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[PMID]:29205105
[Au] Autor:Ojiambo PS; Yuen J; van den Bosch F; Madden LV
[Ad] Endereço:2017 Focus Issue Senior Editors First author: Center for Integrated Fungal Research, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695; second author: Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, S
[Ti] Título:Epidemiology: Past, Present, and Future Impacts on Understanding Disease Dynamics and Improving Plant Disease Management-A Summary of Focus Issue Articles.
[So] Source:Phytopathology;107(10):1092-1094, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0031-949X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Epidemiology has made significant contributions to plant pathology by elucidating the general principles underlying the development of disease epidemics. This has resulted in a greatly improved theoretical and empirical understanding of the dynamics of disease epidemics in time and space, predictions of disease outbreaks or the need for disease control in real-time basis, and tactical and strategic solutions to disease problems. Availability of high-resolution experimental data at multiple temporal and spatial scales has now provided a platform to test and validate theories on the spread of diseases at a wide range of spatial scales ranging from the local to the landscape level. Relatively new approaches in plant disease epidemiology, ranging from network to information theory, coupled with the availability of large-scale datasets and the rapid development of computer technology, are leading to revolutionary thinking about epidemics that can result in considerable improvement of strategic and tactical decision making in the control and management of plant diseases. Methods that were previously restricted to topics such as population biology or evolution are now being employed in epidemiology to enable a better understanding of the forces that drive the development of plant disease epidemics in space and time. This Focus Issue of Phytopathology features research articles that address broad themes in epidemiology including social and political consequences of disease epidemics, decision theory and support, pathogen dispersal and disease spread, disease assessment and pathogen biology and disease resistance. It is important to emphasize that these articles are just a sample of the types of research projects that are relevant to epidemiology. Below, we provide a succinct summary of the articles that are published in this Focus Issue .
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Resistência à Doença
Epidemias
Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
Patologia Vegetal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura
Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:INTRODUCTORY JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-07-17-0248-FI


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[PMID]:28409526
[Au] Autor:Lindbo JA; Falk BW
[Ad] Endereço:First author: HM Clause, 28605 County Road 104, Davis, CA 95618; and second author: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616.
[Ti] Título:The Impact of "Coat Protein-Mediated Virus Resistance" in Applied Plant Pathology and Basic Research.
[So] Source:Phytopathology;107(6):624-634, 2017 06.
[Is] ISSN:0031-949X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production. The typical review article on this topic has focused on only basic or only applied research results stemming from this seminal discovery. This can make it difficult for the reader to appreciate the full impact of research on transgenic virus resistance, and the contributions from fundamental research that led to translational applications of this technology. In this review, we take a global view of this topic highlighting the significant changes to both basic and applied plant pathology research and commercial food production that have accumulated in the last 30 plus years. We present these milestones in the historical context of some of the scientific, economic, and environmental drivers for developing specific VR crops. The intent of this review is to provide a single document that adequately records the significant accomplishments of researchers in both basic and applied plant pathology research on this topic and how they relate to each other. We hope this review therefore serves as both an instructional tool for students new to the topic, as well as a source of conversation and discussion for how the technology of engineered virus resistance could be applied in the future.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia
Produtos Agrícolas/imunologia
Resistência à Doença
Doenças das Plantas/imunologia
Patologia Vegetal
Vírus de Plantas/patogenicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cruzamento
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética
Produtos Agrícolas/genética
Produtos Agrícolas/virologia
Engenharia Genética
Doenças das Plantas/virologia
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Interferência de RNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Capsid Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170720
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170720
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170415
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-12-16-0442-RVW


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[PMID]:28384335
[Au] Autor:Chabirand A; Loiseau M; Renaudin I; Poliakoff F
[Ad] Endereço:Unit for Tropical Pests and Diseases, Plant Health Laboratory (LSV), French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), Saint-Pierre, Reunion Island, France.
[Ti] Título:Data processing of qualitative results from an interlaboratory comparison for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" phytoplasma: How the use of statistics can improve the reliability of the method validation process in plant pathology.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0175247, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD) phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests. Different statistical approaches were applied to this collaborative study. Firstly, there was the standard statistical approach consisting in analyzing samples which are known to be positive and samples which are known to be negative and reporting the proportion of false-positive and false-negative results to respectively calculate diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. This approach was supplemented by the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility for qualitative methods based on the notions of accordance and concordance. Other new approaches were also implemented, based, on the one hand, on the probability of detection model, and, on the other hand, on Bayes' theorem. These various statistical approaches are complementary and give consistent results. Their combination, and in particular, the introduction of new statistical approaches give overall information on the performance and limitations of the different methods, and are particularly useful for selecting the most appropriate detection scheme with regards to the prevalence of the pathogen. Three real-time PCR protocols (methods M4, M5 and M6 respectively developed by Hren (2007), Pelletier (2009) and under patent oligonucleotides) achieved the highest levels of performance for FD phytoplasma detection. This paper also addresses the issue of indeterminate results and the identification of outlier results. The statistical tools presented in this paper and their combination can be applied to many other studies concerning plant pathogens and other disciplines that use qualitative detection methods.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Patologia Vegetal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170407
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0175247


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[PMID]:28026146
[Au] Autor:Preston GM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RB, UK.
[Ti] Título:Profiling the extended phenotype of plant pathogens: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.
[So] Source:Mol Plant Pathol;18(3):443-456, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1364-3703
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:One of the most fundamental questions in plant pathology is what determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? This question is frequently studied in terms of the role of elicitors and pathogenicity factors in the triggering or overcoming of host defences. However, this focus fails to address the basic question of how the environment in host tissues acts to support or restrict pathogen growth. Efforts to understand this aspect of host-pathogen interactions are commonly confounded by several issues, including the complexity of the plant environment, the artificial nature of many experimental infection systems and the fact that the physiological properties of a pathogen growing in association with a plant can be very different from the properties of the pathogen in culture. It is also important to recognize that the phenotype and evolution of pathogen and host are inextricably linked through their interactions, such that the environment experienced by a pathogen within a host, and its phenotype within the host, is a product of both its interaction with its host and its evolutionary history, including its co-evolution with host plants. As the phenotypic properties of a pathogen within a host cannot be defined in isolation from the host, it may be appropriate to think of pathogens as having an 'extended phenotype' that is the product of their genotype, host interactions and population structure within the host environment. This article reflects on the challenge of defining and studying this extended phenotype, in relation to the questions posed below, and considers how knowledge of the phenotype of pathogens in the host environment could be used to improve disease control. What determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? What aspects of pathogen biology should be considered in describing the extended phenotype of a pathogen within a host? How can we study the extended phenotype in ways that provide insights into the phenotypic properties of pathogens during natural infections?
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Patologia Vegetal
Plantas/microbiologia
Plantas/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
Fenótipo
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Doenças das Plantas/virologia
Virulência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mpp.12530


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[PMID]:27862839
[Au] Autor:Morris CE; Barny MA; Berge O; Kinkel LL; Lacroix C
[Ad] Endereço:INRA, UR0407 Plant Pathology Research Unit, Montfavet, 84143, France.
[Ti] Título:Frontiers for research on the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria: fundamentals for sustainability: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.
[So] Source:Mol Plant Pathol;18(2):308-319, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1364-3703
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Methods to ensure the health of crops owe their efficacy to the extent to which we understand the ecology and biology of environmental microorganisms and the conditions under which their interactions with plants lead to losses in crop quality or yield. However, in the pursuit of this knowledge, notions of the ecology of plant-pathogenic microorganisms have been reduced to a plant-centric and agro-centric focus. With increasing global change, i.e. changes that encompass not only climate, but also biodiversity, the geographical distribution of biomes, human demographic and socio-economic adaptations and land use, new plant health problems will emerge via a range of processes influenced by these changes. Hence, knowledge of the ecology of plant pathogens will play an increasingly important role in the anticipation and response to disease emergence. Here, we present our opinion on the major challenges facing the study of the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria. We argue that the discovery of markedly novel insights into the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria is most likely to happen within a framework of more extensive scales of space, time and biotic interactions than those that currently guide much of the research on these bacteria. This will set a context that is more propitious for the discovery of unsuspected drivers of the survival and diversification of plant-pathogenic bacteria and of the factors most critical for disease emergence, and will set the foundation for new approaches to the sustainable management of plant health. We describe the contextual background of, justification for and specific research questions with regard to the following challenges: Development of terminology to describe plant-bacterial relationships in terms of bacterial fitness. Definition of the full scope of the environments in which plant-pathogenic bacteria reside or survive. Delineation of pertinent phylogenetic contours of plant-pathogenic bacteria and naming of strains independent of their presumed life style. Assessment of how traits of plant-pathogenic bacteria evolve within the overall framework of their life history. Exploration of possible beneficial ecosystem services contributed to by plant-pathogenic bacteria.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/metabolismo
Ecossistema
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
Patologia Vegetal
Plantas/microbiologia
Pesquisa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170704
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170704
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mpp.12508


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[PMID]:27798954
[Au] Autor:Baltrus DA; McCann HC; Guttman DS
[Ad] Endereço:School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
[Ti] Título:Evolution, genomics and epidemiology of Pseudomonas syringae: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.
[So] Source:Mol Plant Pathol;18(1):152-168, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1364-3703
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A remarkable shift in our understanding of plant-pathogenic bacteria is underway. Until recently, nearly all research on phytopathogenic bacteria was focused on a small number of model strains, which provided a deep, but narrow, perspective on plant-microbe interactions. Advances in genome sequencing technologies have changed this by enabling the incorporation of much greater diversity into comparative and functional research. We are now moving beyond a typological understanding of a select collection of strains to a more generalized appreciation of the breadth and scope of plant-microbe interactions. The study of natural populations and evolution has particularly benefited from the expansion of genomic data. We are beginning to have a much deeper understanding of the natural genetic diversity, niche breadth, ecological constraints and defining characteristics of phytopathogenic species. Given this expanding genomic and ecological knowledge, we believe the time is ripe to evaluate what we know about the evolutionary dynamics of plant pathogens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Genômica
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos
Patologia Vegetal
Pseudomonas syringae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Variação Genética
Doenças das Plantas/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161101
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mpp.12506


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[PMID]:27618193
[Au] Autor:Simko I; Jimenez-Berni JA; Sirault XR
[Ad] Endereço:First author: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Agricultural Research Station, 1636 E. Alisal St., Salinas, CA 93905; and second and third authors: CSIRO Agriculture and Food, High Resolution Plant Phenomics Centre, Australian Plant Phenomics Facility, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Phenomic Approaches and Tools for Phytopathologists.
[So] Source:Phytopathology;107(1):6-17, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0031-949X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Plant phenomics approaches aim to measure traits such as growth, performance, and composition of plants using a suite of noninvasive technologies. The goal is to link phenotypic traits to the genetic information for particular genotypes, thus creating the bridge between the phenome and genome. Application of sensing technologies for detecting specific phenotypic reactions occurring during plant-pathogen interaction offers new opportunities for elucidating the physiological mechanisms that link pathogen infection and disease symptoms in the host, and also provides a faster approach in the selection of genetic material that is resistant to specific pathogens or strains. Appropriate phenomics methods and tools may also allow presymptomatic detection of disease-related changes in plants or to identify changes that are not visually apparent. This review focuses on the use of sensor-based phenomics tools in plant pathology such as those related to digital imaging, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging. A brief introduction is provided for less used approaches like magnetic resonance, soft x-ray imaging, ultrasound, and detection of volatile compounds. We hope that this concise review will stimulate further development and use of tools for automatic, nondestructive, and high-throughput phenotyping of plant-pathogen interaction.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Genômica
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
Fenótipo
Doenças das Plantas/genética
Plantas/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Genótipo
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Imagem Óptica
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Patologia Vegetal
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
Plantas/anatomia & histologia
Plantas/microbiologia
Termografia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170629
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170629
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160913
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27726795
[Au] Autor:Bayman P; Serrato-Díaz LM
[Ti] Título:Forensic Phytopathology: a Critical Review.
[So] Source:Microbiol Spectr;4(4), 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:2165-0497
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Forensic phytopathology is the application of plant pathology to legal or criminal matters. It is an emerging field. The existing literature focuses mainly on potential agricultural bioterrorism threats to the United States. Here we try to take a broader view including agricultural bioterrorism, mycoherbicide applications to eradicate plants used for illegal drugs, civil cases involving charges of sale or movement of diseased plants, and mycotoxins. In several of the examples given the evidence is inconclusive, but the examples are no less interesting for that.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicina Legal/métodos
Doenças das Plantas
Patologia Vegetal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170705
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170705
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161012
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/microbiolspec.EMF-0008-2015


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[PMID]:27238249
[Au] Autor:Sundin GW; Castiblanco LF; Yuan X; Zeng Q; Yang CH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.
[Ti] Título:Bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.
[So] Source:Mol Plant Pathol;17(9):1506-1518, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1364-3703
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. The attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. New and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip of potato) and established problems in new geographical regions (e.g. bacterial canker of kiwifruit in New Zealand) grab the headlines, but the list of bacterial disease problems with few effective management options is long. The ever-increasing global human population requires the continued stable production of a safe food supply with greater yields because of the shrinking areas of arable land. One major facet in the maintenance of the sustainability of crop production systems with predictable yields involves the identification and deployment of sustainable disease management solutions for bacterial diseases. In addition, the identification of novel management tactics has also come to the fore because of the increasing evolution of resistance to existing bactericides. A number of central research foci, involving basic research to identify critical pathogen targets for control, novel methodologies and methods of delivery, are emerging that will provide a strong basis for bacterial disease management into the future. Near-term solutions are desperately needed. Are there replacement materials for existing bactericides that can provide effective disease management under field conditions? Experience should inform the future. With prior knowledge of bactericide resistance issues evolving in pathogens, how will this affect the deployment of newer compounds and biological controls? Knowledge is critical. A comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathosystems is required to not only identify optimal targets in the pathogens, but also optimal seasonal timings for deployment. Host resistance to effectors must be exploited, carefully and correctly. Are there other candidate genes that could be targeted in transgenic approaches? How can new technologies (CRISPR, TALEN, etc.) be most effectively used to add sustainable disease resistance to existing commercially desirable plant cultivars? We need an insider's perspective on the management of systemic pathogens. In addition to host resistance or reduced sensitivity, are there other methods that can be used to target these pathogen groups? Biological systems are variable. Can biological control strategies be improved for bacterial disease management and be made more predictable in function? The answers to the research foci outlined above are not all available, as will become apparent in this article, but we are heading in the right direction. In this article, we summarize the contributions from past experiences in bacterial disease management, and also describe how advances in bacterial genetics, genomics and host-pathogen interactions are informing novel strategies in virulence inhibition and in host resistance. We also outline potential innovations that could be exploited as the pressures to maximize a safe and productive food supply continue to become more numerous and more complex.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Invenções
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Patologia Vegetal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Edição de Genes
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160531
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mpp.12436


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[PMID]:27170435
[Au] Autor:Pfeilmeier S; Caly DL; Malone JG
[Ad] Endereço:The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.
[Ti] Título:Bacterial pathogenesis of plants: future challenges from a microbial perspective: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.
[So] Source:Mol Plant Pathol;17(8):1298-313, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1364-3703
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:FUTURE CHALLENGES IN PLANT PATHOLOGY: Plant infection is a complicated process. On encountering a plant, pathogenic microorganisms must first adapt to life on the epiphytic surface, and survive long enough to initiate an infection. Responsiveness to the environment is critical throughout infection, with intracellular and community-level signal transduction pathways integrating environmental signals and triggering appropriate responses in the bacterial population. Ultimately, phytopathogens must migrate from the epiphytic surface into the plant tissue using motility and chemotaxis pathways. This migration is coupled with overcoming the physical and chemical barriers to entry into the plant apoplast. Once inside the plant, bacteria use an array of secretion systems to release phytotoxins and protein effectors that fulfil diverse pathogenic functions (Fig. ) (Melotto and Kunkel, ; Phan Tran et al., ). As our understanding of the pathways and mechanisms underpinning plant pathogenicity increases, a number of central research challenges are emerging that will profoundly shape the direction of research in the future. We need to understand the bacterial phenotypes that promote epiphytic survival and surface adaptation in pathogenic bacteria. How do these pathways function in the context of the plant-associated microbiome, and what impact does this complex microbial community have on the onset and severity of plant infections? The huge importance of bacterial signal transduction to every stage of plant infection is becoming increasingly clear. However, there is a great deal to learn about how these signalling pathways function in phytopathogenic bacteria, and the contribution they make to various aspects of plant pathogenicity. We are increasingly able to explore the structural and functional diversity of small-molecule natural products from plant pathogens. We need to acquire a much better understanding of the production, deployment, functional redundancy and physiological roles of these molecules. Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are important and well-studied contributors to bacterial disease. Several key unanswered questions will shape future investigations of these systems. We need to define the mechanism of hierarchical and temporal control of effector secretion. For successful infection, effectors need to interact with host components to exert their function. Advanced biochemical, proteomic and cell biological techniques will enable us to study the function of effectors inside the host cell in more detail and on a broader scale. Population genomics analyses provide insight into evolutionary adaptation processes of phytopathogens. The determination of the diversity and distribution of type III effectors (T3Es) and other virulence genes within and across pathogenic species, pathovars and strains will allow us to understand how pathogens adapt to specific hosts, the evolutionary pathways available to them, and the possible future directions of the evolutionary arms race between effectors and molecular plant targets. Although pathogenic bacteria employ a host of different virulence and proliferation strategies, as a result of the space constraints, this review focuses mainly on the hemibiotrophic pathogens. We discuss the process of plant infection from the perspective of these important phytopathogens, and highlight new approaches to address the outstanding challenges in this important and fast-moving field.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/patogenicidade
Patologia Vegetal
Plantas/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Percepção de Quorum
Transdução de Sinais
Estresse Fisiológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160513
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mpp.12427



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