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  1 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29193832
[Au] Autor:Kurth M; Fox-Lent C; Golan M; Linkov I
[Ad] Endereço:Contractor, US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, Mississippi.
[Ti] Título:Decision making for independent municipal action.
[So] Source:Integr Environ Assess Manag;14(2):194-197, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1551-3793
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Municipalities and cities face myriad challenges with regard to planning; decisions that will have long-standing consequences need to be made in the context of pressing present concerns, constrained budgets, and uncertainty about the future under climate changes. Compounding the challenge may be a lack of clear signals from the state and federal leadership on investment priorities. This paper contends that existing strategies from decision science can prove useful for local governments as they seek actions that are robust despite uncertain futures and broadly beneficial across sectors and time horizons. An illustrative example of decision making with scenario analysis demonstrates how a city can prioritize funding and elevate the baseline functionality of its infrastructure and the well-being of its residents, regardless of when and how climate hazards occur. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:194-197. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cidades
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Monitoramento Ambiental
Política Ambiental
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mudança Climática
Tomada de Decisões
Seres Humanos
Incerteza
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ieam.2013


  2 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28985534
[Au] Autor:Yadav IC; Devi NL; Li J; Zhang G
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, PR China; Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science (IEAS), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), 3-5-8, Saiwai-Cho, Fuchu-Shi,
[Ti] Título:Organophosphate ester flame retardants in Nepalese soil: Spatial distribution, source apportionment and air-soil exchange assessment.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;190:114-123, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite soil being the major terrestrial environmental reservoir and one of the significant sinks for many hydrophobic organic compounds including organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs), limited information is available about concentration and fate of OPFRs contamination in urban soil in general and especially in case of Nepal. This study investigates the environmental concentration, spatial distribution and source apportionment of eight OPFRs in surface soil (n = 28) from four major cities of Nepal with special interest on air-soil exchange. Overall, significantly high concentrations of ∑ OPFR were measured in soil ranging from 25-27,900 ng/g dw (median 248 ng/g dw). In terms of compositional pattern, tris(methyl phenyl) phosphate (TMPP) was the most abundant phosphorus chemical in soil, followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and accounted for 35-49% and 8-25% of ∑ OPFRs, respectively. The high level of these OPFRs was attributed to local sources as opposed to transboundary influence from remote areas. A Spearman's rank correlation analysis exhibited weak correlation of ∑ OPFRs with TOC (Rho = 0.117, p < 0.05) and BC (Rho = 0.007, p < 0.05), suggesting little or no influence of TOC and BC on the concentration of ∑ OPFRs. The fugacity fraction (ff) results indicated a strong influence of soil contamination on atmospheric level of OPFRs via volatilization.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Retardadores de Chama/análise
Organofosfatos/análise
Poluentes do Solo/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química
Poluição do Ar/análise
Cidades
Nepal
Solo/química
Poluentes do Solo/química
Volatilização
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Flame Retardants); 0 (Organophosphates); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171007
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29205000
[Au] Autor:Ni ZX; Xie Q; Yi XF
[Ad] Endereço:West China of Pre-clinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
[Ti] Título:[Distribution of Diatoms in Main Sections of Urban District Rivers with Drowning-prone in Chengdu].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;32(5):332-337, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To explore the species distribution and constituent ratio of diatoms in main sections of urban district rivers where drowning occurs frequently in Chengdu. METHODS: Total 39 water samples from the sampling points of 5 rivers (Jinjiang, Jinniu, Qingyang, Wuhou and Chenghua districts) in October 2014 were collected. The diatoms smear were made and the species distribution and constituent ratio of diatoms from the water samples were analyzed using biological microscope and acquisition system of digital microscope. RESULTS: Total 21 species of diatoms were detected in main sections of urban district rivers in Chengdu. Significant differences in the dominant diatom species and proportions of the different rivers were observed, and there were different species existed in all sampling points of the upstream, midstream and downstream of the rivers. CONCLUSIONS: The database of species map, species distribution and constituent ratio of diatoms in main sections of urban district rivers in Chengdu are preliminarily established, which has special meaning for the analysis and evaluation of falling location inference using diatoms test in case investigation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diatomáceas/classificação
Rios
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: China
Cidades
Afogamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2016.05.004


  4 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27771817
[Au] Autor:Cooley LA; Hoots B; Wejnert C; Lewis R; Paz-Bailey G; NHBS Study Group
[Ad] Endereço:Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, MS-E46, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. LCooley@cdc.gov.
[Ti] Título:Policy Changes and Improvements in Health Insurance Coverage Among MSM: 20 U.S. Cities, 2008-2014.
[So] Source:AIDS Behav;21(3):615-618, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1573-3254
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent policy changes have improved the ability of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to secure health insurance. We wanted to assess changes over time in self-reported health insurance status among MSM participating in CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) in 2008, 2011, and 2014. We analyzed NHBS data from sexually active MSM interviewed at venues in 20 U.S. cities. To determine if interview year was associated with health insurance status, we used a Poisson model with robust standard errors. Among included MSM, the overall percentage of MSM with health insurance rose 16 % from 2008 (68 %) to 2014 (79 %) (p value for trend < 0.001). The change in coverage over time was greatest in key demographic segments with lower health insurance coverage all three interview years, by age, education, and income. Corresponding with recent policy changes, health insurance improved among MSM participating in NHBS, with greater improvements in historically underinsured demographic segments. Despite these increases, improved coverage is still needed. Improved access to health insurance could lead to a reduction in health disparities among MSM over time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Política de Saúde
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
Homossexualidade Masculina
Cobertura do Seguro/tendências
Seguro Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Cidades
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico
Infecções por HIV/economia
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Assunção de Riscos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10461-016-1567-7


  5 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29245135
[Au] Autor:Lin L; Li XY
[Ad] Endereço:Environmental Engineering Research Centre, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China.
[Ti] Título:Acidogenic fermentation of iron-enhanced primary sedimentation sludge under different pH conditions for production of volatile fatty acids.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;194:692-700, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Iron-based chemically enhanced primary sedimentation (CEPS) is increasingly adopted for wastewater treatment in mega cities, producing a large amount of sludge (Fe-sludge) with a high content of organics for potential organic resource recovery. In this experimental study, acidogenic fermentation was applied treat FeCl -based CEPS sludge for production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at different pHs. Batch fermentation tests on the Fe-sludge with an organic content of 10 g-COD/L showed that the maximum VFAs production reached 2782.2 mg-COD/L in the reactor without pH control, and it reached 688.4, 3095.3, and 2603.7 mg-COD/L in reactors with pHs kept at 5.0, 6.0 and 8.0, respectively. Analysis of the acidogenesis kinetics and enzymatic activity indicated that the alkaline pH could accelerate the rate of organic hydrolysis but inhibited the further organic conversion to VFAs. In semi-continuous sludge fermentation tests, the VFAs yield in the pH6 reactor was 20% higher than that in the control reactor without pH regulation, while the VFAs yield in the pH8 reactor was 10% lower than the control. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that key functional microorganisms known for effective sludge fermentation, including Bacteroidia and Erysipelotrichi, were enriched in the pH6 reactor with an enhanced VFAs production, while Clostridia became more abundant in the pH8 reactor to stand the unfavorable pH condition. The research presented acidogenic fermentation as an effective process for CEPS sludge treatment and organic resource recovery and provided the first insight into the related microbial community dynamics.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodegradação Ambiental
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/síntese química
Fermentação
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Ferro
Esgotos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bactérias/metabolismo
Cidades
Hidrólise
Esgotos/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids, Volatile); 0 (Sewage); E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29245133
[Au] Autor:Tu YT; Ou JH; Tsang DCW; Dong CD; Chen CW; Kao CM
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Environmental Engr., National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
[Ti] Título:Source identification and ecological impact evaluation of PAHs in urban river sediments: A case study in Taiwan.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;194:666-674, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Love River and Ho-Jin River, two major urban rivers in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, are moderately to heavily polluted because different types of improperly treated wastewaters are discharged into the rivers. In this study, sediment and river water samples were collected from two rivers to investigate the river water quality and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. The spatial distribution, composition, and source appointment of PAHs of the sediments were examined. The impacts of PAHs on ecological system were assessed using toxic equivalence quotient (TEQ) of potentially carcinogenic PAHs (TEQ ) and sediment quality guidelines. The average PAHs concentrations ranged from 2161 ng/g in Love River sediment to 160 ng/g in Ho-Jin River sediment. This could be due to the fact that Love River Basin had much higher population density and pyrolytic activities. High-ring PAHs (4-6 rings) contributed to 59-90% of the total PAHs concentrations. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) had the highest toxic equivalence quotient (up to 188 ng TEQ/g). Moreover, the downstream sediments contained higher TEQ of total TPHs than midstream and upstream sediment samples. The PAHs were adsorbed onto the fine particles with high organic content. Results from diagnostic ratio analyses indicate that the PAHs in two urban river sediments might originate from oil/coal combustion, traffic-related emissions, and waste combustion (pyrogenic activities). Future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries, incinerators, and transportation emission in this region to reduce the PAHs pollution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sedimentos Geológicos/análise
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos Policíclicos/análise
Rios/química
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Benzo(a)pireno/análise
China
Cidades
Ecossistema
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Poluição Ambiental/análise
Sedimentos Geológicos/química
Incineração
Petróleo/análise
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos Policíclicos/farmacologia
Taiwan
Emissões de Veículos/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Petroleum); 0 (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons); 0 (Vehicle Emissions); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 3417WMA06D (Benzo(a)pyrene)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29028600
[Au] Autor:H Valido I; Padoan E; Moreno T; Querol X; Font O; Amato F
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: iris.henriquez@uab.cat.
[Ti] Título:Physico-chemical characterization of playground sand dust, inhalable and bioaccessible fractions.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;190:454-462, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dust is a mixture of natural and anthropogenic particles originated from multiple sources, which can represent an hazard for human health. Playgrounds are a site of particularly concern, due to sand dust ingestion by toddlers and inhalation. In this study, 37 sands used in public playgrounds in the city of Barcelona were physico-chemically characterized also in relation to routine maintenance activities such as disinfection and sand renewal. The analyzed sands show a felsic mineralogy dominated by Na-feldspar, quartz, and, to a lesser extent, K-feldspar, with minor amounts of clay minerals, carbonates and hematite. Particle fractions below 10, 2.5 and 1 µm represent, on average, 0.65%, 0.17% and 0.07% of bulk volume, respectively, although, due to the human grinding, these initial fractions increased every year by a 18%, 5% and 2% respectively. Disinfection of sands effectively reduced only the NH concentration, among inorganic species. The average metal content was anthropogenically enriched, with respect to the upper continental crust, only for Sb and As. Both elements show high spatial variation indicating local sources such as road traffic for Sb (contributing mostly to the total concentration), and industry for As (also contributing with highly bioaccessible Sb, Cu and Zn). A clear inverse relationship between total concentrations of some elements and their leachable (Sb) and bioaccessible (Sb and Cr) fractions is observed. The most bioaccessible elements were Ca > Ni > Cu > Sr > Cd > Pb, all above the 25% of the total concentration. Bioaccessibility was higher for the carbonate-bearing particles and for the anthropic emitted metals (>50% of Ba, Cu, K, Pb and Zn).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cidades
Poeira/análise
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Parques Recreativos
Material Particulado/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Silicatos de Alumínio/análise
Exposição Ambiental/análise
Seres Humanos
Exposição por Inalação/análise
Metais/análise
Minerais/análise
Compostos de Potássio/análise
Dióxido de Silício/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Aluminum Silicates); 0 (Dust); 0 (Metals); 0 (Minerals); 0 (Particulate Matter); 0 (Potassium Compounds); 12168-80-8 (feldspar); 7631-86-9 (Silicon Dioxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171014
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28463086
[Au] Autor:Mann EH; Ho TR; Pfeffer PE; Matthews NC; Chevretton E; Mudway I; Kelly FJ; Hawrylowicz CM
[Ad] Endereço:1 MRC and Asthma-UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms in Asthma, and.
[Ti] Título:Vitamin D Counteracts an IL-23-Dependent IL-17A IFN-γ Response Driven by Urban Particulate Matter.
[So] Source:Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol;57(3):355-366, 2017 09.
[Is] ISSN:1535-4989
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Urban particulate matter (UPM) air pollution and vitamin D deficiency are detrimentally associated with respiratory health. This is hypothesized to be due in part to regulation of IL-17A, which UPM is reported to promote. Here, we used a myeloid dendritic cell (DC)-memory CD4 T cell co-culture system to characterize UPM-driven IL-17A cells, investigate the mechanism by which UPM-primed DCs promote this phenotype, and address evidence for cross-regulation by vitamin D. CD1c myeloid DCs were cultured overnight with or without a reference source of UPM and/or active vitamin D (1,25[OH] D ) before they were co-cultured with autologous memory CD4 T cells. Supernatants were harvested for cytokine analysis on Day 5 of co-culture, and intracellular cytokine staining was performed on Day 7. UPM-primed DCs increased the proportion of memory CD4 T cells expressing the T helper 17 cell (Th17)-associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, as well as IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and granzyme B. Notably, a large proportion of the UPM-driven IL-17A cells co-expressed these cytokines, but not IL-10, indicative of a proinflammatory Th17 profile. UPM-treated DCs expressed elevated levels of il23 mRNA and increased secretion of IL-23p40. Neutralization of IL-23 in culture reduced the frequency of IL-17A IFN-γ cells without affecting cell proliferation. 1,25(OH) D counteracted the UPM-driven DC maturation and inhibited the frequency of IL-17A IFN-γ cells, most prominently when DCs were co-treated with the corticosteroid dexamethasone, while maintaining antiinflammatory IL-10 synthesis. These data indicate that UPM might promote an inflammatory milieu in part by inducing an IL-23-driven proinflammatory Th17 response. Restoring vitamin D sufficiency may counteract these UPM-driven effects without obliterating important homeostatic immune functions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cidades
Interferon gama/metabolismo
Interleucina-17/metabolismo
Interleucina-23/metabolismo
Material Particulado/toxicidade
Vitamina D/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Calcitriol/farmacologia
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos
Células Dendríticas/metabolismo
Dexametasona/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos
Células Mieloides/metabolismo
Fenótipo
Células Th17/imunologia
Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (IL17A protein, human); 0 (Interleukin-17); 0 (Interleukin-23); 0 (Particulate Matter); 1406-16-2 (Vitamin D); 7S5I7G3JQL (Dexamethasone); 82115-62-6 (Interferon-gamma); FXC9231JVH (Calcitriol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2016-0409OC


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[PMID]:29325305
[Au] Autor:Wang WQ; Lin JT; Zhou X; Wang CZ; Huang M; Cai SX; Chen P; Lin QC; Zhou JY; Gu YH; Yuan YD; Sun DJ; Yang XH; Yang L; Huo JM; Chen ZC; Jiang P; Zhang J; Ye XW; Liu HG; Tang HP; Liu RY; Liu CT; Zhang W; Hu CP; Chen YQ; Liu XJ; Dai LM; Zhou W; Huang YJ; Xu JY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.
[Ti] Título:[Evaluation of asthma management from the surveys in 30 provinces of China in 2015-2016].
[So] Source:Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi;57(1):15-20, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:0578-1426
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:To evaluate the general level of asthma management in urban areas of China and further promote the national asthma management plan. A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was carried out in 30 provinces of China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. It's a questionnaire-based face-to-face survey which included asthma management using peak flow meter (PFM) and pulmonary function test, medication choice of maintenance therapy and asthma education. A total of 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited including 2 347(60.6%) females and 1 528(39.4%) males. The mean age was (50.7±16.7) years ranging from 14 to 99. Only 10.1%(388/3 837) patients used PFM as monitoring, whereas 62.1%(2 405/3 874) patients underwent pulmonary function test during the past year. There were 57.4%(2 226/3 875) patients treated with inhaled cortical steroid plus long-acting ß(2)-agonist combinations (ICS+LABA) as daily medication. 43.3%(1 661/3 836) patients were followed up by physicians. Among this population, 1 362 asthmatic outpatients were recruited, who also took part in the asthma control survey in 2007-2008 in 10 cities. In this subgroup, 17.9%(244/1 360) were tested by PFM and 66.6%(907/1 362) by pulmonary function test during last year. As to the medication, 63.1%(860/1 362) selected ICS+LABA for daily control. There were 50.4%(685/1 359) patients in the follow-up cohort by physicians. Compared to the similar survey conducted in 2007-2008, the proportion of patients with ICS+LABA regimen and follow-up by physicians were markedly higher, while the rate of PFM use did not have significant improvement. Although the present level of asthma management in China is still far from ideal, asthma management has improved compared to 8 years ago. Yet the use of PFM does not significantly improve. Asthma action plan and application of PFM should be further promoted to improve the level of asthma management.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico
Asma/tratamento farmacológico
Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração por Inalação
Adulto
Idoso
Asma/diagnóstico
Asma/epidemiologia
China/epidemiologia
Cidades
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Médicos
Inquéritos e Questionários
População Urbana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adrenal Cortex Hormones); 0 (Anti-Asthmatic Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1426.2018.01.003


  10 / 13004 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29214358
[Au] Autor:Gao M; Shen H; Han X; Li H; Zhang L
[Ad] Endereço:School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430079, China.
[Ti] Título:Multiple timescale analysis of the urban heat island effect based on the Community Land Model: a case study of the city of Xi'an, China.
[So] Source:Environ Monit Assess;190(1):8, 2017 Dec 06.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2959
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the phenomenon of urban regions usually being warmer than rural regions, which significantly impacts both the regional ecosystem and societal activities. Numerical simulation can provide spatially and temporally continuous datasets for UHI analysis. In this study, a spatially and temporally continuous ground temperature dataset of Xi'an, China was obtained through numerical simulation based on the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), at a temporal resolution of 30 min and a spatial resolution of 0.05 × 0.05 . Based on the ground temperature, the seasonal average UHI intensity (UHII) was calculated and the seasonal variation of the UHI effect was analyzed. The monthly variation tendency of the urban heat stress was also investigated. Based on the diurnal cycle of ground temperature and the UHI effect in each season, the variation tendencies of the maximum, minimum, and average UHII were analyzed. The results show that the urban heat stress in summer is the strongest among all four seasons. The heat stress in urban areas is very significant in July, and the UHII is the weakest in January. Regarding the diurnal cycle of UHII, the maximum always appears at 06:30 UTC to 07:30 UTC, while the minimum intensity of the UHI effect occurs at different times in the different seasons. The results of this study could provide a reference for policymakers about how to reduce the damage caused by heat stress.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cidades
Monitoramento Ambiental
Temperatura Alta
Estações do Ano
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: China
Ritmo Circadiano
Clima
Simulação por Computador
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Seres Humanos
Chuvas
População Rural
Temperatura Ambiente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10661-017-6320-9



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