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[PMID]:27753570
[Au] Autor:Szuflita NS; Neal CJ; Rosner MK; Frankowski RF; Grossman RG
[Ad] Endereço:Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.
[Ti] Título:Spine Injuries Sustained by U.S. Military Personnel in Combat are Different From Non-Combat Spine Injuries.
[So] Source:Mil Med;181(10):1314-1323, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Spine injuries are more prevalent among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans than among veterans of previous conflicts. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the context, mode, and clinical outcomes of spine injuries sustained by U.S. military personnel in theater. Injury and clinical data from patients who sustained a spine injury in Iraq or Afghanistan between 2003 and 2008 were extracted from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Fischer's exact test was used to compare demographic variables between battle and nonbattle spine injuries. Two-sided t tests and univariate analyses were performed to analyze the association between injury context, mechanism, and severity with clinical outcome. A total of 307 patients sustained spine injuries in theater during the study period, and 296 had adequate data for analysis. Most injuries occurred in battle (69.6%), and these injuries were more likely to have an Injury Severity Score considered severe (44.7% vs. 20.0%; p < 0.001) or critical (13.6% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.0458). Blast was the most common mechanism of injury (42.2%) and was more likely to be blunt (81.6%) than penetrating (18.4%; p < 0.0001). Battle-associated spine injuries were most commonly caused by blasts, were more severe, and more likely to involve multiple spinal levels.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mecânica
Militares/estatística & dados numéricos
Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento
Masculino
Medicina Militar/estatística & dados numéricos
Medicina Militar/tendências
Prevalência
Sistema de Registros
Estudos Retrospectivos
Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161019
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27474191
[Au] Autor:Gaukroger S
[Ad] Endereço:Unit for the History and Philosophy of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address: stephen.gaukroger@sydney.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Kant and the nature of matter: Mechanics, chemistry, and the life sciences.
[So] Source:Stud Hist Philos Sci;58:108-14, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0039-3681
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história
Química/história
Mecânica
Filosofia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XVIII
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Kant
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160731
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27466125
[Au] Autor:Coulais C; Teomy E; de Reus K; Shokef Y; van Hecke M
[Ad] Endereço:Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Universiteit Leiden, PO box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials.
[So] Source:Nature;535(7613):529-32, 2016 07 28.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The structural complexity of metamaterials is limitless, but, in practice, most designs comprise periodic architectures that lead to materials with spatially homogeneous features. More advanced applications in soft robotics, prosthetics and wearable technology involve spatially textured mechanical functionality, which requires aperiodic architectures. However, a naive implementation of such structural complexity invariably leads to geometrical frustration (whereby local constraints cannot be satisfied everywhere), which prevents coherent operation and impedes functionality. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy for the design of aperiodic, yet frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials that exhibit spatially textured functionalities. We implement this strategy using cubic building blocks-voxels-that deform anisotropically, a local stacking rule that allows cooperative shape changes by guaranteeing that deformed building blocks fit together as in a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle, and three-dimensional printing. These aperiodic metamaterials exhibit long-range holographic order, whereby the two-dimensional pixelated surface texture dictates the three-dimensional interior voxel arrangement. They also act as programmable shape-shifters, morphing into spatially complex, but predictable and designable, shapes when uniaxially compressed. Finally, their mechanical response to compression by a textured surface reveals their ability to perform sensing and pattern analysis. Combinatorial design thus opens up a new avenue towards mechanical metamaterials with unusual order and machine-like functionalities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mecânica
Propriedades de Superfície
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Holografia
Impressão Tridimensional
Próteses e Implantes
Robótica/instrumentação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160729
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature18960


  4 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26958740
[Au] Autor:Monty JP; Dogan E; Hanson R; Scardino AJ; Ganapathisubramani B; Hutchins N
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Mechanical Engineering , University of Melbourne , Parkville , Australia.
[Ti] Título:An assessment of the ship drag penalty arising from light calcareous tubeworm fouling.
[So] Source:Biofouling;32(4):451-64, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1029-2454
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A test coupon coated with light calcareous tubeworm fouling was scanned, scaled and reproduced for wind-tunnel testing to determine the equivalent sand grain roughness ks. It was found that this surface had a ks = 0.325 mm, substantially less than the previously reported values for light calcareous fouling. This result was used to predict the drag on a fouled full scale ship. To achieve this, a modified method for predicting the total drag of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), such as that on the hull of a ship, is presented. The method numerically integrates the skin friction over the length of the boundary layer, assuming an analytical form for the mean velocity profile of the TBL. The velocity profile contains the roughness (fouling) information, such that the prediction requires only an input of ks, the free-stream velocity (ship speed), the kinematic viscosity and the length of the boundary layer (the hull length). Using the equivalent sandgrain roughness height determined from experiments, a FFG-7 Oliver Perry class frigate is predicted to experience a 23% increase in total resistance at cruise, if its hull is coated in light calcareous tubeworm fouling. A similarly fouled very large crude carrier would experience a 34% increase in total resistance at cruise.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle
Poliquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Navios
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Fricção
Mecânica
Medição de Risco/métodos
Navios/métodos
Navios/normas
Propriedades de Superfície
Gestão da Qualidade Total/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1610
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160310
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/08927014.2016.1148140


  5 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26733282
[Au] Autor:Kim S; Choi SJ; Zhao K; Yang H; Gobbi G; Zhang S; Li J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
[Ti] Título:Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;7:10146, 2016 Jan 06.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação
Fontes Geradoras de Energia
Membranas Artificiais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos
Mecânica
Termodinâmica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Membranes, Artificial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/ncomms10146


  6 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26413988
[Au] Autor:Rodney D; Gadot B; Martinez OR; du Roscoat SR; Orgéas L
[Ad] Endereço:Institut Lumière Matière, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.
[Ti] Título:Reversible dilatancy in entangled single-wire materials.
[So] Source:Nat Mater;15(1):72-7, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1122
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Designing structures that dilate rapidly in both tension and compression would benefit devices such as smart filters, actuators or fasteners. This property however requires an unusual Poisson ratio, or Poisson function at finite strains, which has to vary with applied strain and exceed the familiar bounds: less than 0 in tension and above 1/2 in compression. Here, by combining mechanical tests and discrete element simulations, we show that a simple three-dimensional architected material, made of a self-entangled single long coiled wire, behaves in between discrete and continuum media, with a large and reversible dilatancy in both tension and compression. This unusual behaviour arises from an interplay between the elongation of the coiled wire and rearrangements due to steric effects, which, unlike in traditional discrete media, are hysteretically reversible when the architecture is made of an elastic fibre.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Materiais Biocompatíveis
Cobre/química
Níquel/química
Nylons/química
Titânio/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Teste de Materiais
Mecânica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biocompatible Materials); 0 (Nylons); 12035-60-8 (titanium nickelide); 789U1901C5 (Copper); 7OV03QG267 (Nickel); D1JT611TNE (Titanium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150929
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nmat4429


  7 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26767928
[Au] Autor:Frank A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
[Ti] Título:Uncertain for a century: quantum mechanics and the dilemma of interpretation.
[So] Source:Ann N Y Acad Sci;1361:69-73, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1749-6632
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Quantum mechanics, the physical theory describing the microworld, is one of science's greatest triumphs. Remarkably, however, after more than 100 years it is still unclear what quantum mechanics means in terms of basic philosophical questions about the nature of reality. While there are many interpretations of the mathematical machinery of quantum physics, there remain no experimental means to distinguish between most of them. In this contribution, I wish to consider the ways in which the enduring lack of an agreed-upon interpretation of quantum physics influences a number of critical philosophical debates about physics and reality. I briefly review two problems affected by quantum interpretations: the meaning of the term universe and the nature of consciousness.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mecânica
Teoria Quântica
Incerteza
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1605
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160116
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/nyas.12972


  8 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26693574
[Ti] Título:Patches could deliver drugs when stretched.
[So] Source:J Am Vet Med Assoc;247(8):862, 2015 Oct 15.
[Is] ISSN:1943-569X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adesivo Transdérmico/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Mecânica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151224
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26642193
[Au] Autor:Khorramian K; Maleki S; Shariati M; Ramli Sulong NH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
[Ti] Título:Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.
[So] Source:PLoS One;10(12):e0144288, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Engenharia/métodos
Mecânica
Aço
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Materiais de Construção
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
12597-69-2 (Steel)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0144288


  10 / 1295 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26449348
[Au] Autor:Benamou J; Demianiuk RM; Rutherford S; Beckett C; Ness MG; Haut RC; Déjardin LM
[Ti] Título:Effect of bending direction on the mechanical behaviour of 3.5 mm String-of-Pearls and Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate constructs.
[So] Source:Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol;28(6):433-40, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:0932-0814
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To compare the bending properties of String-of-Pearls® (SOP) and Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate® (LC-DCP) constructs in orthogonal bending directions. METHODS: 3.5 mm SOP and LC-DCP plates were fixed to a bone model simulating a comminuted tibial fracture. Specimens were non-destructively tested in both mediolateral and craniocaudal bending for 10 cycles. Bending stiffness and total angular deformation were compared using parametric analyses (p <0.05). RESULTS: For both constructs, stiffness was significantly less when bending moments were applied against the thickness of the plates (mediolateral bending) than against the width (craniocaudal bending). When compared to the mediolateral plane, bending constructs in the craniocaudal plane resulted in a 49% (SOP group) and 370% (LC-DCP group) increase in stiffness (p <0.001). Mediolateral bending stiffness was significantly greater in the SOP than the LC-DCP constructs. Conversely, in craniocaudal bending, SOP constructs stiffness was significantly less than that of the LC-DCP constructs. The differences between the two constructs in total angular deformation had an identical pattern of significance. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study found that SOP showed less variability between the orthogonal bending directions than LC-DCP in a comminuted fracture model, and also described the bi-planar bending behaviour of both constructs. Although not exhibiting identical bending properties in both planes, SOP constructs had a more homogenous bending behaviour in orthogonal loading directions. The difference between the SOP with a circular cross sectional shape compared to the rectangular shape of standard plates is probably responsible for this difference.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Placas Ósseas/veterinária
Análise de Falha de Equipamento/métodos
Teste de Materiais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Teste de Materiais/métodos
Mecânica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151010
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3415/VCOT-15-01-0013



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