Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : G16.500.275.157.049.100 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29431334
[Au] Autor:Abakumov EV; Suyundukov YT; Pigareva TA; Semenova IN; Semenova RF; Biktimerova G; Rafikova YS; Ilbulova GR
[Ti] Título:[Biological and sanitary evaluation of Sibaisky quarry dumps of the Bashkortostan Republic].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(10):929-34, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Dumps of quarries for the extraction of copper pyrite in Urals region of the Bashkortostan Republic are the problem object, which represents a main technogenic source of environmental pollution. Soils of Sibaisky quarry dumps are characterized by the elevated content of heavy metals relatively to maximum permissible concentrations and regional geochemical background. In sanitary hygienic evaluation of the pollution by studied technosols according to the total pollution index (Zc) it was revealed that according to the content of total forms studied technosols are referred to moderately hazard, while in regards of the same index concerning the content of the mobile forms technosols are referred to the category of hazardous. In this regard, in plant products grown in the area adjacent to the dumps, there was revealed an excess on cadmium. The biological activity of soils is very low, due to the low microbial community development. Soil formation in the dumps is almost not expressed, appearing in the formation of low-thick underdeveloped humus horizon with a little diversity of species and projective cover. Sanitary-hygienic situation in conditions in the quarry dump area is unfavorable, that does not allow newly formed soils to carry out environmental functions effectively
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biota/efeitos dos fármacos
Cobre
Poluição Ambiental
Metais Pesados
Mineração/métodos
Solo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bashkiria
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
Poluição Ambiental/análise
Seres Humanos
Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos
Metais Pesados/análise
Solo/química
Solo/classificação
Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos
Poluentes do Solo/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 789U1901C5 (Copper)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29431333
[Au] Autor:Kirtsideli IY; Abakumov EV; Teshebaev SB; Zelenskaya MS; Vlasov DY; Krylenkov VA; Ryabusheva YV; Sokolov VT; Barantsevich EP
[Ti] Título:[Microbial communities in regions of arctic settlements].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(10):293-9, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:The composition and the structure of microbial communities in areas of Arctic settlements were studied. The main attention has been given to microscopic fungi. As result of observation of 5 Arctic regions 117 species of microscopic fungi are revealed in soils and anthropogenic substrates. The identification was carried out with the use ofmycological and molecular genetic methods. Most ofspecies belong to the Ascomycotina. Genus Penicillium is characterized by the most species diversity (24 species). Most offungi are destructors of various materials and potential human pathogens. Dominant species are revealed. The distribution of microorganisms in the living and working areas of polar stations, as well as the adjacent areas are described. Black-colored fungi adapted to unfavorable environment are often the dominated group of microorganisms on soils and anthropogenic substrates. The shaping of soil microbiota was shown to be related to the anthropogenic impact. Considerable similarity of microbial communities composition in the soil and man-made substrates is fixed. As result of mycological analysis of contaminated soils 76 species of microscopic fungi were observed, but 41 species of them (53.9%) were identified in the areas of Arctic polar stations on the man-made materials. These species include the representatives of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Exophiala, Geomyces, Humicola, Penicillium, Mucor, Phoma, Rhodotorula, Trichoderma and Ulocladium. The obtained data show a significant similarity in species composition of contaminated soils and anthropogenic substrates. Human activity contributes to the distribution of cosmopolitan species, including opportunistic fungi, in the Arctic region. The high numbers of organotrophic bacteria were revealed in soil samples. Some species of microorganisms produce the organic acids in an external environment that promotes the erosion of materials.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fungos Mitospóricos
Microbiologia do Solo
Solo/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia
Biota
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Microbiota
Fungos Mitospóricos/classificação
Fungos Mitospóricos/isolamento & purificação
Fungos Mitospóricos/fisiologia
Filogeografia
Federação Russa/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29258487
[Au] Autor:Ferrari C; Salle R; Callemeyn-Torre N; Jovelin R; Cutter AD; Braendle C
[Ad] Endereço:CNRS, IBV, Inserm, Université Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.
[Ti] Título:Ephemeral-habitat colonization and neotropical species richness of Caenorhabditis nematodes.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):43, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The drivers of species co-existence in local communities are especially enigmatic for assemblages of morphologically cryptic species. Here we characterize the colonization dynamics and abundance of nine species of Caenorhabditis nematodes in neotropical French Guiana, the most speciose known assemblage of this genus, with resource use overlap and notoriously similar external morphology despite deep genomic divergence. METHODS: To characterize the dynamics and specificity of colonization and exploitation of ephemeral resource patches, we conducted manipulative field experiments and the largest sampling effort to date for Caenorhabditis outside of Europe. This effort provides the first in-depth quantitative analysis of substrate specificity for Caenorhabditis in natural, unperturbed habitats. RESULTS: We amassed a total of 626 strain isolates from nine species of Caenorhabditis among 2865 substrate samples. With the two new species described here (C. astrocarya and C. dolens), we estimate that our sampling procedures will discover few additional species of these microbivorous animals in this tropical rainforest system. We demonstrate experimentally that the two most prevalent species (C. nouraguensis and C. tropicalis) rapidly colonize fresh resource patches, whereas at least one rarer species shows specialist micro-habitat fidelity. CONCLUSION: Despite the potential to colonize rapidly, these ephemeral patchy resources of rotting fruits and flowers are likely to often remain uncolonized by Caenorhabditis prior to their complete decay, implying dispersal-limited resource exploitation. We hypothesize that a combination of rapid colonization, high ephemerality of resource patches, and species heterogeneity in degree of specialization on micro-habitats and life histories enables a dynamic co-existence of so many morphologically cryptic species of Caenorhabditis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição Animal
Caenorhabditis/fisiologia
Ecossistema
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biota
Guiana Francesa
Densidade Demográfica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0150-z


  4 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29258485
[Au] Autor:Aït Hamza M; Ali N; Tavoillot J; Fossati-Gaschignard O; Boubaker H; El Mousadik A; Mateille T
[Ad] Endereço:Faculté Des Sciences, Laboratoire LBVRN, Université Ibn Zohr, BP 8106, 80000, Agadir, Morocco. mohamed.aithamza@edu.uiz.ac.ma.
[Ti] Título:Diversity of root-knot nematodes in Moroccan olive nurseries and orchards: does Meloidogyne javanica disperse according to invasion processes?
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):41, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major pest of olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea), especially in nurseries and high-density orchards. Soil samples were collected from main olive growing areas of Morocco, to characterize Meloidogyne species and to discuss the contribution of biotic and abiotic factors in their spatial distribution. RESULTS: RKN were found in 159 soil samples out of 305 from nurseries (52.1% occurrence) and in 11 out of 49 soil samples from orchards (23.2% occurrence). Biochemical and molecular characterisation (PAGE esterase and SCAR) revealed the dominance of M. javanica both in nurseries and orchards with minor presence of M. incognita only in nurseries, and M. arenaria in only one nursery. RKN were distributed on aggregated basis. Frequent presence of M. javanica in orchards might have come from nurseries. In contrast, the detection of M. incognita in nurseries alone suggests that this species could not reproduce in orchards because of either the competition with other plant-parasitic nematodes or unfit local habitats. The impact of environmental variables (climate, habitat origin and physicochemical characteristics of the substrates) on the distribution of Meloidogyne species is also discussed. CONCLUSION: Olive nurseries in Morocco are not able to guarantee the safety of rooted plants. As a result, olive production systems are exposed to strong RKN invasion risks. Consequently, the use of healthy substrates in nurseries may prevent plant-parasitic nematode induction in orchards.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição Animal
Olea/parasitologia
Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biota
Marrocos
Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia
Solo/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0153-9


  5 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29175400
[Au] Autor:Kaurin A; Cernilogar Z; Lestan D
[Ad] Endereço:University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy Department, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
[Ti] Título:Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: Effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;193:726-736, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Soil remediation mitigates hazards from contaminants but could deprive soils of initial biota and enzymes. Historically contaminated acidic soil from Arnoldstein (Austria) and calcareous soil from Meza (Slovenia) were washed with 30 and 100 mmol kg ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) to remove 78 and 60% of Pb as a main pollutant. Remediation of the Arnoldstein soil decreased urease activity and increased ß-glucosidase activity, measured in a 15-week experiment. The dehydrogenase activity and microbial gene abundances were not significantly impeded compared to the original soil. Conversely, the use of a high dose of EDTA in the Meza soil, necessary for effective remediation of calcareous soils, resulted in pronouncedly decreased enzyme activities (3.2 times on average) and repressed fungal ITS and increased bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Remediation shifted the microbial community composition in both soils. For revitalisation, the remediated soils were amended with compost, inocula of un-contaminated soil and (Arnoldstein soil) biochar enriched with soil extract. Amendments inconsistently affected the Arnoldstein soil: compost increased the dehydrogenase activity and altered the microbial community composition, biochar enhanced the ß-glucosidase activity, and all amendments decreased the microbial abundance (1.6 times on average). In contrast, amendments efficiently revitalised the remediated Meza soil; compost and soil inoculum returned the enzyme activities back to the baseline in the original soil, increased the fungal abundance above that in the original soil and restored the microbial community composition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biota
Carvão Vegetal
Compostagem/métodos
Ácido Edético
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos
Microbiologia do Solo
Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Áustria
Ácido Edético/farmacologia
Metais/farmacologia
Eslovênia
Solo/química
Poluentes do Solo/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 9G34HU7RV0 (Edetic Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29121563
[Au] Autor:Woodburn KB; Seston RM; Kim J; Powell DE
[Ad] Endereço:Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48674, USA. Electronic address: kent.woodburn@dowcorning.com.
[Ti] Título:Benthic invertebrate exposure and chronic toxicity risk analysis for cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes: Comparison of hazard quotient and probabilistic risk assessment approaches.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;192:337-347, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study utilized probabilistic risk assessment techniques to compare field sediment concentrations of the cyclic volatile methylsiloxane (cVMS) materials octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4, CAS # 556-67-2), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5, CAS # 541-02-6), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6, CAS # 540-97-6) to effect levels for these compounds determined in laboratory chronic toxicity tests with benthic organisms. The concentration data for D4/D5/D6 in sediment were individually sorted and the 95th centile concentrations determined in sediment on an organic carbon (OC) fugacity basis. These concentrations were then compared to interpolated 5th centile benthic sediment no-observed effect concentration (NOEC) fugacity levels, calculated from a distribution of chronic D4/D5/D6 toxicologic assays per OECD guidelines using a variety of standard benthic species. The benthic invertebrate fugacity biota NOEC values were then compared to field-measured invertebrate biota fugacity levels to see if risk assessment evaluations were similar on a field sediment and field biota basis. No overlap was noted for D4 and D5 95th centile sediment and biota fugacity levels and their respective 5th centile benthic organism NOEC values. For D6, there was a small level of overlap at the exposure 95th centile sediment fugacity and the 5th centile benthic organism NOEC fugacity value; the sediment fugacities indicate that a negligible risk (1%) exists for benthic species exposed to D6. In contrast, there was no indication of risk when the field invertebrate exposure 95th centile biota fugacity and the 5th centile benthic organism NOEC fugacity values were compared.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medição de Risco/métodos
Siloxanas/toxicidade
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biota/efeitos dos fármacos
Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Siloxanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane); 0THT5PCI0R (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane); CZ227117JE (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171110
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27778455
[Au] Autor:Grangeteau C; Roullier-Gall C; Rousseaux S; Gougeon RD; Schmitt-Kopplin P; Alexandre H; Guilloux-Benatier M
[Ad] Endereço:Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR A 02.102, F-21000, Dijon, France.
[Ti] Título:Wine microbiology is driven by vineyard and winery anthropogenic factors.
[So] Source:Microb Biotechnol;10(2):354-370, 2017 03.
[Is] ISSN:1751-7915
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The effects of different anthropic activities (vineyard: phytosanitary protection; winery: pressing and sulfiting) on the fungal populations of grape berries were studied. The global diversity of fungal populations (moulds and yeasts) was performed by pyrosequencing. The anthropic activities studied modified fungal diversity. Thus, a decrease in biodiversity was measured for three successive vintages for the grapes of the plot cultivated with Organic protection compared to plots treated with Conventional and Ecophyto protections. The fungal populations were then considerably modified by the pressing-clarification step. The addition of sulfur dioxide also modified population dynamics and favoured the domination of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation. The non-targeted chemical analysis of musts and wines by FT-ICR-MS showed that the wines could be discriminated at the end of alcoholic fermentation as a function of adding SO or not, but also and above all as a function of phytosanitary protection, regardless of whether these fermentations took place in the presence of SO or not. Thus, the existence of signatures in wines of chemical diversity and microbiology linked to vineyard protection has been highlighted.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/métodos
Biota/efeitos dos fármacos
Fungos/classificação
Fungos/isolamento & purificação
Vitis/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo
Fazendas
Dióxido de Enxofre/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0UZA3422Q4 (Sulfur Dioxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1751-7915.12428


  8 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29253889
[Au] Autor:Oono R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A confidence interval analysis of sampling effort, sequencing depth, and taxonomic resolution of fungal community ecology in the era of high-throughput sequencing.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189796, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:High-throughput sequencing technology has helped microbial community ecologists explore ecological and evolutionary patterns at unprecedented scales. The benefits of a large sample size still typically outweigh that of greater sequencing depths per sample for accurate estimations of ecological inferences. However, excluding or not sequencing rare taxa may mislead the answers to the questions 'how and why are communities different?' This study evaluates the confidence intervals of ecological inferences from high-throughput sequencing data of foliar fungal endophytes as case studies through a range of sampling efforts, sequencing depths, and taxonomic resolutions to understand how technical and analytical practices may affect our interpretations. Increasing sampling size reliably decreased confidence intervals across multiple community comparisons. However, the effects of sequencing depths on confidence intervals depended on how rare taxa influenced the dissimilarity estimates among communities and did not significantly decrease confidence intervals for all community comparisons. A comparison of simulated communities under random drift suggests that sequencing depths are important in estimating dissimilarities between microbial communities under neutral selective processes. Confidence interval analyses reveal important biases as well as biological trends in microbial community studies that otherwise may be ignored when communities are only compared for statistically significant differences.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biota
DNA Fúngico/genética
Fungos/classificação
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biodiversidade
Intervalos de Confiança
Ecologia
Fungos/genética
Filogenia
Pinus/microbiologia
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Fungal); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189796


  9 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28746307
[Au] Autor:Grilli J; Barabás G; Michalska-Smith MJ; Allesina S
[Ad] Endereço:Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
[Ti] Título:Higher-order interactions stabilize dynamics in competitive network models.
[So] Source:Nature;548(7666):210-213, 2017 08 10.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ecologists have long sought a way to explain how the remarkable biodiversity observed in nature is maintained. On the one hand, simple models of interacting competitors cannot produce the stable persistence of very large ecological communities. On the other hand, neutral models, in which species do not interact and diversity is maintained by immigration and speciation, yield unrealistically small fluctuations in population abundance, and a strong positive correlation between a species' abundance and its age, contrary to empirical evidence. Models allowing for the robust persistence of large communities of interacting competitors are lacking. Here we show that very diverse communities could persist thanks to the stabilizing role of higher-order interactions, in which the presence of a species influences the interaction between other species. Although higher-order interactions have been studied for decades, their role in shaping ecological communities is still unclear. The inclusion of higher-order interactions in competitive network models stabilizes dynamics, making species coexistence robust to the perturbation of both population abundance and parameter values. We show that higher-order interactions have strong effects in models of closed ecological communities, as well as of open communities in which new species are constantly introduced. In our framework, higher-order interactions are completely defined by pairwise interactions, facilitating empirical parameterization and validation of our models.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biota
Comportamento Competitivo
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Plantas
Dinâmica Populacional
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature23273


  10 / 2955 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28934290
[Au] Autor:Hopkins MJ; Chen F; Hu S; Zhang Z
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184982, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop") under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia
Artrópodes/fisiologia
Evolução Biológica
Biota
Sistema Digestório/ultraestrutura
Preservação Biológica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Fósseis
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184982



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