent-shaped perforation at the base of the mask allowed the laser ablation to be directed only to the intended region, shielding the remaining cornea. This technique was performed in 3 eyes of 3 patients with keratoconus grade 2 to 3. Arcs of 180° and 360° had been performed depending on the severity of the keratoconus. The edges of the crescent were closed by 10-0 nylon interrupted sutures. RESULTS: At 1 year postoperatively, all cases showed improvement in visual acuity, keratometry, and corneal topography. The treatment also reduced optical aberrations and shortened the anterior chamber depth. CONCLUSIONS: Although the preliminary results are promising, there is a need to standardize a nomogram of this technique for treating keratoconus. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(12):854-856.].
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Córnea/fisiologia
Cirurgia da Córnea a Laser/métodos
Ceratocone/cirurgia
Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Topografia da Córnea
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Ceratocone/fisiopatologia
Masculino
Refração Ocular/fisiologia
Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20171004-05


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[PMID]:29261696
[Au] Autor:Smith DW; Gardiner BS
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Estimating outflow facility through pressure dependent pathways of the human eye.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188769, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We develop and test a new theory for pressure dependent outflow from the eye. The theory comprises three main parameters: (i) a constant hydraulic conductivity, (ii) an exponential decay constant and (iii) a no-flow intraocular pressure, from which the total pressure dependent outflow, average outflow facilities and local outflow facilities for the whole eye may be evaluated. We use a new notation to specify precisely the meaning of model parameters and so model outputs. Drawing on a range of published data, we apply the theory to animal eyes, enucleated eyes and in vivo human eyes, and demonstrate how to evaluate model parameters. It is shown that the theory can fit high quality experimental data remarkably well. The new theory predicts that outflow facilities and total pressure dependent outflow for the whole eye are more than twice as large as estimates based on the Goldman equation and fluorometric analysis of anterior aqueous outflow. It appears likely that this discrepancy can be largely explained by pseudofacility and aqueous flow through the retinal pigmented epithelium, while any residual discrepancy may be due to pathological processes in aged eyes. The model predicts that if the hydraulic conductivity is too small, or the exponential decay constant is too large, then intraocular eye pressure may become unstable when subjected to normal circadian changes in aqueous production. The model also predicts relationships between variables that may be helpful when planning future experiments, and the model generates many novel testable hypotheses. With additional research, the analysis described here may find application in the differential diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of glaucoma.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pressão Intraocular
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Modelos Teóricos
Tonometria Ocular
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188769


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[PMID]:29182506
[Au] Autor:Battelle BA
[Ti] Título:Opsins and Their Expression Patterns in the Xiphosuran Limulus polyphemus.
[So] Source:Biol Bull;233(1):3-20, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1939-8697
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of four extant species of xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. Because of their position in the arthropod family tree and because they exhibit many plesiomorphic characteristics, Xiphosura are considered a proxy for the euchelicerate ancestor and therefore important for understanding the evolution and diversification of chelicerates and arthropods. Limulus polyphemus is the most extensively studied xiphosuran, and its visual system has long been a focus of studies critical for our understanding of basic mechanisms of vision and the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Building upon a wealth of information about the anatomy and physiology of its visual system, advances in genetic approaches have greatly expanded possibilities for understanding its biochemistry. This review focuses on studies of opsin expression in L. polyphemus, which have been significantly advanced by the availability of transcriptomes and a recent high-quality assembly of its genome. These studies show that the repertoire of expressed opsins in L. polyphemus is far larger than anticipated, that the regulation of their expression in rhabdoms is far more complex than anticipated, and that photosensitivity may be distributed widely throughout the L. polyphemus central nervous system. The visual system of L. polyphemus is now arguably the best understood among chelicerates, and as such, it is a critical resource for furthering our understanding of the evolution and diversification of visual systems in arthropods.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Regulação da Expressão Gênica
Caranguejos Ferradura/genética
Caranguejos Ferradura/metabolismo
Opsinas/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Genoma
Caranguejos Ferradura/classificação
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares/genética
Transcriptoma
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Opsins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180111
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180111
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171129
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1086/693730


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[PMID]:28454845
[Au] Autor:Babiloni C; Del Percio C; Lizio R; Noce G; Cordone S; Lopez S; Soricelli A; Ferri R; Pascarelli MT; Nobili F; Arnaldi D; Aarsland D; Orzi F; Buttinelli C; Giubilei F; Onofrj M; Stocchi F; Stirpe P; Fuhr P; Gschwandtner U; Ransmayr G; Caravias G; Garn H; Sorpresi F; Pievani M; Frisoni GB; D'Antonio F; De Lena C; Güntekin B; Hanoglu L; Basar E; Yener G; Emek-Savas DD; Triggiani AI; Franciotti R; De Pandis MF; Bonanni L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Vittorio Erspamer", University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy; Institute for Research and Medical Care, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: claudio.babiloni@uniroma1.it.
[Ti] Título:Abnormalities of cortical neural synchronization mechanisms in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's and Lewy body diseases: an EEG study.
[So] Source:Neurobiol Aging;55:143-158, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1558-1497
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this retrospective exploratory study was that resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms might reflect brain arousal in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy body (DLB). Clinical and rsEEG data of 42 ADD, 42 PDD, 34 DLB, and 40 healthy elderly (Nold) subjects were available in an international archive. Demography, education, and Mini-Mental State Evaluation score were not different between the patient groups. Individual alpha frequency peak (IAF) determined the delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3 frequency bands. Fixed beta 1, beta 2, and gamma bands were also considered. rsEEG cortical sources were estimated by means of the exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography and were then classified across individuals, on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic curves. Compared to Nold, IAF showed marked slowing in PDD and DLB and moderate slowing in ADD. Furthermore, all patient groups showed lower posterior alpha 2 source activities. This effect was dramatic in ADD, marked in DLB, and moderate in PDD. These groups also showed higher occipital delta source activities, but this effect was dramatic in PDD, marked in DLB, and moderate in ADD. The posterior delta and alpha sources allowed good classification accuracy (approximately 0.85-0.90) between the Nold subjects and patients, and between ADD and PDD patients. In quiet wakefulness, delta and alpha sources unveiled different spatial and frequency features of the cortical neural synchronization underpinning brain arousal in ADD, PDD, and DLB patients. Future prospective cross-validation studies should test these rsEEG markers for clinical applications and drug discovery.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia
Sincronização Cortical/fisiologia
Eletroencefalografia
Doença por Corpos de Lewy/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
Descanso/fisiologia
Estudos Retrospectivos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28813574
[Au] Autor:Sengupta S; Smith DS; Smith AK; Welch EB; Smith SA
[Ad] Endereço:Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States.
[Ti] Título:Dynamic Imaging of the Eye, Optic Nerve, and Extraocular Muscles With Golden Angle Radial MRI.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;58(10):4390­4398, 2017 08 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: The eye and its accessory structures, the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles, form a complex dynamic system. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this system in motion can have substantial benefits in understanding oculomotor functioning in health and disease, but has been restricted to date to imaging of static gazes only. The purpose of this work was to develop a technique to image the eye and its accessory visual structures in motion. Methods: Dynamic imaging of the eye was developed on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, based on a golden angle radial sequence that allows freely selectable frame-rate and temporal-span image reconstructions from the same acquired data set. Retrospective image reconstructions at a chosen frame rate of 57 ms per image yielded high-quality in vivo movies of various eye motion tasks performed in the scanner. Motion analysis was performed for a left-right version task where motion paths, lengths, and strains/globe angle of the medial and lateral extraocular muscles and the optic nerves were estimated. Results: Offline image reconstructions resulted in dynamic images of bilateral visual structures of healthy adults in only ∼15-s imaging time. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the motion enabled estimation of trajectories, lengths, and strains on the optic nerves and extraocular muscles at very high frame rates of ∼18 frames/s. Conclusions: This work presents an MRI technique that enables high-frame-rate dynamic imaging of the eyes and orbital structures. The presented sequence has the potential to be used in furthering the understanding of oculomotor mechanics in vivo, both in health and disease.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Olho/diagnóstico por imagem
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
Músculos Oculomotores/diagnóstico por imagem
Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia
Feminino
Voluntários Saudáveis
Seres Humanos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
Masculino
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia
Nervo Óptico/fisiologia
Estudos Retrospectivos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.17-21861


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[PMID]:28686605
[Au] Autor:Densten IL; Borrowman L
[Ad] Endereço:Monash University Australia Alumni, Melbourne, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Does the implicit models of leadership influence the scanning of other-race faces in adults?
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0179058, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The current study aims to identify the relationships between implicit leadership theoretical (ILT) prototypes / anti-prototype and five facial features (i.e., nasion, upper nose, lower nose, and upper lip) of a leader from a different race than respondents. A sample of 81 Asian respondents viewed a 30-second video of a Caucasian female who in a non-engaging manner talked about her career achievements. As participants watch the video, their eye movements were recorded via an eye tracking devise. While previous research has identified that ILT influences perceptional and attitudinal ratings of leaders, the current study extends these findings by confirming the impact of ILT on the gaze patterns of other race participants, who appear to adopt system one type thinking. This study advances our understanding in how cognitive categories or schemas influence the physicality of individuals (i.e., eye gaze or movements). Finally, this study confirms that individual ILT factors have a relationship with the eye movements of participants and suggests future research directions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição/fisiologia
Emoções
Face/fisiologia
Liderança
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático
Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Nariz/fisiologia
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170708
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0179058


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[PMID]:28614367
[Au] Autor:Buonocore A; Fracasso A; Melcher D
[Ad] Endereço:Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Tübingen University, Tübingen, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Pre-saccadic perception: Separate time courses for enhancement and spatial pooling at the saccade target.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0178902, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We interact with complex scenes using eye movements to select targets of interest. Studies have shown that the future target of a saccadic eye movement is processed differently by the visual system. A number of effects have been reported, including a benefit for perceptual performance at the target ("enhancement"), reduced influences of backward masking ("un-masking"), reduced crowding ("un-crowding") and spatial compression towards the saccade target. We investigated the time course of these effects by measuring orientation discrimination for targets that were spatially crowded or temporally masked. In four experiments, we varied the target-flanker distance, the presence of forward/backward masks, the orientation of the flankers and whether participants made a saccade. Masking and randomizing flanker orientation reduced performance in both fixation and saccade trials. We found a small improvement in performance on saccade trials, compared to fixation trials, with a time course that was consistent with a general enhancement at the saccade target. In addition, a decrement in performance (reporting the average flanker orientation, rather than the target) was found in the time bins nearest saccade onset when random oriented flankers were used, consistent with spatial pooling around the saccade target. We did not find strong evidence for un-crowding. Overall, our pattern of results was consistent with both an early, general enhancement at the saccade target and a later, peri-saccadic compression/pooling towards the saccade target.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
Movimentos Sacádicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Mascaramento Perceptivo
Tempo de Reação
Percepção Espacial
Percepção Visual
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170615
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178902


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[PMID]:28607486
[Au] Autor:Sabbah S; Gemmer JA; Bhatia-Lin A; Manoff G; Castro G; Siegel JK; Jeffery N; Berson DM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
[Ti] Título:A retinal code for motion along the gravitational and body axes.
[So] Source:Nature;546(7659):492-497, 2017 06 22.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Self-motion triggers complementary visual and vestibular reflexes supporting image-stabilization and balance. Translation through space produces one global pattern of retinal image motion (optic flow), rotation another. We examined the direction preferences of direction-sensitive ganglion cells (DSGCs) in flattened mouse retinas in vitro. Here we show that for each subtype of DSGC, direction preference varies topographically so as to align with specific translatory optic flow fields, creating a neural ensemble tuned for a specific direction of motion through space. Four cardinal translatory directions are represented, aligned with two axes of high adaptive relevance: the body and gravitational axes. One subtype maximizes its output when the mouse advances, others when it retreats, rises or falls. Two classes of DSGCs, namely, ON-DSGCs and ON-OFF-DSGCs, share the same spatial geometry but weight the four channels differently. Each subtype ensemble is also tuned for rotation. The relative activation of DSGC channels uniquely encodes every translation and rotation. Although retinal and vestibular systems both encode translatory and rotatory self-motion, their coordinate systems differ.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Gravitação
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
Fluxo Óptico/fisiologia
Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia
Rotação
Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Camundongos
Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170614
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature22818


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[PMID]:28427391
[Au] Autor:Harant UK; Michiels NK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Animal Evolutionary Ecology, Institution for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany. ulrike.harant@uni-tuebingen.de.
[Ti] Título:Fish with red fluorescent eyes forage more efficiently under dim, blue-green light conditions.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):18, 2017 Apr 20.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system. We repeatedly presented 10 copepods to individual fish (n = 40) kept under a narrow blue-green spectrum and compared their performance with that under a broad spectrum with the same overall brightness. The experiment was repeated for two levels of brightness, a shaded one representing 0.4% of the light present at the surface and a heavily shaded one with about 0.01% of the surface brightness. RESULTS: Fish were 7% more successful at catching copepods under the narrow, fluorescence-friendly spectrum than under the broad spectrum. However, this effect was significant under the heavily shaded light treatment only. CONCLUSIONS: This outcome corroborates previous predictions that fluorescence may be an adaptation to blue-green, heavily shaded environments, which coincides with the opportunistic biology of this species that lives in the transition zone between exposed and heavily shaded microhabitats.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
Perciformes/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Fisiológica
Animais
Olho/química
Fluorescência
Luz
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170422
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0127-y



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