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  1 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380882
[Au] Autor:Turner TR; Bernstein RM; Taylor AB; Asangba A; Bekelman T; Cramer JD; Elton S; Harvati K; Williams-Hatala EM; Kauffman L; Middleton E; Richtsmeier J; Szathmáry E; Torres-Rouff C; Thayer Z; Villaseñor A; Vogel E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
[Ti] Título:Participation, representation, and shared experiences of women scholars in biological anthropology.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:126-157, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) membership surveys from 1996 and 1998 revealed significant gender disparities in academic status. A 2014 follow-up survey showed that gender equality had improved, particularly with respect to the number of women in tenure-stream positions. However, although women comprised 70% of AAPA membership at that time, the percentage of women full professors remained low. Here, we continue to consider the status of women in biological anthropology by examining the representation of women through a quantitative analysis of their participation in annual meetings of the AAPA during the past 20 years. We also review the programmatic goals of the AAPA Committee on Diversity Women's Initiative (COD-WIN) and provide survey results of women who participated in COD-WIN professional development workshops. Finally, we examine the diversity of women's career paths through the personal narratives of 14 women biological anthropologists spanning all ranks from graduate student to Professor Emeritus. We find that over the past 20 years, the percentage of women first authors of invited symposia talks has increased, particularly in the sub-disciplines of bioarchaeology, genetics, and paleoanthropology. The percentage of women first authors on contributed talks and posters has also increased. However, these observed increases are still lower than expected given the percentage of graduate student women and women at the rank of assistant and associate professor. The personal narratives highlight first-hand the impact of mentoring on career trajectory, the challenges of achieving work-life satisfaction, and resilience in the face of the unexpected. We end with some suggestions for how to continue to improve equality and equity for women in biological anthropology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia
Docentes
Mulheres/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia/organização & administração
Antropologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Biologia/organização & administração
Biologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Escolha da Profissão
Docentes/psicologia
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Mães/psicologia
Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração
Sociedades Científicas/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23386


  2 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380885
[Au] Autor:Turner TR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
[Ti] Título:Preface 2018 Yearbook.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:3, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia
Biologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:INTRODUCTORY JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23389


  3 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380881
[Au] Autor:Antón SC; Malhi RS; Fuentes A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, New York University.
[Ti] Título:Race and diversity in U.S. Biological Anthropology: A decade of AAPA initiatives.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:158-180, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Biological Anthropology studies the variation and evolution of living humans, non-human primates, and extinct ancestors and for this reason the field should be in an ideal position to attract scientists from a variety of backgrounds who have different views and experiences. However, the origin and history of the discipline, anecdotal observations, self-reports, and recent surveys suggest the field has significant barriers to attracting scholars of color. For a variety of reasons, including quantitative research that demonstrates that diverse groups do better science, the discipline should strive to achieve a more diverse composition. Here we discuss the background and underpinnings of the current and historical dearth of diversity in Biological Anthropology in the U.S. specifically as it relates to representation of minority and underrepresented minority (URM) (or racialized minority) scholars. We trace this lack of diversity to underlying issues of recruitment and retention in the STEM sciences generally, to the history of Anthropology particularly around questions of race-science, and to the absence of Anthropology at many minority-serving institutions, especially HBCUs, a situation that forestalls pathways to the discipline for many minority students. The AAPA Committee on Diversity (COD) was conceived as a means of assessing and improving diversity within the discipline, and we detail the history of the COD since its inception in 2006. Prior to the COD there were no systematic AAPA efforts to consider ethnoracial diversity in our ranks and no programming around questions of diversity and inclusion. Departmental survey data collected by the COD indicate that undergraduate majors in Biological Anthropology are remarkably diverse, but that the discipline loses these scholars between undergraduate and graduate school and systematically up rank. Our analysis of recent membership demographic survey data (2014 and 2017) shows Biological Anthropology to have less ethnoracial diversity than even the affiliated STEM disciplines of Biology and Anatomy; nearly 87% of AAPA members in the United States identify as white and just 7% as URM scholars. These data also suggest that the intersection of race and gender significantly influence scholarly representation. In response to these data, we describe a substantial body of programs that have been developed by the COD to improve diversity in our ranks. Through these programs we identify principal concerns that contribute to the loss of scholars of color from the discipline at different stages in their careers, propose other directions that programming for recruitment should take, and discuss the beginnings of how to develop a more inclusive discipline at all career stages.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia/organização & administração
Biologia/organização & administração
Biologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Diversidade Cultural
Seres Humanos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23382


  4 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29338019
[Au] Autor:Meyers LC; Brown AM; Moneta-Koehler L; Chalkley R
[Ad] Endereço:Office for Biomedical Research Education and Training, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Survey of checkpoints along the pathway to diverse biomedical research faculty.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190606, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:There is a persistent shortage of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty who are involved in basic biomedical research at medical schools. We examined the entire training pathway of potential candidates to identify the points of greatest loss. Using a range of recent national data sources, including the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates and Survey of Doctoral Recipients, we analyzed the demographics of the population of interest, specifically those from URM backgrounds with an interest in biomedical sciences. We examined the URM population from high school graduates through undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral training as well as the URM population in basic science tenure track faculty positions at medical schools. We find that URM and non-URM trainees are equally likely to transition into doctoral programs, to receive their doctoral degree, and to secure a postdoctoral position. However, the analysis reveals that the diversions from developing a faculty career are found primarily at two clearly identifiable places, specifically during undergraduate education and in transition from postdoctoral fellowship to tenure track faculty in the basic sciences at medical schools. We suggest focusing additional interventions on these two stages along the educational pathway.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Academias e Institutos/organização & administração
Pesquisa Biomédica
Diversidade Cultural
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos
Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biologia/educação
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190606


  5 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29283536
[Au] Autor:Drouin AS; Drouin E; Pereon Y
[Ti] Título:Did Jean François Barbe Anticipate Charles Darwin?
[So] Source:Vesalius;22(2):24-29, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1373-4857
[Cp] País de publicação:Belgium
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species in 1859 is widely suppose to have initiated a revolution in science. In 1837, he broke with dogmatic fixism and argued that the adaptation of populations to their local environment was the cause of transmutation. Some contributors helped him start his reasoning: he indeed expressed his indebtedness to Samuel Rowley for having called his attention to Charles Wells' notions of natural selection. Darwin was certainly not the first to suggest the idea of evolution as an alternative to the creation of species by God. We report on a medical thesis published in 1837 being concluded by an unexpected and important statement related to the appearance of mammals on Earth. It remained unknown but it constitutes a link between the transformative thought of Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, and Darwin's work.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Biologia/história
Seleção Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: França
História do Século XIX
História Natural/história
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Barbe J
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171229
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29281676
[Au] Autor:Cotner S; Ballen CJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology Teaching and Learning, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Can mixed assessment methods make biology classes more equitable?
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189610, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Many factors have been proposed to explain the attrition of women in science, technology, engineering and math fields, among them the lower performance of women in introductory courses resulting from deficits in incoming preparation. We focus on the impact of mixed methods of assessment, which minimizes the impact of high-stakes exams and rewards other methods of assessment such as group participation, low-stakes quizzes and assignments, and in-class activities. We hypothesized that these mixed methods would benefit individuals who otherwise underperform on high-stakes tests. Here, we analyze gender-based performance trends in nine large (N > 1000 students) introductory biology courses in fall 2016. Females underperformed on exams compared to their male counterparts, a difference that does not exist with other methods of assessment that compose course grade. Further, we analyzed three case studies of courses that transitioned their grading schemes to either de-emphasize or emphasize exams as a proportion of total course grade. We demonstrate that the shift away from an exam emphasis consequently benefits female students, thereby closing gaps in overall performance. Further, the exam performance gap itself is reduced when the exams contribute less to overall course grade. We discuss testable predictions that follow from our hypothesis, and advocate for the use of mixed methods of assessments (possibly as part of an overall shift to active learning techniques). We conclude by challenging the student deficit model, and suggest a course deficit model as explanatory of these performance gaps, whereby the microclimate of the classroom can either raise or lower barriers to success for underrepresented groups in STEM.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biologia/educação
Avaliação Educacional/métodos
Fatores Sexuais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estudantes
Universidades
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189610


  7 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29242348
[Au] Autor:Grover S
[Ad] Endereço:Samantha Grover is a research fellow at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. She developed these ideas in collaboration with scientist parents Emily Nicholson, Sharna Jamadar, and Susanna Venn. Send your career story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.
[Ti] Título:My children help my science.
[So] Source:Science;358(6369):1486, 2017 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mobilidade Ocupacional
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia
Parto/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biologia
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; PERSONAL NARRATIVES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.358.6369.1486


  8 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29232375
[Au] Autor:Espin J; Palmas S; Carrasco-Rueda F; Riemer K; Allen PE; Berkebile N; Hecht KA; Kastner-Wilcox K; Núñez-Regueiro MM; Prince C; Rios C; Ross E; Sangha B; Tyler T; Ungvari-Martin J; Villegas M; Cataldo TT; Bruna EM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sociology and Criminology & Law, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A persistent lack of international representation on editorial boards in environmental biology.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(12):e2002760, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The scholars comprising journal editorial boards play a critical role in defining the trajectory of knowledge in their field. Nevertheless, studies of editorial board composition remain rare, especially those focusing on journals publishing research in the increasingly globalized fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Using metrics for quantifying the diversity of ecological communities, we quantified international representation on the 1985-2014 editorial boards of 24 environmental biology journals. Over the course of 3 decades, there were 3,827 unique scientists based in 70 countries who served as editors. The size of the editorial community increased over time-the number of editors serving in 2014 was 4-fold greater than in 1985-as did the number of countries in which editors were based. Nevertheless, editors based outside the "Global North" (the group of economically developed countries with high per capita gross domestic product [GDP] that collectively concentrate most global wealth) were extremely rare. Furthermore, 67.18% of all editors were based in either the United States or the United Kingdom. Consequently, geographic diversity-already low in 1985-remained unchanged through 2014. We argue that this limited geographic diversity can detrimentally affect the creativity of scholarship published in journals, the progress and direction of research, the composition of the STEM workforce, and the development of science in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and much of Asia (i.e., the "Global South").
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biologia
Ecologia
Políticas Editoriais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Internacionalidade
Editoração
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171224
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171224
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2002760


  9 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28747356
[Au] Autor:Lieu R; Wong A; Asefirad A; Shaffer JF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697.
[Ti] Título:Improving Exam Performance in Introductory Biology through the Use of Preclass Reading Guides.
[So] Source:CBE Life Sci Educ;16(3), 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1931-7913
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:High-structure courses or flipped courses require students to obtain course content before class so that class time can be used for active-learning exercises. While textbooks are used ubiquitously in college biology courses for content dissemination, studies have shown that students frequently do not read their textbooks. To address this issue, we created preclass reading guides that provided students with a way to actively engage with the required reading for each day of class. To determine whether reading guide completion before class is associated with increased performance, we surveyed students about their use of reading guides in two sections of a large-enrollment (400+ students) introductory biology course and used multiple linear regression models to identify significant correlations. The results indicated that greater than 80% of students completed the reading guides before class and that full completion of the reading guides before class was significantly positively correlated with exam performance. Reading guides in most cases were used similarly between different student groups (based on gender, ethnicity, and aptitude). These results suggest that optional preclass reading guides may help students stay on track to acquire course content in introductory biology and thus result in improved exam performance.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biologia/educação
Avaliação Educacional
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
Leitura
Estudantes/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 10357 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28747355
[Au] Autor:Andrews SE; Runyon C; Aikens ML
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824.
[Ti] Título:The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology.
[So] Source:CBE Life Sci Educ;16(3), 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1931-7913
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math-Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self--report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students' interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student's value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math-biology values and understand how math-biology values are related to students' achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Logro
Biologia/educação
Matemática/educação
Estudantes/psicologia
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atitude
Seres Humanos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Universidades
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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