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[PMID]:28886375
[Au] Autor:Chomet P; Martienssen R
[Ad] Endereço:NRGene, 20 South Sarah St., St Louis, MO 63108, USA.
[Ti] Título:Barbara McClintock's Final Years as Nobelist and Mentor: A Memoir.
[So] Source:Cell;170(6):1049-1054, 2017 Sep 07.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4172
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:September 2, 2017, marks the 25 year after the passing of Dr. Barbara McClintock, geneticist and recipient of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her discovery of transposable elements in maize. This memoir focuses on the last years of her life-after the prize-and includes personal recollections of how she mentored young scientists and inspired the age of genetics, epigenetics, and genomics.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Elementos de DNA Transponíveis
Genética/educação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Genes de Plantas
Genética/história
História do Século XX
Prêmio Nobel
Fisiologia/história
Zea mays/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:McClintock B
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA Transposable Elements)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170909
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28708992
[Au] Autor:Crow D
[Ad] Endereço:Cambridge, MA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Biology Gone Wild.
[So] Source:Cell;170(2):219-221, 2017 Jul 13.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4172
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To study how genes, cells, or organisms operate in natural environments, researchers often need to leave the bench and venture into the field. Here are a few approaches that field biologists use in designing and conducting semi-wild experiments and the many challenges they face.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa Biomédica
Ecossistema
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens
Biologia
Genética
Plantas/genética
Projetos de Pesquisa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170715
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28684603
[Au] Autor:Bilder D; Irvine KD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California-Berkeley, California 94720 bilder@berkeley.edu irvine@waksman.rutgers.edu.
[Ti] Título:Taking Stock of the Research Ecosystem.
[So] Source:Genetics;206(3):1227-1236, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1943-2631
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:With a century-old history of fundamental discoveries, the fruit fly has long been a favored experimental organism for a wide range of scientific inquiries. But is not a "legacy" model organism; technical and intellectual innovations continue to revitalize fly research and drive advances in our understanding of conserved mechanisms of animal biology. Here, we provide an overview of this "ecosystem" and discuss how to address emerging challenges to ensure its continued productivity. researchers are fortunate to have a sophisticated and ever-growing toolkit for the analysis of gene function. Access to these tools depends upon continued support for both physical and informational resources. Uncertainty regarding stable support for bioinformatic databases is a particular concern, at a time when there is the need to make the vast knowledge of functional biology provided by this model animal accessible to scientists studying other organisms. Communication and advocacy efforts will promote appreciation of the value of the fly in delivering biomedically important insights. Well-tended traditions of large-scale tool development, open sharing of reagents, and community engagement provide a strong basis for coordinated and proactive initiatives to improve the fly research ecosystem. Overall, there has never been a better time to be a fly pusher.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Drosophila/genética
Técnicas Genéticas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Genética/economia
Genética/recursos humanos
Genética/estatística & dados numéricos
Modelos Animais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170708
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1534/genetics.117.202390


  4 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28633662
[Au] Autor:Battenberg K; Lee EK; Chiu JC; Berry AM; Potter D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. kbattenberg@ucdavis.edu.
[Ti] Título:OrthoReD: a rapid and accurate orthology prediction tool with low computational requirement.
[So] Source:BMC Bioinformatics;18(1):310, 2017 Jun 21.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2105
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Identifying orthologous genes is an initial step required for phylogenetics, and it is also a common strategy employed in functional genetics to find candidates for functionally equivalent genes across multiple species. At the same time, in silico orthology prediction tools often require large computational resources only available on computing clusters. Here we present OrthoReD, an open-source orthology prediction tool with accuracy comparable to published tools that requires only a desktop computer. The low computational resource requirement of OrthoReD is achieved by repeating orthology searches on one gene of interest at a time, thereby generating a reduced dataset to limit the scope of orthology search for each gene of interest. RESULTS: The output of OrthoReD was highly similar to the outputs of two other published orthology prediction tools, OrthologID and/or OrthoDB, for the three dataset tested, which represented three phyla with different ranges of species diversity and different number of genomes included. Median CPU time for ortholog prediction per gene by OrthoReD executed on a desktop computer was <15 min even for the largest dataset tested, which included all coding sequences of 100 bacterial species. CONCLUSIONS: With high-throughput sequencing, unprecedented numbers of genes from non-model organisms are available with increasing need for clear information about their orthologies and/or functional equivalents in model organisms. OrthoReD is not only fast and accurate as an orthology prediction tool, but also gives researchers flexibility in the number of genes analyzed at a time, without requiring a high-performance computing cluster.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Software
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinobacteria/genética
Actinobacteria/metabolismo
Animais
Bases de Dados Factuais
Drosophila/genética
Drosophila/metabolismo
Genética
Genoma
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
Magnoliopsida/genética
Magnoliopsida/metabolismo
Transcriptoma
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170622
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12859-017-1726-5


  5 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28590048
[Au] Autor:Seven M; Eroglu K; Akyüz A; Ingvoldstad C
[Ad] Endereço:Koç University, School of Nursing, Istanbul, Turkey.
[Ti] Título:Educational needs of nurses to provide genetic services in prenatal care: A cross-sectional study from Turkey.
[So] Source:Nurs Health Sci;19(3):294-300, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1442-2018
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The latest advances in genetics/genomics have significantly impacted prenatal screening and diagnostic tests. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in inpatient and outpatient obstetric clinics in 24 hospitals in Turkey to determine knowledge of genetics related to prenatal care and the educational needs of perinatal nurses. A total of 116 nurses working in these clinics agreed to participate. The results included the level of knowledge among nurses was not affected by sociodemographic factors. Also, there is a lack of knowledge and interest in genetics among prenatal nurses and in clinical practice to provide education and counseling related to genetics in prenatal settings as a part of prenatal care.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Competência Clínica
Genética/educação
Genômica/educação
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Educação Continuada em Enfermagem
Feminino
Aconselhamento Genético
Testes Genéticos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Enfermagem Neonatal
Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem
Gravidez
Cuidado Pré-Natal
Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
Inquéritos e Questionários
Turquia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170608
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/nhs.12344


  6 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28542179
[Au] Autor:Mead R; Hejmadi M; Hurst LD
[Ad] Endereço:The Milner Centre for Evolution, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, England.
[Ti] Título:Teaching genetics prior to teaching evolution improves evolution understanding but not acceptance.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(5):e2002255, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:What is the best way to teach evolution? As microevolution may be configured as a branch of genetics, it being a short conceptual leap from understanding the concepts of mutation and alleles (i.e., genetics) to allele frequency change (i.e., evolution), we hypothesised that learning genetics prior to evolution might improve student understanding of evolution. In the UK, genetics and evolution are typically taught to 14- to 16-y-old secondary school students as separate topics with few links, in no particular order and sometimes with a large time span between. Here, then, we report the results of a large trial into teaching order of evolution and genetics. We modified extant questionnaires to ascertain students' understanding of evolution and genetics along with acceptance of evolution. Students were assessed prior to teaching, immediately post teaching and again after several months. Teachers were not instructed what to teach, just to teach in a given order. Regardless of order, teaching increased understanding and acceptance, with robust signs of longer-term retention. Importantly, teaching genetics before teaching evolution has a significant (p < 0.001) impact on improving evolution understanding by 7% in questionnaire scores beyond the increase seen for those taught in the inverse order. For lower ability students, an improvement in evolution understanding was seen only if genetics was taught first. Teaching genetics first additionally had positive effects on genetics understanding, by increasing knowledge. These results suggest a simple, minimally disruptive, zero-cost intervention to improve evolution understanding: teach genetics first. This same alteration does not, however, result in a significantly increased acceptance of evolution, which reflects a weak correlation between knowledge and acceptance of evolution. Qualitative focus group data highlights the role of authority figures in determination of acceptance.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Currículo
Evolução Molecular
Genética/educação
Modelos Educacionais
Seleção Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Animais
Evolução Biológica
Estudos de Coortes
Avaliação Educacional
Grupos Focais
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Método de Monte Carlo
Opinião Pública
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Retenção (Psicologia)
Fatores de Tempo
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2002255


  7 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28476859
[Au] Autor:Goldman IL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ilgoldma@wisc.edu.
[Ti] Título:William Friedman, Geneticist Turned Cryptographer.
[So] Source:Genetics;206(1):1-8, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1943-2631
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:William Friedman (1891-1969), trained as a plant geneticist at Cornell University, was employed at Riverbank Laboratories by the eccentric millionaire George Fabyan to work on wheat breeding. Friedman, however, soon became intrigued by and started working on a pet project of Fabyan's involving the conjecture that Francis Bacon, a polymath known for the study of ciphers, was the real author of Shakespeare's plays. Thus, beginning in ∼1916, Friedman turned his attention to the so called "Baconian cipher," and developed decryption techniques that bore similarity to approaches for solving problems in population genetics. His most significant, indeed pathbreaking, work used ideas from genetics and statistics, focusing on analysis of the frequencies of letters in language use. Although he had transitioned from being a geneticist to a cryptographer, his earlier work had resonance in his later pursuits. He soon began working directly for the United States government and produced solutions used to solve complex military ciphers, in particular to break the Japanese code during World War II. Another important legacy of his work was the establishment of the Signal Intelligence Service and eventually the National Security Agency.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Genética/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Friedman W
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170507
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1534/genetics.117.201624


  8 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28397400
[Au] Autor:Suzuki TK
[Ad] Endereço:Transgenic Silkworm Research Unit, Division of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO, Ibaraki, 305-8634, Japan.
[Ti] Título:On the Origin of Complex Adaptive Traits: Progress Since the Darwin Versus Mivart Debate.
[So] Source:J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol;328(4):304-320, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5015
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The evolutionary origin of complex adaptive traits has been a controversial topic in the history of evolutionary biology. Although Darwin argued for the gradual origins of complex adaptive traits within the theory of natural selection, Mivart insisted that natural selection could not account for the incipient stages of complex traits. The debate starting from Darwin and Mivart eventually engendered two opposite views: gradualism and saltationism. Although this has been a long-standing debate, the issue remains unresolved. However, recent studies have interrogated classic examples of complex traits, such as the asymmetrical eyes of flatfishes and leaf mimicry of butterfly wings, whose origins were debated by Darwin and Mivart. Here, I review recent findings as a starting point to provide a modern picture of the evolution of complex adaptive traits. First, I summarize the empirical evidence that unveils the evolutionary steps toward complex traits. I then argue that the evolution of complex traits could be understood within the concept of "reducible complexity." Through these discussions, I propose a conceptual framework for the formation of complex traits, named as reducible-composable multicomponent systems, that satisfy two major characteristics: reducibility into a sum of subcomponents and composability to construct traits from various additional and combinatorial arrangements of the subcomponents. This conceptual framework provides an analytical foundation for exploring evolutionary pathways to build up complex traits. This review provides certain essential avenues for deciphering the origin of complex adaptive traits.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Fisiológica/genética
Evolução Biológica
Seleção Genética/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Genética/história
História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Modelos Biológicos
Modelos Genéticos
Morfogênese
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jez.b.22740


  9 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28360126
[Au] Autor:Portin P; Wilkins A
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014, Finland petter.portin@utu.fi.
[Ti] Título:The Evolving Definition of the Term "Gene".
[So] Source:Genetics;205(4):1353-1364, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1943-2631
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper presents a history of the changing meanings of the term "gene," over more than a century, and a discussion of why this word, so crucial to genetics, needs redefinition today. In this account, the first two phases of 20th century genetics are designated the "classical" and the "neoclassical" periods, and the current molecular-genetic era the "modern period." While the first two stages generated increasing clarity about the nature of the gene, the present period features complexity and confusion. Initially, the term "gene" was coined to denote an abstract "unit of inheritance," to which no specific material attributes were assigned. As the classical and neoclassical periods unfolded, the term became more concrete, first as a dimensionless point on a chromosome, then as a linear segment within a chromosome, and finally as a linear segment in the DNA molecule that encodes a polypeptide chain. This last definition, from the early 1960s, remains the one employed today, but developments since the 1970s have undermined its generality. Indeed, they raise questions about both the utility of the concept of a basic "unit of inheritance" and the long implicit belief that genes are autonomous agents. Here, we review findings that have made the classic molecular definition obsolete and propose a new one based on contemporary knowledge.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Genes
Genética/história
Terminologia como Assunto
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Técnicas Genéticas/história
História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170518
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170518
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1534/genetics.116.196956


  10 / 8209 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28358129
[Ti] Título:25 more years.
[So] Source:Nat Genet;49(4):481, 2017 Mar 30.
[Is] ISSN:1546-1718
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This month, to celebrate a quarter century of excellence in genetics, we are highlighting selections from the past work we have published. We will then publish a number of forward-looking Perspectives in the coming months to examine and chart the future directions of our field. In parallel, we will also consult researchers for their answers to current questions of interest to the genetics and genomics community for discussion throughout the year.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Genética
Publicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL; HISTORICAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170331
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/ng.3832



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