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[PMID]:29380889
[Au] Autor:Villmoare B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Box 455003, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, Nevada, 89154-5003.
[Ti] Título:Early Homo and the role of the genus in paleoanthropology.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:72-89, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The history of the discovery of early fossils attributed to the genus Homo has been contentious, with scholars disagreeing over the generic assignment of fossils proposed as members of our genus. In this manuscript I review the history of discovery and debate over early Homo and evaluate the various taxonomic hypotheses for the genus. To get a sense of how hominin taxonomy compares to taxonomic practice outside paleoanthropology, I compare the diversity of Homo to genera in other vertebrate clades. Finally, I propose a taxonomic model that hews closely to current models for hominin phylogeny and is consistent with taxonomic practice across evolutionary biology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hominidae/classificação
Paleontologia/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Feminino
Fósseis
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23387


  2 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29293618
[Au] Autor:Platt BF; Suarez CA; Boss SK; Williamson M; Cothren J; Kvamme JAC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:LIDAR-based characterization and conservation of the first theropod dinosaur trackways from Arkansas, USA.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190527, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:LIDAR-based analyses of the first theropod dinosaur trackways known from the state of Arkansas, USA are reported. The trackways were found on a limestone bedding plane in the Albian De Queen Formation in an active gypsum quarry. Because limited access precluded thorough field study, fieldwork focused on preserving the entire site digitally with ground-based LIDAR, and detailed measurements were later taken digitally from point cloud data. The site contains eight tridactyl trackways associated with sauropod trackways and numerous isolated tracks. Although there appear to be two different tridactyl morphotypes, we show that the tracks are all likely from a single species of trackmaker. We apply a simple method of estimating substrate consistency by comparing the differences between true track dimensions and apparent track dimensions. The tridactyl tracks at the southern end of the site are preserved with significantly greater differences in true vs. apparent dimensions and are shallower than the rest of the tridactyl tracks at the site, which we interpret as the result of outward expansion of the soft tissues of the foot upon contact with a firm substrate. We interpret the firm substrate as having high bulk density and high shear strength, which also explain associated manus-only sauropod tracks. We show that the tridactyl tracks are likely from theropod trackmakers and that footprint lengths, trackway paces, stride lengths, and pace angulations of the De Queen trackways are statistically indistinguishable from equivalent measurements of theropod trackways in the Glen Rose Formation. The Glen Rose tracks are attributed to the large-bodied theropod, Acrocanthosaurus and we likewise attribute the De Queen tracks to Acrocanthosaurus, which is known from skeletal remains in temporally equivalent units and from the mine itself.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dinossauros
Fósseis
Paleontologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Arkansas
Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180103
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190527


  3 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29371624
[Au] Autor:Da Silva FO; Fabre AC; Savriama Y; Ollonen J; Mahlow K; Herrel A; Müller J; Di-Poï N
[Ad] Endereço:Program in Developmental Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
[Ti] Título:The ecological origins of snakes as revealed by skull evolution.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):376, 2018 01 25.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The ecological origin of snakes remains amongst the most controversial topics in evolution, with three competing hypotheses: fossorial; marine; or terrestrial. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating ecological, phylogenetic, paleontological, and developmental data for building models of skull shape and size evolution and developmental rate changes in squamates. Our large-scale data reveal that whereas the most recent common ancestor of crown snakes had a small skull with a shape undeniably adapted for fossoriality, all snakes plus their sister group derive from a surface-terrestrial form with non-fossorial behavior, thus redirecting the debate toward an underexplored evolutionary scenario. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses further indicate that snakes later evolved novel craniofacial specializations through global acceleration of skull development. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between natural selection and developmental processes in snake origin and diversification, leading first to invasion of a new habitat and then to subsequent ecological radiations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Filogenia
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
Serpentes/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Ecologia
Ecossistema
Fósseis
Tamanho do Órgão
Paleontologia
Filogeografia
Crânio/fisiologia
Serpentes/classificação
Serpentes/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02788-3


  4 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29370188
[Au] Autor:Mosquera M; Ollé A; Rodríguez-Álvarez XP; Carbonell E
[Ad] Endereço:Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Avinguda de Catalunya 35, Tarragona, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Shedding light on the Early Pleistocene of TD6 (Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain): The technological sequence and occupational inferences.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190889, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper aims to update the information available on the lithic assemblage from the entire sequence of TD6 now that the most recent excavations have been completed, and to explore possible changes in both occupational patterns and technological strategies evidenced in the unit. This is the first study to analyse the entire TD6 sequence, including subunits TD6.3 and TD6.1, which have never been studied, along with the better-known TD6.2 Homo antecessor-bearing subunit. We also present an analysis of several lithic refits found in TD6, as well as certain technical features that may help characterise the hominin occupations. The archaeo-palaeontological record from TD6 consists of 9,452 faunal remains, 443 coprolites, 1,046 lithic pieces, 170 hominin remains and 91 Celtis seeds. The characteristics of this record seem to indicate two main stages of occupation. In the oldest subunit, TD6.3, the lithic assemblage points to the light and limited hominin occupation of the cave, which does, however, grow over the course of the level. In contrast, the lithic assemblages from TD6.2 and TD6.1 are rich and varied, which may reflect Gran Dolina cave's establishment as a landmark in the region. Despite the occupational differences between the lowermost subunit and the rest of the deposit, technologically the TD6 lithic assemblage is extremely homogeneous throughout. In addition, the composition and spatial distribution of the 12 groups of lithic refits found in unit TD6, as well as the in situ nature of the assemblage demonstrate the high degree of preservation at the site. This may help clarify the nature of the Early Pleistocene hominin occupations of TD6, and raise reasonable doubt about the latest interpretations that support the ex situ character of the assemblage as a whole.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hominidae
Paleontologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Arqueologia
Evolução Biológica
Fósseis/história
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
Espanha
Tecnologia/história
Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190889


  5 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29242325
[Au] Autor:Underwood E
[Ti] Título:Why fossil scientists are suing Trump over monuments move.
[So] Source:Science;358(6369):1368, 2017 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Fósseis/legislação & jurisprudência
Paleontologia/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Governo Federal
Utah
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.358.6369.1368


  6 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29265653
[Au] Autor:Linder HP
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:East African Cenozoic vegetation history.
[So] Source:Evol Anthropol;26(6):300-312, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6505
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C grassland was replaced by C savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Florestas
Fósseis
Plantas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Oriental
Evolução Biológica
Pradaria
Paleontologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/evan.21570


  7 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29176839
[Au] Autor:Peçanha WT; Althoff SL; Galiano D; Quintela FM; Maestri R; Gonçalves GL; Freitas TRO
[Ad] Endereço:Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Pleistocene climatic oscillations in Neotropical open areas: Refuge isolation in the rodent Oxymycterus nasutus endemic to grasslands.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0187329, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pleistocene climatic oscillations favoured the expansion of grassland ecosystems and open vegetation landscapes throughout the Neotropics, and influenced the evolutionary history of species adapted to such environments. In this study, we sampled populations of the rodent Oxymycterus nasutus endemic to open areas in the Pampas and Atlantic Forest biomes to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence using an integrative approach, including coalescence theory, ecological niche models, and morphometry. Our results indicated that these O. nasutus populations exhibited high levels of genetic structure. Six major mtDNA clades were found, structuring these biomes into distinct groups. Estimates of their divergence times was indicated to be 0.571 myr. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of geometric morphometric; skull differences between lineages in the two ecoregions were detected. During the last glacial maximum, there was a strong increase in suitable abiotic conditions for O. nasutus. Distinct molecular markers revealed a population expansion over time, with a possible demographic retraction during the post-glacial period. Considering that all clades coalesce with the last interglacial maximum, our results indicated that reduction in suitable conditions during this period may have resulted in a possible vicariance associated with refuge isolation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pradaria
Paleontologia
Roedores/fisiologia
Clima Tropical
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sequência de Bases
Teorema de Bayes
Brasil
Núcleo Celular/genética
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Marcadores Genéticos
Variação Genética
Geografia
Haplótipos/genética
Mitocôndrias/genética
Modelos Teóricos
Filogenia
Roedores/genética
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
Especificidade da Espécie
Fatores de Tempo
Uruguai
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial); 0 (Genetic Markers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0187329


  8 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28450591
[Au] Autor:Wade L
[Ti] Título:DNA from cave soil reveals ancient human occupants.
[So] Source:Science;356(6336):363, 2017 Apr 28.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cavernas
DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação
Homem de Neandertal/genética
Paleontologia/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sedimentos Geológicos/química
Seres Humanos
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Solo/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ancient); 0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.356.6336.363


  9 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29020030
[Au] Autor:Borths MR; Stevens NJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The first hyaenodont from the late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of Tanzania: Paleoecological insights into the Paleogene-Neogene carnivore transition.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185301, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Throughout the Paleogene, most terrestrial carnivore niches in Afro-Arabia were occupied by Hyaenodonta, an extinct lineage of placental mammals. By the end of the Miocene, terrestrial carnivore niches had shifted to members of Carnivora, a clade with Eurasian origins. The transition from a hyaenodont-carnivore fauna to a carnivoran-carnivore fauna coincides with other ecological changes in Afro-Arabia as tectonic conditions in the African Rift System altered climatic conditions and facilitated faunal exchange with Eurasia. Fossil bearing deposits in the Nsungwe Formation in southwestern Tanzania are precisely dated to ~25.2 Ma (late Oligocene), preserving a late Paleogene Afro-Arabian fauna on the brink of environmental transition, including the earliest fossil evidence of the split between Old World monkeys and apes. Here we describe a new hyaenodont from the Nsungwe Formation, Pakakali rukwaensis gen. et sp. nov., a bobcat-sized taxon known from a portion of the maxilla that preserves a deciduous third premolar and alveoli of dP4 and M1. The crown of dP3 bears an elongate parastyle and metastyle and a small, blade-like metacone. Based on alveolar morphology, the two more distal teeth successively increased in size and had relatively large protocones. Using a hyaenodont character-taxon matrix that includes deciduous dental characters, Bayesian phylogenetic methods resolve Pakakali within the clade Hyainailouroidea. A Bayesian biogeographic analysis of phylogenetic results resolve the Pakakali clade as Afro-Arabian in origin, demonstrating that this small carnivorous mammal was part of an endemic Afro-Arabian lineage that persisted into the Miocene. Notably, Pakakali is in the size range of carnivoran forms that arrived and began to diversify in the region by the early Miocene. The description of Pakakali is important for exploring hyaenodont ontogeny and potential influences of Afro-Arabian tectonic events upon mammalian evolution, providing a deep time perspective on the stability of terrestrial carnivore niches through time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carnívoros/fisiologia
Fósseis
Paleontologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Carnívoros/anatomia & histologia
Tamanho do Órgão
Filogenia
Filogeografia
Tanzânia
Fatores de Tempo
Dente/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171012
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185301


  10 / 4542 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28977014
[Au] Autor:Osipowicz G; Witas H; Lisowska-Gaczorek A; Reitsema L; Szostek K; Ploszaj T; Kuriga J; Makowiecki D; Jedrychowska-Danska K; Cienkosz-Stepanczak B
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
[Ti] Título:Origin of the ornamented bâton percé from the Golebiewo site 47 as a trigger of discussion on long-distance exchange among Early Mesolithic communities of Central Poland and Northern Europe.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0184560, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article describes evidence for contact and exchange among Mesolithic communities in Poland and Scandinavia, based on the interdisciplinary analysis of an ornamented bâton percé from Golebiewo site 47 (Central Poland). Typological and chronological-cultural analyses show the artefact to be most likely produced in the North European Plain, during the Boreal period. Carbon-14 dating confirms the antiquity of the artefact. Ancient DNA analysis shows the artefact to be of Rangifer tarandus antler. Following this species designation, a dispersion analysis of Early-Holocene reindeer remains in Europe was conducted, showing this species to exist only in northern Scandinavia and north-western Russia in this period. Therefore, the bâton from Golebiewo constitutes the youngest reindeer remains in the European Plain and south-western Scandinavia known to date. An attempt was made to determine the biogeographic region from which the antler used to produce the artefact originates from. To this end, comprehensive δ18O, δ13C and δ15N isotope analyses were performed. North Karelia and South Lapland were determined as the most probable regions in terms of isotopic data, results which correspond to the known distribution range of Rangifer tarandus at this time. In light of these finds, the likelihood of contact between Scandinavia and Central Europe in Early Holocene is evaluated. The bâton percé from Golebiewo is likely key evidence for long-distance exchange during the Boreal period.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Migração Animal
Chifres de Veado
Fósseis
Rena
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Artefatos
DNA/genética
Europa (Continente)
Seres Humanos
Paleontologia
Polônia
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
9007-49-2 (DNA)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171005
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184560



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