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[PMID]:29203750
[Au] Autor:Pashkov VM; Batyhina OM; Trotska MV
[Ad] Endereço:Poltava Law Institute Of Yaroslav The Wise National Law University, Poltava, Ukraine.
[Ti] Título:Concept of waste and its impact on human health.
[So] Source:Wiad Lek;70(5):964-969, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0043-5147
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Impact of the environment on human health is increasingly being paid attention both at the international level and at the level of individual countries. Among the factors that anyhow can affect it negatively, various objects are distinguished and waste is not of the last consequence. It has different nature of origin, ways of further utilization and a degree of impact on human health and the environment. Its generation, utilization and neutralization are determined by the relevant processes; their research allows continuous improvement and reduction of their negative impact on human health and the environment. THE AIM: To analyze provisions of the international legislation concerning the concept of waste and its classification, as well as its potential impacts on human health and the environment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study analyzes and uses international legal documents, data of international organizations and scientists' deductions. Furthermore, the study integrates information from scientific journals with scientific methods from the medical and legal point of view. Within the framework of the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis, the concept of waste, its classification and impact on human health and the environment have been researched. RESULTS: In consequence of the conducted study, it has been found that at the European level, considerable attention is paid to waste in the context of its possible negative impact on human health and the environment. Solution of this problem is carried out with the integrated approach, which is expressed both in enacting statutory acts and amending existing ones, as well as elucidating various aspects at the scientific, methodological, statistical and other levels. CONCLUSIONS: Waste in itself has different nature of origin, negative impact, ways of its further utilization. Some kinds of it can be used further in order to achieve other goals and needs that are not related to their generation, others can no longer be used for human benefits taking into account existing achievements.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exposição Ambiental
Saúde Ambiental
Poluição Ambiental
Nível de Saúde
Saúde Pública
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ecologia
Seres Humanos
Prevenção Primária
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29029380
[Au] Autor:Santos ACC; Choueri RB; de Figueiredo Eufrasio Pauly G; Abessa D; Gallucci F
[Ad] Endereço:Centro de Estudos do Mar da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Av. Beira-mar, s/n 83255-976, Pontal do Sul, PR, Brazil; Centro de Biologia Marinha da Universidade de São Paulo, Rodovia Manoel Hypólito do Rego, km 131.5, São Sebastião, SP 11600-000, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Is the microcosm approach using meiofauna community descriptors a suitable tool for ecotoxicological studies?
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;147:945-953, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The usual approaches used in ecological risk assessment have been based on individual and population level standard procedures. Although these have been important tools to assess adverse effects on ecosystems, they are generally simplified and therefore lack ecological realism. Microcosm studies using meiobenthic communities offer a good compromise between the complexity of the ecosystem and the often highly artificial settings of laboratory experiments. An experiment was designed to investigate the potential of the microcosm approach using meiofauna as a tool for ecotoxicological studies. The experiment tested the ecological effects of exposure to sewage-impacted pore water simultaneously at the community level using meiofauna microcosms and at the individual level using laboratory fecundity tests with the copepod Nitokra sp. Specifically, the experiment tested the toxicity of pore water from three sites according to a contamination gradient. Both approaches were efficient in detecting differences in toxicity between the less and more contaminated sites. However, only multivariate data from community analysis detected differences in the gradient of contamination. In addition to information about toxicity, the community level microcosm experiment gave indications about sensitive and tolerant species, indirect ecological effects, as well as raised hypothesis about contamination routes and bioavailability to be tested. Considering the importance of meiofauna for benthic ecosystems, the microcosm approach using natural meiobenthic communities might be a valuable addition as a higher tier approach in ecological risk assessment, providing highly relevant ecological information on the toxicity of contaminated sediments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos
Ecotoxicologia/métodos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Ecologia
Ecossistema
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise
Medição de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171015
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380888
[Au] Autor:Génin F; Masters JC
[Ad] Endereço:African Primate Initiative for Ecology and Speciation (APIES), Earth Stewardship Science Research Institute, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Sharing the burden: A neutral approach to socioecological theory.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:90-103, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The socioecological model (SEM) is a popular collection of controversial models purporting to explain mating systems in terms of ecological and social parameters. Despite its guise of objectivity, several of its hypotheses assume Victorian gender stereotypes of active, competing males heedlessly sowing their seeds, and cautious, passive females, imprisoned by greater costs of reproduction and their consequent resourceߚdependence. METHODS: We enter this debate by taking a previously neglected explanatory approach borrowed from species theory. According to the Recognition Concept of sexual species, the unit of reproductive success/fitness is irreducible to fewer than two integrated subparts (minimally a male and a female). Phyletic changes in mating systems logically effect changes in fertilization systems, leading to reproductive isolation. We take our primary assumption of the average equivalence of female and male contributions to successful reproduction from the writings of the natural philosopher, Antoinette Blackwell. RESULTS: We revisit the SEM with its contradictions and extrapolations, and develop a genderߚneutral alternative hypothesis termed SpecificߚMate Contact (SMC), centered on two fundamental mating strategies: sexual animals may behave as synchronous mateߚattractors or asynchronous mateߚseekers, generating four possible mating system combinations (monogamy: two attractors; promiscuity: two seekers; polygyny: male attractor and female seeker; polyandry: female attractor and male seeker). CONCLUSIONS: Our approach predicts all known primate mating systems using a neutral (nonߚsexist) principle. The approach is also neutral in the sense that it does not invoke either competition or cooperation: fertilization success is considered a posteriori and males and females are coߚadapted to this end rather than cognitively cooperative.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia
Primatas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Evolução Biológica
Ecologia
Feminino
Aptidão Genética
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Casamento
Modelos Teóricos
Sociologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23383


  4 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29425011
[Au] Autor:Shigan EF
[Ti] Título:[Issues of occupational health in scientific works of Aleksey N. Sysin (to the 85th anniversary of the "A.N. Sysin Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Health")].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(7):685-8, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Research priorities of Alexei Nikolaevich Sysin (1879-1956) were faced to the study of issues of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of Russia. World- renowned hygienist scientist was the one of the pioneers in the field of general and communal hygiene, epidemiology and disinfection. Not little attention A.N. Sysin paid also to issues of occupational health, together with other scientists he laid the foundation of modern Occupational Health. The victory of the Great October Revolution has set before organizers and medical science scholars, among who was A.N. Sysin, new challenges in dealing with the many complex issues, including occupational health issues. Already in the first months of the new Republic he prepared dozens of directives, regulations and instructions, wrote a large number of draft laws for health services, developed the first regulations on the sanitary supervision of the country enterprises. The leading role in the emergence of many printed newspapers and magazines, books and bulletins on general issues in health, preventive medicine, hygiene, epidemiology, occupational health is belonged to A.N. Sysin. He published more than 250 scientific papers on various aspects of sanitary science: from the problems of epidemics of dangerous infections to the working and living conditions of different enterprises. A. N. Sysin paid a lot of attention to industrial injuries, problems of increscent occupational toxicology, the introduction of newest forms of general and personal protective equipment at the plant, modernization of the industrial equipment, issues of the shortened workday, labor of women and children - all kinds of sanitary measures and improvement of labor and living workers' conditions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecologia/história
Saúde do Trabalhador/história
Saúde Pública/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Seres Humanos
Federação Russa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29384341
[Au] Autor:Meacham D
[Ti] Título:The Subject of Enhancement: Augmented Capacities, Extended Cognition, and Delicate Ecologies of the Mind.
[So] Source:New Bioeth;21(1):5-19, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2050-2885
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper argues for an inflationary and capacity-relative understanding of human enhancement technology. In doing so it echoes the approach followed by Buchanan (2011a, 2011b). Particular emphasis is placed on the point that capacities themselves are relative to demands placed on the organism by its environment. In the case of human beings, this environment is to a very large extent institutionally structured. On the basis of the inflationary and capacity-relative concept of enhancement, I argue that the subject of enhancement must be understood in terms of a bundle of capacities that is both extended (Clark 1998) and ecological. This consequence of the inflationary enhancement concept has some surprising upshots, namely that the subject itself must be considered as a technological enhancement and not a 'platform' or subjectum upon which the enhancement enterprise builds. This conclusion clashes, I argue, with some of the presuppositions of liberal philosophy, which starts by assuming a reflective subject. The paper ends with some reflection on the desirability of reflective subjectivity for human flourishing and addressing the ecological crisis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico
Filosofia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cognição
Ecologia
Meio Ambiente
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29451970
[Au] Autor:Ramírez A; Gutiérrez-Fonseca PE
[Ti] Título:[Ecological ensembles and assemblages - a reply to Monge-Nájera].
[Ti] Título:Sobre ensambles y ensamblajes ecológicos - respuesta a Monge-Nájera..
[So] Source:Rev Biol Trop;64(2):817-9, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0034-7744
[Cp] País de publicação:Costa Rica
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Critical evaluation of terminology use in ecology is important to avoid using jargon that helps little to facilitate communication. Here we reply to Monge-Najera's comment on the use of the terms ensemble and assemblage, we argue for the use of the words ensamble and ensamblaje in Spanish. In addition, both terms have a proper place in ecology and we provide a case for their use in proper ecological context.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180217
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29406104
[Au] Autor:Yang D; Guo X; Xie T; Luo X
[Ad] Endereço:Gene Engineering and Biotechnology Beijing Key Laboratory College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.
[Ti] Título:Reactive oxygen species may play an essential role in driving biological evolution: The Cambrian Explosion as an example.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);63:218-226, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Cambrian Explosion is one of the most significant events in the history of life; essentially all easily fossilizable animal body plans first evolved during this event. Although many theories have been proposed to explain this event, its cause remains unresolved. Here, we propose that the elevated level of oxygen, in combination with the increased mobility and food intake of metazoans, led to increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which drove evolution by enhancing mutation rates and providing new regulatory mechanisms. Our hypothesis may provide a unified explanation for the Cambrian Explosion as it incorporates both environmental and developmental factors and is also consistent with ecological explanations for animal radiation. Future studies should focus on testing this hypothesis, and may lead to important insights into evolution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecologia
Meio Ambiente
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Reactive Oxygen Species)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29371624
[Au] Autor:Da Silva FO; Fabre AC; Savriama Y; Ollonen J; Mahlow K; Herrel A; Müller J; Di-Poï N
[Ad] Endereço:Program in Developmental Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
[Ti] Título:The ecological origins of snakes as revealed by skull evolution.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):376, 2018 01 25.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The ecological origin of snakes remains amongst the most controversial topics in evolution, with three competing hypotheses: fossorial; marine; or terrestrial. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating ecological, phylogenetic, paleontological, and developmental data for building models of skull shape and size evolution and developmental rate changes in squamates. Our large-scale data reveal that whereas the most recent common ancestor of crown snakes had a small skull with a shape undeniably adapted for fossoriality, all snakes plus their sister group derive from a surface-terrestrial form with non-fossorial behavior, thus redirecting the debate toward an underexplored evolutionary scenario. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses further indicate that snakes later evolved novel craniofacial specializations through global acceleration of skull development. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between natural selection and developmental processes in snake origin and diversification, leading first to invasion of a new habitat and then to subsequent ecological radiations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Filogenia
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
Serpentes/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Ecologia
Ecossistema
Fósseis
Tamanho do Órgão
Paleontologia
Filogeografia
Crânio/fisiologia
Serpentes/classificação
Serpentes/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02788-3


  9 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29121566
[Au] Autor:Tian D; Mao H; Lv H; Zheng Y; Peng C; Hou S
[Ad] Endereço:College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000, Henan, PR China; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2G3, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: astdy@126.com.
[Ti] Título:Novel two-tiered approach of ecological risk assessment for pesticide mixtures based on joint effects.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;192:362-371, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ecological risk assessments for mixtures have attracted considerable attention. In this study, 38 pesticides in the real environment were taken as objects and their toxicities to different organisms from three trophic levels were employed to assess the ecological risk of the mixture. The first tier assessment was based on the CA effect and the obtained sum of risk quotients (SRQ ) were 3.06-9.22. The second tier assessment was based on non-CA effects and the calculated SRQ are 5.37-9.29 using joint effects (TU ) as modified coefficients, which is higher than SRQ and indicates that ignoring joint effects might run the risk of underestimating the actual impact of pesticide mixtures. Due to the influences of synergistic and antagonistic effects, risk contribution of components to mixture risks based on non-CA effects are different from those based on the CA effect. Moreover, it was found that the top 8 dominating components explained 95.5%-99.8% of mixture risks in this study. The dominating components are similar in the two tiers for a given species. Accordingly, a novel two-tiered approach was proposed to assess the ecological risks of mixtures based on joint effects. This study provides new insights for ecological risk assessments with the consideration of joint effects of components in the pesticide mixtures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecologia/métodos
Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia
Praguicidas/farmacologia
Medição de Risco
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos
Combinação de Medicamentos
Peixes
Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos
Praguicidas/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Pesticides)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171110
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 22936 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28966028
[Au] Autor:Lei C; Sun Y; Tsang DCW; Lin D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
[Ti] Título:Environmental transformations and ecological effects of iron-based nanoparticles.
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;232:10-30, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The increasing application of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), especially high concentrations of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), has raised concerns regarding their environmental behavior and potential ecological effects. In the environment, iron-based NPs undergo physical, chemical, and/or biological transformations as influenced by environmental factors such as pH, ions, dissolved oxygen, natural organic matter (NOM), and biotas. This review presents recent research advances on environmental transformations of iron-based NPs, and articulates their relationships with the observed toxicities. The type and extent of physical, chemical, and biological transformations, including aggregation, oxidation, and bio-reduction, depend on the properties of NPs and the receiving environment. Toxicities of iron-based NPs to bacteria, algae, fish, and plants are increasingly observed, which are evaluated with a particular focus on the underlying mechanisms. The toxicity of iron-based NPs is a function of their properties, tolerance of test organisms, and environmental conditions. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is considered as the primary toxic mechanism of iron-based NPs. Factors influencing the toxicity of iron-based NPs are addressed and environmental transformations play a significant role, for example, surface oxidation or coating by NOM generally lowers the toxicity of nZVI. Research gaps and future directions are suggested with an aim to boost concerted research efforts on environmental transformations and toxicity of iron-based NPs, e.g., toxicity studies of transformed NPs in field, expansion of toxicity endpoints, and roles of laden contaminants and surface coating. This review will enhance our understanding of potential risks of iron-based NPs and proper uses of environmentally benign NPs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Meio Ambiente
Poluentes Ambientais/química
Ferro/química
Nanopartículas/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecologia
Poluentes Ambientais/análise
Peixes
Íons
Ferro/análise
Nanopartículas/análise
Oxirredução
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Ions); E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180208
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180208
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171003
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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