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[PMID]:29278027
[Au] Autor:Madhavadas S; Subramanian S; Kutty BM
[Ad] Endereço:1 Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bangalore, India.
[Ti] Título:Environmental enrichment improved cognitive deficits more in peri-adolescent than in adult rats after postnatal monosodium glutamate treatment.
[So] Source:Physiol Int;104(4):271-290, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:2498-602X
[Cp] País de publicação:Hungary
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Exposure to enriched environment (EE) is known to promote sensory, cognitive, and motor stimulation with intensified levels of novelty and complexity. In this study, we investigated the positive regulatory effect of short-term exposure to EE on establishing functional recovery in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Unless treated, MSG rats exhibited peripheral insulin resistance, cognitive deficits, and a reduction in the total hippocampal volume with decreased neuron count in the DG, CA3, and CA1 subfields. These MSG rats were exposed to short-term EE for 15 days for a period of 6 h/day, beginning either at 45 or at 75 days of age. EE exposure has improved insulin sensitivity, yielded a significant increase in total hippocampal volume along with increase in neuron number in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus in both age groups. However, as assessed by radial arm maze task, which relies upon the positive reinforcement to test spatial memory, and the Barnes maze task, which utilizes an aversive learning strategy, a complete recovery of cognitive function could be achieved in 2-month-old rats only and not among 3-month-old rats, thus highlighting the importance of critical window period for EE interventions in restoring the memory functions. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of EE paradigm in prevention of cognitive disorders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia
Cognição
Meio Ambiente
Hipocampo/fisiopatologia
Estimulação Física/métodos
Glutamato de Sódio
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipocampo/patologia
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
W81N5U6R6U (Sodium Glutamate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1556/2060.104.2017.4.7


  2 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29237449
[Au] Autor:Singh A; Roy S
[Ad] Endereço:Genetics and Molecular Biology Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226001, India.
[Ti] Título:High altitude population of Arabidopsis thaliana is more plastic and adaptive under common garden than controlled condition.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):39, 2017 Dec 13.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Population differentiation and their adaptation to a particular environment depend on their ability to respond to a new environment. This, in turn is governed to an extent, by the degree of phenotypic plasticity exhibited by the populations. The populations of same species inhabiting different climatic conditions may differ in their phenotypic plasticity. Himalayan populations of Arabidopsis thaliana originating from a steep altitude are exposed to different climatic conditions ranging from sub-tropical to temperate. Thus they might have experienced different selection pressures during evolution and may respond differently under common environmental condition. RESULTS: Phenotypic plasticity and differentiation of natural populations of A. thaliana grown under common garden and controlled conditions were determined. A total of seventeen morphological traits, their plasticity, association between traits and environment were performed using 45 accessions from three populations. Plants from different altitudes differed in phenotypes, their selection and fitness under two conditions. Under both the conditions lower altitude population was characterized by higher leaf count and larger silique than higher and middle altitude population. Flowering time of high altitude population increased while that of low and medium altitude decreased under controlled condition compared to open field. An increase in seed weight and germination was observed for all the population under open field than controlled. Rosette area was under divergent selection in both the condition. The heritability of lower altitude population was the highest under both the conditions, where as it was the least for higher altitude population further indicating that the high altitude populations are more responsive towards phenotypic changes under new environmental conditions. Ninety-nine percent of variability in traits and their plasticity co-varied with the altitude of their origin. The population of high altitude was more plastic and differentiated as compared to the lower altitude one. CONCLUSIONS: Arabidopsis thaliana population native to different altitudes of the west Himalaya responds differently when grown under common environments. The success of high altitude population is more in common garden than the controlled conditions. The significant variability in phenotype and its association with altitude of origin predicts for non-random genetic differentiation among the populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aclimatação
Altitude
Arabidopsis/fisiologia
Meio Ambiente
Fenótipo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Arabidopsis/genética
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Índia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0149-5


  3 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29233135
[Au] Autor:Helsen K; Acharya KP; Brunet J; Cousins SAO; Decocq G; Hermy M; Kolb A; Lemke IH; Lenoir J; Plue J; Verheyen K; De Frenne P; Graae BJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7034, Trondheim, Norway. kenny.helsen@ntnu.no.
[Ti] Título:Biotic and abiotic drivers of intraspecific trait variation within plant populations of three herbaceous plant species along a latitudinal gradient.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):38, 2017 Dec 12.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The importance of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is increasingly acknowledged among plant ecologists. However, our understanding of what drives ITV between individual plants (ITV ) at the population level is still limited. Contrasting theoretical hypotheses state that ITV can be either suppressed (stress-reduced plasticity hypothesis) or enhanced (stress-induced variability hypothesis) under high abiotic stress. Similarly, other hypotheses predict either suppressed (niche packing hypothesis) or enhanced ITV (individual variation hypothesis) under high niche packing in species rich communities. In this study we assess the relative effects of both abiotic and biotic niche effects on ITV of four functional traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, plant height and seed mass), for three herbaceous plant species across a 2300 km long gradient in Europe. The study species were the slow colonizing Anemone nemorosa, a species with intermediate colonization rates, Milium effusum, and the fast colonizing, non-native Impatiens glandulifera. RESULTS: Climatic stress consistently increased ITV across species and traits. Soil nutrient stress, on the other hand, reduced ITV for A. nemorosa and I. glandulifera, but had a reversed effect for M. effusum. We furthermore observed a reversed effect of high niche packing on ITV for the fast colonizing non-native I. glandulifera (increased ITV ), as compared to the slow colonizing native A. nemorosa and M. effusum (reduced ITV ). Additionally, ITV in the fast colonizing species tended to be highest for the vegetative traits plant height and leaf area, but lowest for the measured generative trait seed mass. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that stress can both reduce and increase ITV , seemingly supporting both the stress-reduced plasticity and stress-induced variability hypotheses. Similarly, niche packing effects on ITV supported both the niche packing hypothesis and the individual variation hypothesis. These results clearly illustrates the importance of simultaneously evaluating both abiotic and biotic factors on ITV . This study adds to the growing realization that within-population trait variation should not be ignored and can provide valuable ecological insights.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anemone/fisiologia
Impatiens/fisiologia
Fenótipo
Dispersão Vegetal
Poaceae/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anemone/genética
Anemone/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Meio Ambiente
Europa (Continente)
Impatiens/genética
Impatiens/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Espécies Introduzidas
Poaceae/genética
Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0151-y


  4 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29183362
[Au] Autor:Mulder C; Maas R
[Ad] Endereço:National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. christian.mulder@rivm.nl.
[Ti] Título:Unifying the functional diversity in natural and cultivated soils using the overall body-mass distribution of nematodes.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):36, 2017 Nov 28.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Sustainable use of our soils is a key goal for environmental protection. As many ecosystem services are supported belowground at different trophic levels by nematodes, soil nematodes are expected to provide objective metrics for biological quality to integrate physical and chemical soil variables. Trait measurements of body mass carried out at the individual level can in this way be correlated with environmental properties that influence the performance of soil biota. RESULTS: Soil samples were collected across 200 sites (4 soil types and 5 land-use types resulting in 9 combinations) during a long-term monitoring programme in the Netherlands and the functional diversity of nematode communities was investigated. Using three commonly used functional diversity indices applicable to single traits (Divergence, Evenness and Richness), a unified index of overall body-mass distribution is proposed to better illustrate the application of functional metrics as a descriptor of land use. Effects of land use and soil chemistry on the functional diversity of nematodes were demonstrated and a combination of environmental factors accounts for the low functional value of Scots Pine forest soils in comparison to the high functional value of heathland soils, whereas human factors account for the low functional and chemical values of arable fields. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show an unexpected high functional vulnerability of nematodes inhabiting clay-rich soils in comparison to sandy soils and support the notion that soil C:N ratio is a major driver of biodiversity. The higher the C:N ratio, the higher the overall diversity, as soil nematodes cope better with nutrient-poor agroecosystems under less intense fertilization. A trait-based way focusing on size distribution of nematodes is proposed to maintain environmental health by monitoring the overall diversity in soil biota, keeping agriculture and forestry sustainable.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodiversidade
Nematoides/fisiologia
Solo/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
Meio Ambiente
Análise Multivariada
Países Baixos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0145-9


  5 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28467206
[Au] Autor:Brickle MB; Evans-Agnew R
[Ad] Endereço:a University of Washington , Tacoma , Washington.
[Ti] Título:Photovoice and Youth Empowerment in Environmental Justice Research: A Pilot Study Examining Woodsmoke Pollution in a Pacific Northwest Community.
[So] Source:J Community Health Nurs;34(2):89-101, 2017 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1532-7655
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Woodsmoke pollution is an environmental justice issue for youth living in certain Pacific Northwest cities. Participatory methods such as Citizen Science and Photovoice are effective ways to involve youth in environmental justice research. Little is understood about how youth may be empowered to address woodsmoke issues in their communities. We examined youth empowerment in a citizen science study on woodsmoke, using Photovoice methodology. Ten diverse youth collected and analyzed indoor air samples and photos, then presented their findings to the community and policy makers. Entrance and exit surveys revealed an increased sense of empowerment to take action on woodsmoke pollution. Youth also expressed increased optimism and a resolve to become scientists to combat environmental injustices.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos
Poder (Psicologia)
Fumaça/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Meio Ambiente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Fotografia
Projetos Piloto
Fumaça/efeitos adversos
Justiça Social
Washington
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Smoke)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/07370016.2017.1304148


  6 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29193692
[Au] Autor:Sanganyado E; Teta C; Masiri B
[Ad] Endereço:Marine Biology Institute, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong Province, China.
[Ti] Título:Impact of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation.
[So] Source:Integr Environ Assess Manag;14(2):189-193, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1551-3793
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent studies show cultural worldviews are a key determinant of environmental risk perceptions; thus, they could influence climate change adaptation strategies. African traditional worldviews encourage harmony between humans and the environment through a complex metaphysical belief system transmitted through folklore, taboos, and traditional knowledge. However, African traditional worldviews hold a belief in traditional gods that was shown to have a low connectedness to nature and a low willingness to change. In Makueni District, Kenya, 45% of agropastoralists surveyed believed drought was god's plan and could not be changed. In contrast, traditional knowledge, which is shaped by African traditional worldviews, is often used to frame adaptive strategies such as migration, changing modes of production, and planting different crop varieties. Furthermore, traditional knowledge has been used as a complement to science in areas where meteorological data was unavailable. However, the role of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaption remains understudied. Hence, there is a need to systematically establish the influence of African traditional worldviews on climate change risk perception, development of adaptive strategies, and policy formulation and implementation. In this commentary, we discuss the potential impacts of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:189-193. © 2018 SETAC.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Cultura
Política Ambiental
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Secas
Meio Ambiente
Monitoramento Ambiental
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ieam.2010


  7 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29246987
[Ti] Título:Environment's role in global antibiotic resistance 'overlooked' until now.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;181(24):643, 2017 12 16.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
Meio Ambiente
Saúde Global
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura
Animais
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Seres Humanos
Nações Unidas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171217
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28449073
[Au] Autor:Berlin S; Hallingbäck HR; Beyer F; Nordh NE; Weih M; Rönnberg-Wästljung AC
[Ad] Endereço:Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, Linnean Centre for Plant Biology, P.O. Box 7080, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Genetics of phenotypic plasticity and biomass traits in hybrid willows across contrasting environments and years.
[So] Source:Ann Bot;120(1):87-100, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8290
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Background and Aims: Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits. Methods: A hybrid Salix viminalis × ( S. viminalis × Salix schwerinii ) population with 463 individuals was clonally propagated and planted in three common garden experiments comprising one climatic contrast between Sweden and Italy and one water availability contrast in Italy. Several key phenotypic traits were measured and phenotypic plasticity was estimated as the trait value difference between experiments. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses were conducted using a dense linkage map and phenotypic effects of S. schwerinii haplotypes derived from detected QTL were assessed. Key Results: Across the climatic contrast, clone predictor correlations for biomass traits were low and few common biomass QTL were detected. This indicates that the genetic regulation of biomass traits was sensitive to environmental variation. Biomass QTL were, however, frequently shared across years and across the water availability contrast. Phenology QTL were generally shared between all experiments. Substantial phenotypic plasticity was found among the hybrid offspring, that to a large extent had a genetic origin. Individuals carrying influential S. schwerinii haplotypes generally performed well in Sweden but less well in Italy in terms of biomass production. Conclusions: The results indicate that specific genetic elements of S. schwerinii are more suited to Swedish conditions than to those of Italy. Therefore, selection should preferably be conducted separately for such environments in order to maximize biomass production in admixed S. viminalis × S. schwerinii populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomassa
Meio Ambiente
Fenótipo
Salix/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mapeamento Cromossômico
Estudos de Associação Genética
Itália
Locos de Características Quantitativas
Salix/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Suécia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/aob/mcx029


  9 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29348197
[Au] Autor:Blustein J; Weinstein BE; Chodosh J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Health Policy, Robert F Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University. 295 Lafayette Street, New York, NY, USA jan.blustein@wagner.nyu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Tackling hearing loss to improve the care of older adults.
[So] Source:BMJ;360:k21, 2018 01 18.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Perda Auditiva/psicologia
Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia
Relações Profissional-Paciente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Comunicação
Meio Ambiente
Auxiliares de Audição/psicologia
Perda Auditiva/etiologia
Seres Humanos
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
Percepção da Fala
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.k21


  10 / 54222 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29496743
[Au] Autor:Flood B
[Ad] Endereço:Daughters of Charity Disability Support Service, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.
[Ti] Título:Improving the auditory environment for patients with intellectual disabilities and hearing loss.
[So] Source:BMJ;360:k895, 2018 03 01.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Perda Auditiva
Deficiência Intelectual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Surdez
Meio Ambiente
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.k895



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