Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : G16.500.275.965 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 237 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28759563
[Au] Autor:Tanentzap AJ
[Ad] Endereço:Ecosystems and Global Change Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:The costs of saving nature: Does it make "cents"?
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(7):e2003292, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Clearing wild forests to grow food, fibre, and fuel products can deliver large financial gains. However, the benefits that people obtain from forests-known as ecosystem services-are rarely considered in economic calculations, partly because there are few markets onto which they can be traded. In some regions, the benefits delivered by nature might be more economically valuable. A new study maps where it is profitable to replace tropical forests with cropland and how this might change under future agricultural production and carbon prices. The findings address a major applied challenge by helping to identify sites where forest conservation can be economically viable.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/economia
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia
Agricultura Florestal/métodos
Florestas
Internacionalidade
Modelos Econômicos
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura/tendências
Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências
Produtos Agrícolas/economia
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ecossistema
Política Ambiental
Agricultura Florestal/economia
Agricultura Florestal/tendências
Seres Humanos
Incerteza
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170829
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170829
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170801
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2003292


  2 / 237 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28732022
[Au] Autor:Carrasco LR; Webb EL; Symes WS; Koh LP; Sodhi NS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore.
[Ti] Título:Global economic trade-offs between wild nature and tropical agriculture.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(7):e2001657, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs) and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/economia
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia
Agricultura Florestal/métodos
Florestas
Internacionalidade
Modelos Econômicos
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura/tendências
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos
Poluição do Ar/economia
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle
Animais
Ciclo do Carbono
Dióxido de Carbono/análise
Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências
Produtos Agrícolas/economia
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ecossistema
Agricultura Florestal/economia
Agricultura Florestal/tendências
Seres Humanos
Clima Tropical
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Nm] Nome de substância:
142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170829
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170829
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170722
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001657


  3 / 237 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28569807
[Au] Autor:Pringle RM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.
[Ti] Título:Upgrading protected areas to conserve wild biodiversity.
[So] Source:Nature;546(7656):91-99, 2017 05 31.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:International agreements mandate the expansion of Earth's protected-area network as a bulwark against the continued extinction of wild populations, species, and ecosystems. Yet many protected areas are underfunded, poorly managed, and ecologically damaged; the conundrum is how to increase their coverage and effectiveness simultaneously. Innovative restoration and rewilding programmes in Costa Rica's Área de Conservación Guanacaste and Mozambique's Parque Nacional da Gorongosa highlight how degraded ecosystems can be rehabilitated, expanded, and woven into the cultural fabric of human societies. Worldwide, enormous potential for biodiversity conservation can be realized by upgrading existing nature reserves while harmonizing them with the needs and aspirations of their constituencies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Selvagens
Biodiversidade
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Parques Recreativos/provisão & distribuição
Parques Recreativos/tendências
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia
Costa Rica
Moçambique
Parques Recreativos/economia
Pesquisa/tendências
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170602
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature22902


  4 / 237 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28525551
[Au] Autor:Liu JC; Wilson A; Mickley LJ; Ebisu K; Sulprizio MP; Wang Y; Peng RD; Yue X; Dominici F; Bell ML
[Ti] Título:Who Among the Elderly Is Most Vulnerable to Exposure to and Health Risks of Fine Particulate Matter From Wildfire Smoke?
[So] Source:Am J Epidemiol;186(6):730-735, 2017 Sep 15.
[Is] ISSN:1476-6256
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Wildfires burn more than 7 million acres in the United States annually, according to the US Forest Service. Little is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to health risks from wildfire smoke, including those associated with fine particulate matter. We estimated exposure to fine particles specifically from wildfires, as well as the associations between the presence of wildfire-specific fine particles and the amount of hospital admissions for respiratory causes among subpopulations older than 65 years of age in the western United States (2004-2009). Compared with other populations, higher fractions of persons who were black, lived in urban counties, and lived in California were exposed to more than 1 smoke wave (high-pollution episodes from wildfire smoke). The risks of respiratory admissions on smoke-wave days compared with non-smoke-wave days increased 10.4% (95% confidence interval: 1.9, 19.6) for women and 21.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 47.3) for blacks. Our findings suggest that increased risks of respiratory admissions from wildfire smoke was significantly higher for women than for men (10.4% vs. 3.7%), blacks than whites (21.7% vs. 6.9%), and, although associations were not statistically different, people in lower-education counties than higher-educated counties (12.7% vs. 6.1%). Our study raised important environmental justice issues that can inform public health programs and wildfire management. As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of wildfires, evidence on vulnerable subpopulations can inform disaster preparedness and the understanding of climate change consequences.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
Fogo
Material Particulado/toxicidade
Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/etiologia
Fumaça/efeitos adversos
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Afroamericanos/estatística & dados numéricos
Fatores Etários
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
California/epidemiologia
Mudança Climática
Desastres
Feminino
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Fatores de Risco
Fatores Sexuais
Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/epidemiologia
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Particulate Matter); 0 (Smoke)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170520
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/aje/kwx141


  5 / 237 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28411933
[Au] Autor:Millin MG; Hawkins SC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland Search and Rescue, 5801 Smith Avenue, Davis Building, Suite 3220, Baltimore, MD 21209, USA. Electronic address: MichaelGMillin@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Wilderness Emergency Medical Services Systems.
[So] Source:Emerg Med Clin North Am;35(2):377-389, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1558-0539
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Wilderness emergency medical services (WEMS) are designed to provide high quality health care in wilderness environments. A WEMS program should have oversight by a qualified physician responsible for protocol development, education, and quality improvement. The director is also ideally fully trained as a member of that wilderness rescue program, supporting the team with real-time patient care. WEMS providers function with scopes of practice approved by the local medical director and regulatory authority. With a focus on providing quality patient care, it is time for the evolution of WEMS as an integrated element of a local emergency response system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Financiamento de Capital
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/economia
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/história
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/legislação & jurisprudência
Equipamentos e Provisões
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Responsabilidade Legal
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170421
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170421
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170417
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28282356
[Au] Autor:Hoffman MD; Joslin J; Rogers IR
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Veterans Affairs, Northern California Health Care System, and University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY; 3St. John of God Murdoch Hospital & University of Notre Dame, Murdoch, WA, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Management of Suspected Fluid Balance Issues in Participants of Wilderness Endurance Events.
[So] Source:Curr Sports Med Rep;16(2):98-102, 2017 Mar/Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1537-8918
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dehydration and exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) are both relatively common conditions during wilderness endurance events. Whereas dehydration is treated with fluids, EAH is appropriately managed with fluid restriction and a sodium bolus but can worsen with isotonic or hypotonic fluids. Therefore, caution is recommended in the provision of postevent rehydration in environments where EAH is a potential consideration because accurate field assessment of hydration status can be challenging, and measurement of blood sodium concentration is rarely possible in the wilderness. Dehydration management with oral rehydration is generally adequate and preferred to intravenous rehydration, which should be reserved for athletes with sustained orthostasis or inability to tolerate oral fluid ingestion after some rest. In situations where intravenous hydration is initiated without known blood sodium concentration or hydration status, an intravenous concentrated sodium solution should be available in the event of acute neurological deterioration consistent with the development of EAH encephalopathy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desidratação/prevenção & controle
Soluções Isotônicas/uso terapêutico
Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atletas
Desidratação/terapia
Hidratação/métodos
Seres Humanos
Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
Medicina Selvagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Isotonic Solutions); 0 (Saline Solution, Hypertonic)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170311
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000344


  7 / 237 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28076444
[Au] Autor:Nazir S; Newey S; Irvine RJ; Verdicchio F; Davidson P; Fairhurst G; Wal RV
[Ad] Endereço:School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:WiseEye: Next Generation Expandable and Programmable Camera Trap Platform for Wildlife Research.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(1):e0169758, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The widespread availability of relatively cheap, reliable and easy to use digital camera traps has led to their extensive use for wildlife research, monitoring and public outreach. Users of these units are, however, often frustrated by the limited options for controlling camera functions, the generation of large numbers of images, and the lack of flexibility to suit different research environments and questions. We describe the development of a user-customisable open source camera trap platform named 'WiseEye', designed to provide flexible camera trap technology for wildlife researchers. The novel platform is based on a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and compatible peripherals that allow the user to control its functions and performance. We introduce the concept of confirmatory sensing, in which the Passive Infrared triggering is confirmed through other modalities (i.e. radar, pixel change) to reduce the occurrence of false positives images. This concept, together with user-definable metadata, aided identification of spurious images and greatly reduced post-collection processing time. When tested against a commercial camera trap, WiseEye was found to reduce the incidence of false positive images and false negatives across a range of test conditions. WiseEye represents a step-change in camera trap functionality, greatly increasing the value of this technology for wildlife research and conservation management.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Periféricos de Computador
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170803
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170803
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0169758


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[PMID]:27754819
[Au] Autor:Butler C; Marsh S; Domitrovich JW; Helmkamp J
[Ad] Endereço:a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Western States Division , Denver , Colorado.
[Ti] Título:Wildland firefighter deaths in the United States: A comparison of existing surveillance systems.
[So] Source:J Occup Environ Hyg;14(4):258-270, 2017 04.
[Is] ISSN:1545-9632
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Wildland fire fighting is a high-risk occupation requiring considerable physical and psychological demands. Multiple agencies publish fatality summaries for wildland firefighters; however, the reported number and types vary. At least five different surveillance systems capture deaths, each with varying case definitions and case inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four are population-level systems and one is case-based. System differences create challenges to accurately characterize fatalities. Data within each of the five surveillance systems were examined to better understand the types of wildland firefighter data collected, to assess each system's utility in characterizing wildland firefighter fatalities, and to determine each system's potential to inform prevention strategies. To describe similarities and differences in how data were recorded and characterized, wildland fire deaths for three of the population-based systems were matched and individual fatalities across systems were compared. Between 2001 and 2012, 247 unique deaths were captured among the systems; 73% of these were captured in all three systems. Most common causes of death in all systems were associated with aviation, vehicles, medical events, and entrapments/burnovers. The data show that, although the three systems often report similar annual summary statistics, events captured in each system vary each year depending on the types of events that the system is designed to track, such as inclusion/exclusion of fatalities associated with the Hometown Heroes Survivor Benefits Act of 2003. The overarching and central goal of each system is to collect accurate and timely information to improve wildland firefighter safety and health. Each system is unique and has varying inclusion and exclusion criteria for capturing and tracking different subsets of wildland firefighter tasks and duties. Use of a common case definition and better descriptions and interpretations of the data and the results would help to more accurately characterize wildland firefighter traumatic injuries and illnesses, lessen the likelihood for misinterpretation of wildland firefighter fatality data, and assist with defining the true occupational injury burden within this high-risk population.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trabalho/mortalidade
Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos
Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Coleta de Dados/métodos
Seres Humanos
Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade
Traumatismos Ocupacionais/mortalidade
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171120
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171120
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161019
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15459624.2016.1250004


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[PMID]:27808207
[Au] Autor:Schiermeier Q
[Ti] Título:World's largest marine reserve hailed as diplomatic breakthrough.
[So] Source:Nature;539(7627):13-14, 2016 11 03.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Organismos Aquáticos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência
Diplomacia
Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência
Oceanos e Mares
Meio Selvagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Regiões Antárticas
Pesqueiros
Peixes
Cadeia Alimentar
Dinâmica Populacional
Federação Russa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1611
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature.2016.20900


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[PMID]:27717701
[Au] Autor:Hayes AC; Enongene Ekwe S; Mervin S; Jenson E
[Ad] Endereço:Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Bio-Processing Team, PO Bag 4000, Hwy 16A and 75 Street, Vegreville, AB T9C 1T4, Canada. Electronic address: alex.hayes@albertainnovates.ca.
[Ti] Título:Techno-economic evaluation of a tandem dry batch, garage-style digestion-compost process for remote work camp environments.
[So] Source:Waste Manag;58:70-80, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2456
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The extraction of natural resources often involves housing workers in remote work camps far from population centres. These camps are prevalent in northern Alberta where they house approximately 40,000 workers involved in oil sands processing. The central, full-service cafeterias at these camps produce a significant quantity of food and cardboard waste. Due to their remote nature, these camps face high waste disposal costs associated with trucking waste long distances to the landfill. In this study, we investigated the techno-economic feasibility of on-site treatment of food and cardboard waste in a tandem dry batch, garage-style anaerobic digestion-compost process in which the waste material is converted into renewable energy used to heat the camp water supply and a nutrient-rich soil amendment for local land reclamation projects. Dry batch digestion and windrow composting pilot trials were performed on a simulated work camp waste in order to assess technical performance. The quality of the final compost was found to meet regulatory standards. A complete mass balance was then developed for a facility treating 3000 tonnes food waste and 435 tonnes waste cardboard annually. An economic assessment of such a facility was performed and, depending on the level of capital support and recognition of carbon credits for landfill methane mitigation, would require waste disposal costs to be between $115 and $195 CAD per tonne to meet financial criteria for project selection in Alberta's oil and gas industry.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Solo
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alberta
Anaerobiose
Biocombustíveis
Alimentos
Metano/metabolismo
Energia Renovável
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/economia
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/instrumentação
Meio Selvagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biofuels); 0 (Soil); OP0UW79H66 (Methane)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161009
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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