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Referências encontradas : 104 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28644827
[Au] Autor:Koenig WD
[Ad] Endereço:Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:What drives cooperative breeding?
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(6):e2002965, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Selvagens/fisiologia
Comportamento Animal
Cruzamento
Comportamento de Nidação
Comportamento Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Aves
Processos Climáticos
Ecossistema
Ambientes Extremos
Feminino
Masculino
Filogenia
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170829
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170829
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170624
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2002965


  2 / 104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27044039
[Au] Autor:Gui Z; Yu M; Yang C; Jiang Y; Chen S; Xia J; Huang Q; Liu K; Li Z; Hassan MA; Jin B
[Ad] Endereço:School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
[Ti] Título:Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(4):e0152250, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical modeling.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Algoritmos
Processos Climáticos
Simulação por Computador
Poeira
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dust)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160405
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0152250


  3 / 104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26930402
[Au] Autor:Yao SL; Luo JJ; Huang G
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China.
[Ti] Título:Internal Variability-Generated Uncertainty in East Asian Climate Projections Estimated with 40 CCSM3 Ensembles.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(3):e0149968, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Regional climate projections are challenging because of large uncertainty particularly stemming from unpredictable, internal variability of the climate system. Here, we examine the internal variability-induced uncertainty in precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) trends during 2005-2055 over East Asia based on 40 member ensemble projections of the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). The model ensembles are generated from a suite of different atmospheric initial conditions using the same SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario. We find that projected precipitation trends are subject to considerably larger internal uncertainty and hence have lower confidence, compared to the projected SAT trends in both the boreal winter and summer. Projected SAT trends in winter have relatively higher uncertainty than those in summer. Besides, the lower-level atmospheric circulation has larger uncertainty than that in the mid-level. Based on k-means cluster analysis, we demonstrate that a substantial portion of internally-induced precipitation and SAT trends arises from internal large-scale atmospheric circulation variability. These results highlight the importance of internal climate variability in affecting regional climate projections on multi-decadal timescales.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atmosfera
Mudança Climática
Processos Climáticos
Tempo (Meteorologia)
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Clima
Extremo Oriente
Modelos Teóricos
Chuvas
Estações do Ano
Temperatura Ambiente
Incerteza
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160302
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0149968


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[PMID]:26929387
[Au] Autor:Zhang Q; Hong Y; Zou F; Zhang M; Lee TM; Song X; Rao J
[Ad] Endereço:Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Entomological Institute/South China Institute of Endangered Animals, Guangzhou 510260, China.
[Ti] Título:Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination of functional traits, behavioural adaptations and habitat modifications.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;6:22344, 2016 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The extent to which species' traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Fisiológica
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Aves/fisiologia
Processos Climáticos
Ecossistema
Ambientes Extremos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
China
Florestas
Gelo
Árvores
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ice)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160302
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep22344


  5 / 104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26704454
[Au] Autor:Gallina V; Torresan S; Critto A; Sperotto A; Glade T; Marcomini A
[Ad] Endereço:Centro-Euro Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), via Augusto Imperatore 16, I-73100 Lecce, Italy; Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice, Via Torino 155, I-30172 Venezia-Mestre, Venice, Italy.
[Ti] Título:A review of multi-risk methodologies for natural hazards: Consequences and challenges for a climate change impact assessment.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;168:123-32, 2016 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper presents a review of existing multi-risk assessment concepts and tools applied by organisations and projects providing the basis for the development of a multi-risk methodology in a climate change perspective. Relevant initiatives were developed for the assessment of multiple natural hazards (e.g. floods, storm surges, droughts) affecting the same area in a defined timeframe (e.g. year, season, decade). Major research efforts were focused on the identification and aggregation of multiple hazard types (e.g. independent, correlated, cascading hazards) by means of quantitative and semi-quantitative approaches. Moreover, several methodologies aim to assess the vulnerability of multiple targets to specific natural hazards by means of vulnerability functions and indicators at the regional and local scale. The overall results of the review show that multi-risk approaches do not consider the effects of climate change and mostly rely on the analysis of static vulnerability (i.e. no time-dependent vulnerabilities, no changes among exposed elements). A relevant challenge is therefore to develop comprehensive formal approaches for the assessment of different climate-induced hazards and risks, including dynamic exposure and vulnerability. This requires the selection and aggregation of suitable hazard and vulnerability metrics to make a synthesis of information about multiple climate impacts, the spatial analysis and ranking of risks, including their visualization and communication to end-users. To face these issues, climate impact assessors should develop cross-sectorial collaborations among different expertise (e.g. modellers, natural scientists, economists) integrating information on climate change scenarios with sectorial climate impact assessment, towards the development of a comprehensive multi-risk assessment process.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Processos Climáticos
Desastres
Medição de Risco/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ecossistema
Seres Humanos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151226
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26528996
[Au] Autor:Yi G; Zhang T
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041, China. yigh@cdut.edu.cn.
[Ti] Título:Delayed Response of Lake Area Change to Climate Change in Siling Co Lake, Tibetan Plateau, from 2003 to 2013.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;12(11):13886-900, 2015 Oct 30.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Tibetan Plateau is a key area for research on global environmental changes. During the past 50 years, the climate in the Siling Co lake area has become continuously warmer and wetter, which may have further caused the increase in Siling Co lake area. Based on the Siling Co lake area (2003 to 2013) and climate data acquired from the Xainza and Baingoin meteorological stations (covering 1966 to 2013), we analyzed the delayed responses of lake area changes to climate changes through grey relational analysis. The following results were obtained: (1) The Siling Co lake area exhibited a rapid expansion trend from 2003 to 2013. The lake area increased to 2318 km², with a growth ratio of 14.6% and an annual growth rate of 26.84 km²·year(-1); (2) The rate of air temperature increase was different in the different seasons. The rate in the cold season was about 0.41 °C per ten years and 0.32 °C in hot season. Precipitation evidently increased, with a change rate of 17.70 mm per ten years in the hot season and a slight increase with a change rate of 2.36 mm per ten years in the cold season. Pan evaporation exhibited evidently decreasing trends in both the hot and cold seasons, with rates of -33.35 and -14.84 mm per ten years, respectively; (3) An evident delayed response of lake area change to climate change is observed, with a delay time of approximately one to two years.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Processos Climáticos
Clima Frio
Lagos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tibet
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3390/ijerph121113886


  7 / 104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25835065
[Au] Autor:Zounemat-Kermani M; Scholz M; Tondar MM
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Water Engineering , Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman , Kerman , Iran.
[Ti] Título:Hydrodynamic modelling of free water-surface constructed storm water wetlands using a finite volume technique.
[So] Source:Environ Technol;36(20):2532-47, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:0959-3330
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:One of the key factors in designing free water-surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) is the hydraulic efficiency (λ), which depends primarily on the retention time of the polluted storm water. Increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at various flow levels will increase λ of the overall constructed wetland (CW). The effects of characteristic geometric features that increase HRT were explored through the use of a two-dimensional depth-average hydrodynamic model. This numerical model was developed to solve the equations of continuity and motions on an unstructured triangular mesh using the Galerkin finite volume formulation and equations of the k-ε turbulence model. Eighty-nine diverse forms of artificial FWS CW with 11 different aspect ratios were numerically simulated and subsequently analysed for four scenarios: rectangular CW, modified rectangular CW with rounded edges, different inlet/outlet configurations of CW, and surface and submerged obstructions in front of the inlet part of the CW. Results from the simulations showed that increasing the aspect ratio has a direct influence on the enhancement of λ in all cases. However, the aspect ratio should be at least 9 in order to achieve an appropriate rate for λ in rectangular CW. Modified rounded rectangular CW improved λ by up to 23%, which allowed for the selection of a reduced aspect ratio. Simulation results showed that CW with low aspect ratios benefited from obstructions and optimized inlet/outlet configurations in terms of improved HRT.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Processos Climáticos
Hidrodinâmica
Modelos Teóricos
Movimentos da Água
Zonas Úmidas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Simulação por Computador
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150805
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150805
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150404
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09593330.2015.1036785


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[PMID]:25814502
[Au] Autor:Dixon RM; Jones JA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Politics and International Relations ruth.dixon@queens.ox.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Conspiracist ideation as a predictor of climate-science rejection: an alternative analysis.
[So] Source:Psychol Sci;26(5):664-6, 2015 May.
[Is] ISSN:1467-9280
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Processos Climáticos
Negação (Psicologia)
Fraude/psicologia
Queratinas/metabolismo
Motivação/fisiologia
Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação
Psoríase/enzimologia
Sefarose
Pele/enzimologia
Voo Espacial
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMMENT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
68238-35-7 (Keratins); 9012-36-6 (Sepharose); EC 3.4.- (Peptide Hydrolases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1507
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150328
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0956797614566469


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[PMID]:25814501
[Au] Autor:Lewandowsky S; Gignac GE; Oberauer K
[Ad] Endereço:University of Bristol University of Western Australia stephan.lewandowsky@bristol.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:The robust relationship between conspiracism and denial of (climate) science.
[So] Source:Psychol Sci;26(5):667-70, 2015 May.
[Is] ISSN:1467-9280
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Processos Climáticos
Negação (Psicologia)
Fraude/psicologia
Queratinas/metabolismo
Motivação/fisiologia
Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação
Psoríase/enzimologia
Sefarose
Pele/enzimologia
Voo Espacial
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMMENT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
68238-35-7 (Keratins); 9012-36-6 (Sepharose); EC 3.4.- (Peptide Hydrolases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1507
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150328
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0956797614568432


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[PMID]:25710121
[Au] Autor:Cao-Lei L; Elgbeili G; Massart R; Laplante DP; Szyf M; King S
[Ad] Endereço:1] Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada [2] Psychosocial Research Division, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm.
[So] Source:Transl Psychiatry;5:e515, 2015 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:2158-3188
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição/fisiologia
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia
Desastres
Gestantes
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia
Estresse Psicológico/complicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Processos Climáticos
Epigênese Genética
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Gelo
Masculino
Gravidez
Quebeque
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ice)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1601
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150225
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/tp.2015.13



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