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  1 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29045419
[Au] Autor:Trotignon G; Jones E; Engels T; Schmidt E; McFarland DA; Macleod CK; Amer K; Bio AA; Bakhtiari A; Bovill S; Doherty AH; Khan AA; Mbofana M; McCullagh S; Millar T; Mwale C; Rotondo LA; Weaver A; Willis R; Solomon AW
[Ad] Endereço:Research Department, Sightsavers, Haywards Heath, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:The cost of mapping trachoma: Data from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(10):e0006023, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was implemented with the aim of completing the baseline map of trachoma globally. Over 2.6 million people were examined in 1,546 districts across 29 countries between December 2012 and January 2016. The aim of the analysis was to estimate the unit cost and to identify the key cost drivers of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted as part of GTMP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-country and global support costs were obtained using GTMP financial records. In-country expenditure was analysed for 1,164 districts across 17 countries. The mean survey cost was $13,113 per district [median: $11,675; IQR = $8,365-$14,618], $17,566 per evaluation unit [median: $15,839; IQR = $10,773-$19,915], $692 per cluster [median: $625; IQR = $452-$847] and $6.0 per person screened [median: $4.9; IQR = $3.7-$7.9]. Survey unit costs varied substantially across settings, and were driven by parameters such as geographic location, demographic characteristics, seasonal effects, and local operational constraints. Analysis by activities showed that fieldwork constituted the largest share of in-country survey costs (74%), followed by training of survey teams (11%). The main drivers of in-country survey costs were personnel (49%) and transportation (44%). Global support expenditure for all surveyed districts amounted to $5.1m, which included grant management, epidemiological support, and data stewardship. CONCLUSION: This study provides the most extensive analysis of the cost of conducting trachoma prevalence surveys to date. The findings can aid planning and budgeting for future trachoma surveys required to measure the impact of trachoma elimination activities. Furthermore, the results of this study can also be used as a cost basis for other disease mapping programmes, where disease or context-specific survey cost data are not available.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia
Monitoramento Epidemiológico
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
Topografia Médica
Tracoma/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171019
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006023


  2 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28976981
[Au] Autor:Gass KM; Sime H; Mwingira UJ; Nshala A; Chikawe M; Pelletreau S; Barbre KA; Deming MS; Rebollo MP
[Ad] Endereço:Neglected Tropical Disease Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Atlanta, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The rationale and cost-effectiveness of a confirmatory mapping tool for lymphatic filariasis: Examples from Ethiopia and Tanzania.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(10):e0005944, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Endemicity mapping is required to determining whether a district requires mass drug administration (MDA). Current guidelines for mapping LF require that two sites be selected per district and within each site a convenience sample of 100 adults be tested for antigenemia or microfilaremia. One or more confirmed positive tests in either site is interpreted as an indicator of potential transmission, prompting MDA at the district-level. While this mapping strategy has worked well in high-prevalence settings, imperfect diagnostics and the transmission potential of a single positive adult have raised concerns about the strategy's use in low-prevalence settings. In response to these limitations, a statistically rigorous confirmatory mapping strategy was designed as a complement to the current strategy when LF endemicity is uncertain. Under the new strategy, schools are selected by either systematic or cluster sampling, depending on population size, and within each selected school, children 9-14 years are sampled systematically. All selected children are tested and the number of positive results is compared against a critical value to determine, with known probabilities of error, whether the average prevalence of LF infection is likely below a threshold of 2%. This confirmatory mapping strategy was applied to 45 districts in Ethiopia and 10 in Tanzania, where initial mapping results were considered uncertain. In 42 Ethiopian districts, and all 10 of the Tanzanian districts, the number of antigenemic children was below the critical cutoff, suggesting that these districts do not require MDA. Only three Ethiopian districts exceeded the critical cutoff of positive results. Whereas the current World Health Organization guidelines would have recommended MDA in all 55 districts, the present results suggest that only three of these districts requires MDA. By avoiding unnecessary MDA in 52 districts, the confirmatory mapping strategy is estimated to have saved a total of $9,293,219.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Análise Custo-Benefício
Doenças Endêmicas
Etiópia/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Tamanho da Amostra
Tanzânia/epidemiologia
Topografia Médica/economia
Topografia Médica/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171005
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005944


  3 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28850603
[Au] Autor:Patino LH; Mendez C; Rodriguez O; Romero Y; Velandia D; Alvarado M; Pérez J; Duque MC; Ramírez JD
[Ad] Endereço:Grupo de Investigaciones Microbiológicas-UR (GIMUR), Programa de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Universidad del Rosario, Carrera 24# 63C-69, Bogotá, Colombia.
[Ti] Título:Spatial distribution, Leishmania species and clinical traits of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases in the Colombian army.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(8):e0005876, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In Colombia, the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common manifestation across the army personnel. Hence, it is mandatory to determine the species associated with the disease as well as the association with the clinical traits. A total of 273 samples of male patients with CL were included in the study and clinical data of the patients was studied. PCR and sequencing analyses (Cytb and HSP70 genes) were performed to identify the species and the intra-specific genetic variability. A georeferenced database was constructed to identify the spatial distribution of Leishmania species isolated. The identification of five species of Leishmania that circulate in the areas where army personnel are deployed is described. Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (61.1%), followed by Leishmania panamensis (33.5%), with a high distribution of both species at geographical and municipal level. The species L. guyanensis, L. mexicana and L. lainsoni were also detected at lower frequency. We also showed the identification of different genotypes within L. braziliensis and L. panamensis. In conclusion, we identified the Leishmania species circulating in the areas where Colombian army personnel are deployed, as well as the high intra-specific genetic variability of L. braziliensis and L. panamensis and how these genotypes are distributed at the geographic level.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Leishmania/classificação
Leishmania/isolamento & purificação
Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia
Leishmaniose Cutânea/microbiologia
Militares
Filogeografia
Topografia Médica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Colômbia/epidemiologia
DNA de Protozoário/química
DNA de Protozoário/genética
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Protozoan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170917
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170917
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170830
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005876


  4 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28672021
[Au] Autor:Al-Jawabreh A; Ereqat S; Dumaidi K; Nasereddin A; Al-Jawabreh H; Azmi K; Al-Laham N; Nairat M; Casulli A; Maqboul H; Abdeen Z
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medical laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Arab American University, Jenin, Palestine.
[Ti] Título:The clinical burden of human cystic echinococcosis in Palestine, 2010-2015.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(7):e0005717, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is classified by the WHO as a neglected disease inflicting economic losses on the health systems of many countries worldwide. The aim of this case-series study was to investigate the burden of human CE in Palestine during the period between 2010 and 2015. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Records of surgically confirmed CE patients from 13 public and private hospitals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip were reviewed. Patients' cysts were collected from surgical wards and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks were collected from histopathology departments. Molecular identification of CE species /genotypes was conducted by targeting a repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III) within Echinococcus nuclear genome and a fragment within the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, (CO1). Confirmation of CE species/genotypes was carried out using sequencing followed by BLAST analysis and the construction of maximum likelihood consensus dendrogram. CE cases were map-spotted and statistically significant foci identified by spatial analysis. A total of 353 CE patients were identified in 108 localities from the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The average surgical incidence in the West Bank was 2.1 per 100,000. Spot-mapping and purely spatial analysis showed 13 out of 16 Palestinian districts had cases of CE, of which 9 were in the West Bank and 4 in Gaza Strip. Al-Khalil and Bethlehem were statistically significant foci of CE in Palestine with a six-year average incidence of 4.2 and 3.7 per 100,000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of human CE causative agent in Palestine. This study revealed that E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was the predominating species responsible for CE in humans with 11 samples identified as G1 genotype and 2 as G3 genotype. This study emphasizes the need for a stringent surveillance system and risk assessment studies in the rural areas of high incidence as a prerequisite for control measures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Equinococose/epidemiologia
Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Animais
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Análise por Conglomerados
Equinococose/cirurgia
Echinococcus/classificação
Echinococcus/genética
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética
Feminino
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Oriente Médio/epidemiologia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Homologia de Sequência
Análise Espacial
Topografia Médica
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 1.9.3.1 (Electron Transport Complex IV)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170704
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005717


  5 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28585306
[Au] Autor:Milhano N; Korslund L; Evander M; Ahlm C; Vainio K; Dudman SG; Andreassen Å
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Virology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Domain for Environmental Health and Infectious Disease Control, Oslo, Norway.
[Ti] Título:Circulation and diagnostics of Puumala virus in Norway: nephropatia epidemica incidence and rodent population dynamics.
[So] Source:APMIS;125(8):732-742, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0463
[Cp] País de publicação:Denmark
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Hantaviruses pose a public health concern worldwide causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most prevalent hantavirus in Central and Northern Europe, and causes a mild form of HFRS, also known as nephropathia epidemica (NE). In nature, the main host of PUUV is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), and transmission to humans occurs through inhalation of aerosols from rodent excreta. Nephropathia epidemica is particularly prevalent in Nordic countries, however, few studies of PUUV have been performed in Norway. The aim of this study was to analyse the dynamics of PUUV in Norway and compare with bank vole population dynamics, and also to complement the current diagnostic methodology of NE in Norway. Our results showed a significant seasonal and geographical variation of NE, and a general parallel peak trend between bank vole population densities and human NE incidence. A real-time and a nested PCR were successfully established as an invaluable diagnostic tool, with detection and sequencing of PUUV in a human serum sample for the first time in Norway. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of the obtained human sample with previous Norwegian bank vole isolates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arvicolinae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/epidemiologia
Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/virologia
Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia
Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia
Virus Puumala/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Animais
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Análise por Conglomerados
Feminino
Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/diagnóstico
Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/diagnóstico
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Noruega/epidemiologia
Filogenia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Dinâmica Populacional
Virus Puumala/classificação
Virus Puumala/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Estações do Ano
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Homologia de Sequência
Soro/virologia
Topografia Médica
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170726
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170726
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170607
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/apm.12712


  6 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28542540
[Au] Autor:Watts AG; Miniota J; Joseph HA; Brady OJ; Kraemer MUG; Grills AW; Morrison S; Esposito DH; Nicolucci A; German M; Creatore MI; Nelson B; Johansson MA; Brunette G; Hay SI; Khan K; Cetron M
[Ad] Endereço:Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Elevation as a proxy for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the Americas.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0178211, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: When Zika virus (ZIKV) first began its spread from Brazil to other parts of the Americas, national-level travel notices were issued, carrying with them significant economic consequences to affected countries. Although regions of some affected countries were likely unsuitable for mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV, the absence of high quality, timely surveillance data made it difficult to confidently demarcate infection risk at a sub-national level. In the absence of reliable data on ZIKV activity, a pragmatic approach was needed to identify subnational geographic areas where the risk of ZIKV infection via mosquitoes was expected to be negligible. To address this urgent need, we evaluated elevation as a proxy for mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission. METHODS: For sixteen countries with local ZIKV transmission in the Americas, we analyzed (i) modelled occurrence of the primary vector for ZIKV, Aedes aegypti, (ii) human population counts, and (iii) reported historical dengue cases, specifically across 100-meter elevation levels between 1,500m and 2,500m. Specifically, we quantified land area, population size, and the number of observed dengue cases above each elevation level to identify a threshold where the predicted risks of encountering Ae. aegypti become negligible. RESULTS: Above 1,600m, less than 1% of each country's total land area was predicted to have Ae. aegypti occurrence. Above 1,900m, less than 1% of each country's resident population lived in areas where Ae. aegypti was predicted to occur. Across all 16 countries, 1.1% of historical dengue cases were reported above 2,000m. DISCUSSION: These results suggest low potential for mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission above 2,000m in the Americas. Although elevation is a crude predictor of environmental suitability for ZIKV transmission, its constancy made it a pragmatic input for policy decision-making during this public health emergency.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecção pelo Zika virus/transmissão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aedes/virologia
Altitude
Américas/epidemiologia
Animais
Epidemias
Seres Humanos
Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
Fatores de Risco
Topografia Médica
Viagem
Zika virus
Infecção pelo Zika virus/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178211


  7 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28531222
[Au] Autor:Franco JR; Cecchi G; Priotto G; Paone M; Diarra A; Grout L; Mattioli RC; Argaw D
[Ad] Endereço:World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(5):e0005585, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted the elimination of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) 'as a public health problem' by 2020. The selected indicators of elimination should be monitored every two years, and we provide here a comprehensive update to 2014. The monitoring system is underpinned by the Atlas of HAT. RESULTS: With 3,797 reported cases in 2014, the corresponding milestone (5,000 cases) was surpassed, and the 2020 global target of 'fewer than 2,000 reported cases per year' seems within reach. The areas where HAT is still a public health problem (i.e. > 1 HAT reported case per 10,000 people per year) have halved in less than a decade, and in 2014 they corresponded to 350 thousand km2. The number and potential coverage of fixed health facilities offering diagnosis and treatment for HAT has expanded, and approximately 1,000 are now operating in 23 endemic countries. The observed trends are supported by sustained surveillance and improved reporting. DISCUSSION: HAT elimination appears to be on track. For gambiense HAT, still accounting for the vast majority of reported cases, progress continues unabated in a context of sustained intensity of screening activities. For rhodesiense HAT, a slow-down was observed in the last few years. Looking beyond the 2020 target, innovative tools and approaches will be increasingly needed. Coordination, through the WHO network for HAT elimination, will remain crucial to overcome the foreseeable and unforeseeable challenges that an elimination process will inevitably pose.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Erradicação de Doenças
Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia
Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Saúde Global
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Topografia Médica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170523
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005585


  8 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28489889
[Au] Autor:Wardell R; Clements ACA; Lal A; Summers D; Llewellyn S; Campbell SJ; McCarthy J; Gray DJ; V Nery S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, College of Medicine, Biology and the Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
[Ti] Título:An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(5):e0005565, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong evidence to support strategies for control across the entire geographical area. As few studies include soil texture and pH in their analysis, this study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting these factors influence STH infection distribution. This study also further supports that A. lumbricoides prefers acidic soils, highlighting a potential relatively unexplored avenue for control. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ACTRN12614000680662.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ascaríase/epidemiologia
Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação
Exposição Ambiental
Necator americanus/isolamento & purificação
Necatoríase/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Animais
Ascaríase/parasitologia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Fezes/parasitologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Necatoríase/parasitologia
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Medição de Risco
Timor-Leste/epidemiologia
Topografia Médica
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170511
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005565


  9 / 1119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28420160
[Au] Autor:Furuse Y; Oshitani H
[Ad] Endereço:Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 980-8575 Sendai, Japan. furusey.tohoku@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Global Transmission Dynamics of Measles in the Measles Elimination Era.
[So] Source:Viruses;9(4), 2017 Apr 16.
[Is] ISSN:1999-4915
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although there have been many epidemiological reports of the inter-country transmission of measles, systematic analysis of the global transmission dynamics of the measles virus (MV) is limited. In this study, we applied phylogeographic analysis to characterize the global transmission dynamics of the MV using large-scale genetic sequence data (obtained for 7456 sequences) from 115 countries between 1954 and 2015. These analyses reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of global transmission of the virus, especially in Australia, China, India, Japan, the UK, and the USA in the period since 1990. The transmission is frequently observed, not only within the same region but also among distant and frequently visited areas. Frequencies of export from measles-endemic countries, such as China, India, and Japan are high but decreasing, while the frequencies from countries where measles is no longer endemic, such as Australia, the UK, and the USA, are low but slightly increasing. The world is heading toward measles eradication, but the disease is still transmitted regionally and globally. Our analysis reveals that countries wherein measles is endemic and those having eliminated the disease (apart from occasional outbreaks) both remain a source of global transmission in this measles elimination era. It is therefore crucial to maintain vigilance in efforts to monitor and eradicate measles globally.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Erradicação de Doenças
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle
Sarampo/epidemiologia
Sarampo/transmissão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Saúde Global
Seres Humanos
Sarampo/prevenção & controle
Vírus do Sarampo/classificação
Vírus do Sarampo/genética
Vírus do Sarampo/isolamento & purificação
Epidemiologia Molecular
Filogeografia
Análise Espaço-Temporal
Topografia Médica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170521
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170521
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170420
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28416001
[Au] Autor:Hu Y; Xia C; Li S; Ward MP; Luo C; Gao F; Wang Q; Zhang S; Zhang Z
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.
[Ti] Título:Assessing environmental factors associated with regional schistosomiasis prevalence in Anhui Province, Peoples' Republic of China using a geographical detector method.
[So] Source:Infect Dis Poverty;6(1):87, 2017 Apr 17.
[Is] ISSN:2049-9957
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-borne disease caused by trematode worms belonging to genus Schistosoma, which is prevalent most of the developing world. Transmission of the disease is usually associated with multiple biological characteristics and social factors but also factors can play a role. Few studies have assessed the exact and interactive influence of each factor promoting schistosomiasis transmission. METHODS: We used a series of different detectors (i.e., specific detector, risk detector, ecological detector and interaction detector) to evaluate separate and interactive effects of the environmental factors on schistosomiasis prevalence. Specifically, (i) specific detector quantifies the impact of a risk factor on an observed spatial disease pattern, which were ranked statistically by a value of Power of Determinate (PD) calculation; (ii) risk detector detects high risk areas of a disease on the condition that the study area is stratified by a potential risk factor; (iii) ecological detector explores whether a risk factor is more significant than another in controlling the spatial pattern of a disease; (iv) interaction detector probes whether two risk factors when taken together weaken or enhance one another, or whether they are independent in developing a disease. Infection data of schistosomiasis based on conventional surveys were obtained at the county level from the health authorities in Anhui Province, China and used in combination with information from Chinese weather stations and internationally available environmental data. RESULTS: The specific detector identified various factors of potential importance as follows: Proximity to Yangtze River (0.322) > Land cover (0.285) > sunshine hours (0.256) > population density (0.109) > altitude (0.090) > the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) (0.077) > land surface temperature at daytime (LST ) (0.007). The risk detector indicated that areas of schistosomiasis high risk were located within a buffer distance of 50 km from Yangtze River. The ecological detector disclosed that the factors investigated have significantly different effects. The interaction detector revealed that interaction between the factors enhanced their main effects in most cases. CONCLUSION: Proximity to Yangtze River had the strongest effect on schistosomiasis prevalence followed by land cover and sunshine hours, while the remaining factors had only weak influence. Interaction between factors played an even more important role in influencing schistosomiasis prevalence than each factor on its own. High risk regions influenced by strong interactions need to be targeted for disease control intervention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Meio Ambiente
Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
Topografia Médica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Estudos Transversais
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa
Seres Humanos
Prevalência
Esquistossomose/transmissão
Taiwan/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170425
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170425
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170419
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s40249-017-0299-x



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