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[PMID]:28681436
[Au] Autor:Bernal-Molina P; Marín-Franch I; Del Águila-Carrasco AJ; Esteve-Taboada JJ; López-Gil N; Kruger PB; Montés-Micó R
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Óptica y Optometría y Ciencias de la Visión, Facultad de Física, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Human eyes do not need monochromatic aberrations for dynamic accommodation.
[So] Source:Ophthalmic Physiol Opt;37(5):602-609, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1475-1313
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To determine if human accommodation uses the eye's own monochromatic aberrations to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. METHODS: Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects monocularly viewed a monochromatic Maltese cross moving sinusoidally around 2D of accommodative demand with 1D amplitude at 0.2 Hz. The amplitude and phase (delay) of the accommodation response were compared to the actual vergence of the stimulus to obtain gain and temporal phase, calculated from wavefront aberrations recorded over time during experimental trials. The tested conditions were as follows: Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus (C); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and habitual second-order astigmatism (AS); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and odd higher-order aberrations (HOAs); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and even HOAs (E); Natural aberrations of the subject's eye, i.e., the adaptive-optics system only corrected the optical system's aberrations (N); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and fourth-order spherical aberration (SA). The correction was performed at 20 Hz and each condition was repeated six times in randomised order. RESULTS: Average gain (±2 standard errors of the mean) varied little across conditions; between 0.55 ± 0.06 (SA), and 0.62 ± 0.06 (AS). Average phase (±2 standard errors of the mean) also varied little; between 0.41 ± 0.02 s (E), and 0.47 ± 0.02 s (O). After Bonferroni correction, no statistically significant differences in gain or phase were found in the presence of specific monochromatic aberrations or in their absence. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the eye's monochromatic aberrations are not necessary for accommodation to track dynamic accommodative stimuli.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Refração Ocular
Acuidade Visual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170707
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/opo.12398


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[PMID]:28505662
[Au] Autor:Erkelens IM; Bobier WR
[Ad] Endereço:University of Waterloo, School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Asymmetries between convergence and divergence reveal tonic vergence is dependent upon phasic vergence function.
[So] Source:J Vis;17(5):4, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1534-7362
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Horizontal vergence eye movements are controlled by two processes, phasic and slow-tonic. Slow-tonic responses are hypothesized to be stimulated by the faster, pulse-step neural output of the phasic system. This suggests that the general behavior of each system should be similar; however, this relationship has yet to be investigated directly. We characterize the relationship between phasic and tonic vergence by quantifying directional asymmetries in the response properties of each mechanism to the same disparity amplitudes. Four subjects viewed symmetric steps in disparity dichoptically at 40 cm while eye movements were recorded with infrared oculography. First- and second-order phasic and slow-tonic convergence response properties increased linearly with disparity demand (p < 0.01), whereas divergence responses did not (p > 0.05). Phasic divergence responses were slower than convergence (p = 0.012) and were associated with a higher frequency of saccades (p < 0.001). The average rate of slow-tonic change was correlated to the average peak velocity of phasic vergence at the same vergence demand in both directions, r = 0.78, p < 0.0001. Clear directional asymmetries were observed in phasic and tonic vergence responses. The response properties of the slow-tonic mechanism varied directly with the peak velocity of the complementary phasic system. These results provide empirical evidence of the relationship between phasic and slow-tonic vergence, suggesting that the latter depends on the motor function of the former, specifically the peak velocity. The recruitment of additional oculomotor mechanisms, such as saccades, improved the phasic response properties of the slower divergence mechanism but did not directly influence the response behavior of the slow-tonic mechanism.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Movimentos Oculares
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Visão Binocular/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170825
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170825
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170516
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/17.5.4


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[PMID]:28324117
[Au] Autor:Del Águila-Carrasco AJ; Marín-Franch I; Bernal-Molina P; Esteve-Taboada JJ; Kruger PB; Montés-Micó R; López-Gil N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Optics and Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain 2Interuniversity Laboratory for Research in Vision and Optometry, Mixed group UVEG-UMU, Valencia-Murcia, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Accommodation Responds to Optical Vergence and Not Defocus Blur Alone.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;58(3):1758-1763, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation. Methods: Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between -1 and +1 diopters (D) at 0.2 Hz; and blur-driven condition, in which the level of defocus at the retina was always 0 D, but a sinusoidal defocus blur between -1 and +1 D at 0.2 Hz was simulated in the target. Right before the beginning of each trial, the target was moved to an accommodative demand of 2 D. Results: Eight out of nine subjects showed sinusoidal responses for the vergence-driven condition but not for the blur-driven condition. Their average (±SD) gain for the vergence-driven condition was 0.50 (±0.28). For the blur-driven condition, average gain was much smaller at 0.07 (±0.03). The ninth subject showed little to no response for both conditions, with average gain <0.08. Vergence-driven condition gain was significantly different from blur-driven condition gain (P = 0.004). Conclusions: Accommodation responds to optical vergence, even without feedback, and not to changes in defocus blur alone. These results suggest the presence of a retinal mechanism that provides a directional cue for accommodation from optical vergence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia
Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Refração Ocular
Acuidade Visual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Astigmatismo/diagnóstico
Sinais (Psicologia)
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170322
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.16-21280


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[PMID]:28291868
[Au] Autor:Mutti DO; Mitchell GL; Jones-Jordan LA; Cotter SA; Kleinstein RN; Manny RE; Twelker JD; Zadnik K; CLEERE Study Group
[Ad] Endereço:The Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, Ohio, United States.
[Ti] Título:The Response AC/A Ratio Before and After the Onset of Myopia.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;58(3):1594-1602, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: To investigate the ratio of accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodative response (AC/A ratio) before, during, and after myopia onset. Methods: Subjects were 698 children aged 6 to 14 years who became myopic and 430 emmetropic children participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error. Refractive error was measured using cycloplegic autorefraction, near work by parent survey, and the AC/A ratio by simultaneously monitoring convergence and accommodative response. The response AC/A ratios of children who became myopic were compared with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched model estimates for emmetropic children from 5 years before through 5 years after the onset of myopia. Results: The response AC/A ratio was not significantly different between the two groups 5 years before onset, then increased monotonically in children who became myopic until reaching a plateau at myopia onset of about 7 Δ/D compared to about 4 Δ/D for children who remained emmetropic (differences between groups significant at P < 0.01 from 4 years before onset through 5 years after onset). A higher AC/A ratio was associated with greater accommodative lag but not with the rate of myopia progression regardless of the level of near work. Conclusions: An increasing AC/A ratio is an early sign of becoming myopic, is related to greater accommodative lag, but does not affect the rate of myopia progression. The association with accommodative lag suggests that the AC/A ratio increase is from greater neural effort needed per diopter of accommodation rather than change in the accommodative convergence crosslink gain relationship.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Miopia/fisiopatologia
Refração Ocular/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Progressão da Doença
Feminino
Seguimentos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Miopia/diagnóstico
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.16-19093


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[PMID]:28192091
[Au] Autor:Alvarez TL; Kim EH; Yaramothu C; Granger-Donetti B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA. Electronic address: tara.l.alvarez@njit.edu.
[Ti] Título:The influence of age on adaptation of disparity vergence and phoria.
[So] Source:Vision Res;133:1-11, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5646
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A paucity of research exists to investigate whether the normal aging process influences the ability to adapt disparity vergence and phoria. Vergence eye movements and dissociated phoria were recorded from 49 healthy subjects (ages 20-70years) using an objective eye movement tracking system. Four-degree vergence responses were modified using a double-step protocol. Dynamics of vergence were quantified via peak velocity. The phoria adaptation experiment measured the magnitude (net change in phoria level) and rate (magnitude divided by the time constant) of phoria adaption during 5min of sustained fixation on a binocular target (40cm/8.44° from midline). The magnitude of phoria adaptation decreased as a function of age (r=-0.33; p=0.04). The ability to adapt vergence peak velocity and the rate of phoria adaptation showed no significant age-related influence (p>0.05). The data suggest that the ability to modify the disparity vergence system and the rate of phoria adaptation are not dependent on age; whereas, the magnitude of phoria adaptation decreases as part of the normal adult aging process. These results have clinical and basic science implications because one should consider age when assessing the changes in the magnitude of phoria adaptation which can be abnormal in those with oculomotor dysfunctions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Ocular/fisiologia
Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Estrabismo/fisiopatologia
Disparidade Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia
Adulto
Idoso
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia
Feminino
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
Visão Binocular/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170804
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170804
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28154366
[Au] Autor:Uneme C; Kojima T; Sugiura A; Morita I; Miyao M
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University.
[Ti] Título:Change in the Fusion Limit by Insertion of a Middle Image Equally Dividing the Parallactic Angle of 3D Stereoscopic Images.
[So] Source:Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi;72(1):87-92, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1882-6482
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify and clarify the requirements for 3D stereoscopic images that do not cause viewing discomfort to the human eye even when the protrusion distance is large. METHODS: A total of 140 healthy men and women aged 14 to 79 years participated in this study. We first measured the fusion limits in these participants using two 3D stereoscopic images. We then measured the expansion of the fusion limit by inserting a middle image in a region located equally parallax from the two images. RESULTS: The results showed that the fusion limits were significantly expanded (p<0.01) after inserting the middle image. CONCLUSIONS: Insertion of middle images with parallax can extend the fusion limit. This method was shown to be an effective for viewing 3D stereoscopic images without causing discomfort.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia
Imagem Tridimensional/métodos
Disparidade Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Cristalino/fisiologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1265/jjh.72.87


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[PMID]:28114594
[Au] Autor:Morize A; Brémond-Gignac D; Daniel F; Kapoula Z
[Ad] Endereço:IRIS Team, Physiopathology of vision and binocular control, FR3636 (Fédération de Recherche en Neurosciences), University Paris Descartes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, France.
[Ti] Título:Effects of Pure Vergence Training on Initiation and Binocular Coordination of Saccades.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;58(1):329-342, 2017 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: We hypothesized that saccade eye movement properties, particularly latency and binocular coordination, depend on vergence quality. Methods: We studied 11 students clinically diagnosed for vergence disorders versus 8 healthy controls. Rehabilitation of vergence disorders was done with a novel research-based method, using vergence in midsagittal plane. Vergence and saccades were recorded in separate blocks, before and after five weekly rehabilitation sessions. Results: Healthy controls showed higher accuracy and velocity of convergence and divergence relative to the vergence disorders group; then rehabilitation led to significant decrease of latency and increase of gain and peak velocity of vergence. Before rehabilitation of the vergence disorders, saccade parameters did not differ significantly from healthy controls, except the binocular coordination that was significantly deteriorated. Following vergence rehabilitation, saccade properties improved: The latency decreased significantly, the gain increased particularly at far, and the binocular coordination improved significantly. Latency and accuracy improved in a durable way, with values even better than the range of accuracy measured in healthy controls; binocular coordination of saccades, although improved, did not normalize. In healthy controls, binocular coordination was optimal at 40 cm (working distance), and the vergence disorders group showed improvement at 40 cm. Results confirm the hypothesis, which is further corroborated by the correlation between vergence and saccade latency. Conclusions: Results are in line with the hypothesis of permanent interaction between saccades and vergence, even when the task requires only saccades. Relevance of such interaction is emphasized by improvements of binocular saccades through the novel research-based method of vergence rehabilitation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia
Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia
Estrabismo/reabilitação
Visão Binocular/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estimulação Luminosa
Estrabismo/fisiopatologia
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170621
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170621
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170124
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.16-19837


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[PMID]:28056378
[Au] Autor:De Pascalis L; Kkeli N; Chakrabarti B; Dalton L; Vaillancourt K; Rayson H; Bicknell S; Goodacre T; Cooper P; Stein A; Murray L
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, United Kingdom; Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Maternal gaze to the infant face: Effects of infant age and facial configuration during mother-infant engagement in the first nine weeks.
[So] Source:Infant Behav Dev;46:91-99, 2017 02.
[Is] ISSN:1934-8800
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Adult gaze plays an important role in early infant development, and infants are highly sensitive to its presence and direction. Little is known, however, about how adults look at infants while interacting with them. Using eye-tracking technology, this study investigated maternal gaze during naturalistic interactions, and how it was influenced by infant age, focusing on the transition from the first to the second month when social expressiveness emerges, and by infant facial configuration, focusing on the effect of cleft lip. METHODS: Thirty infants (10 with a cleft lip), and their mothers, were seen at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks. Mothers were asked to interact with their infants while wearing eye-tracking glasses. Fixation duration and count were calculated for general (infant face, body, and surrounding environment), and infant facial (eyes, mouth, other) areas. RESULTS: At all ages, mothers gazed almost exclusively towards their infant's face, but this was reduced in the presence of a cleft lip. Within the infant's face, the eyes attracted the greatest attention, for all mothers, at all ages. From the first to the second month, all mothers increased their visual attention towards their infant's mouth. Regardless of infant age, the presence of a cleft lip was associated with decreased maternal gaze to the infant's mouth. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel findings concerning maternal gaze to infant faces during naturalistic interactions. Maternal gaze changes with infant age, in line with established shifts in social development, and according to infant facial configuration. Decreased gaze to the mouth area associated with infant cleft lip might affect maternal responsiveness, and suggests new dimensions to target in supporting these mothers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
Fenda Labial/psicologia
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Fatores Etários
Atenção/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Mães/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170106
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27921322
[Au] Autor:Troyer ME; Sreenivasan V; Peper TJ; Candy TR
[Ad] Endereço:Indiana University School of Optometry, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
[Ti] Título:The heterophoria of 3-5 year old children as a function of viewing distance and target type.
[So] Source:Ophthalmic Physiol Opt;37(1):7-15, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1475-1313
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: Heterophoria is the misalignment of the eyes in monocular viewing and represents the accuracy of vergence driven by all classical cues except disparity. It is challenging to assess restless children using clinical cover tests, and phoria in early childhood is poorly understood. Here we used eye tracking to assess phoria as a function of viewing distance and target in adults and young children, with comparison to clinical cover tests. METHODS: Purkinje image tracking (MCS PowerRefractor) was used to record eye alignment in adults (19-28 years, N = 24) and typically developing children (3-5 years, N = 24). Objective unilateral and alternating cover tests were performed using an infrared filter while participants viewed a pseudo-randomised sequence of Lea symbols (0.18 logMAR; Snellen: 20/30 or 6/9) and animated cartoon movies at distances of 40 cm, 1 m, and 6 m. For the unilateral cover test, a 10 s binocular period preceded and followed 30 s of occlusion of the right eye. For the alternating cover test, a 10 s binocular period preceded and followed alternate covering of right and left eyes for 3-s each. Phoria was derived from the difference in weighted average binocular and monocular alignment. A masked prism-neutralised clinical cover test was performed for each of the conditions for comparison. RESULTS: Closer viewing distance resulted in greater exophoria for both children and adults (p < 0.001). Phorias were similar for adults and children for each viewing distance and target, with mean differences of less than 2 prism dioptres (pd). Overall, the average PowerRefractor phorias (pooled across protocols) for adults were 1.3, 2.3 and 3.8 pd exophoria and for children were 0.1 pd esophoria, 0.94 and 3.8 pd exophoria for the 6 m, 1 m and 40 cm distances respectively. The corresponding clinical cover test values were 0.7, 1.9, and 4.1 pd exophoria for adults and 0, 1.5 and 3.3 pd exophoria for the children. Refractive states were also similar (≤0.5 D difference) for viewing the Lea symbols or movie for any protocol tested. CONCLUSIONS: Phoria estimation can be challenging for a pre-school child. These data suggest that by 3-5 years of age objective eye-tracking measures in a typically developing group are adult-like at the range of distances tested, and that use of an animated movie produces similar average results to a small optotype (0.18 logMAR; Snellen 20/30 or 6/9).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acomodação Ocular
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Percepção de Distância/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Estrabismo/fisiopatologia
Visão Binocular/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Pré-Escolar
Sinais (Psicologia)
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Testes Visuais
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170705
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170705
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161207
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/opo.12342


  10 / 1549 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27876513
[Au] Autor:Labhishetty V; Bobier WR
[Ad] Endereço:School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Electronic address: vlabhish@uwaterloo.ca.
[Ti] Título:Are high lags of accommodation in myopic children due to motor deficits?
[So] Source:Vision Res;130:9-21, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5646
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Children with a progressing myopia exhibit an abnormal pattern of high accommodative lags coupled with high accommodative convergence (AC/A) and high accommodative adaptation. This is not predicted by the current models of accommodation and vergence. Reduced accommodative plant gain and reduced sensitivity to blur have been suggested as potential causes for this abnormal behavior. These etiologies were tested by altering parameters (sensory, controller and plant gains) in the Simulink model of accommodation. Predictions were then compared to the static and dynamic blur accommodation (BA) measures taken using a Badal optical system on 12 children (6 emmetropes and 6 myopes, 8-13years) and 6 adults (20-35years). Other critical parameters such as CA/C, AC/A, and accommodative adaptation were also measured. Usable BA responses were classified as either typical or atypical. Typical accommodation data confirmed the abnormal pattern of myopia along with an unchanged CA/C. Main sequence relationship remained invariant between myopic and nonmyopic children. An overall reduction was noted in the response dynamics such as peak velocity and acceleration with age. Neither a reduced plant gain nor reduced blur sensitivity could predict the abnormal accommodative behavior. A model adjustment reflecting a reduced accommodative sensory gain (ASG) coupled with an increased AC cross-link gain and reduced vergence adaptive gain does predict the empirical findings. Empirical measures also showed a greater frequency of errors in accommodative response generation (atypical responses) in both myopic and control children compared to adults.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia
Adaptação Ocular/fisiologia
Convergência Ocular/fisiologia
Miopia/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia
Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Modelos Teóricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161124
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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