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[PMID]:29384308
[Au] Autor:Sy I; Traoré D; Niang Diène A; Koné B; Lô B; Faye O; Utzinger J; Cissé G; Tanner M
[Ti] Título:[Water, sanitation and diarrheal risk in Nouakchott Urban Community, Mauritania].
[Ti] Título:Eau potable, assainissement et risque de maladies diarrhéiques dans la Communauté Urbaine de Nouakchott, Mauritanie..
[So] Source:Sante Publique;29(5):741-750, 2017 Dec 05.
[Is] ISSN:0995-3914
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:fre
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Drinking water and sanitation are two factors of inter-linked inextricably public health especially in the city of Nouakchott where the low availability of these services leads to a multitude of use and hygiene practices involving a complex socio-ecological system with an increased risk of waterborne diseases transmission (diarrhea, cholera, etc.). METHODS: Thus, this contribution analyzes the impact of socio-ecological system on the development of diarrheal diseases by using socio-environmental and epidemiological data from various sources (national surveys and registries consultation). RESULTS: Overall, the results show that only 25.6% of households have access to drinking water sources while 69.8% of the populations dispose improved latrines. Hence, the weakness in environmental sanitation conditions explains the level of diarrheal morbidity averring 12.8% at the urban level, with an unequal spatial distribution showing less affected communes such as Tevragh Zeina (9.1%) and municipalities more affected like Sebkha (19.1%). The distribution according to the age categories shows that children under 5 years are the most affected with 51.7% followed by people aged over 14 with 34.2%. The correlation analysis between socio-economic, environmental and epidemiological variables reveals a number of significant associations: untreated water consumption and diarrhea (R = 0.429); collection of wastewater and occurrence of diarrhea ; existence of improved latrine and reduction of diarrheal risk (R = 0.402). DISCUSSION: Therefore, exposure to diarrheal diseases through the prism of water and sanitation is a real public health problem that requires a systemic and integrated approach to improving environmental health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diarreia/epidemiologia
Água Potável
Saneamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Diarreia/prevenção & controle
Saúde Ambiental
Seres Humanos
Mauritânia/epidemiologia
Risco
Sanitários Públicos
População Urbana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drinking Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3917/spub.175.0741


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[PMID]:28743592
[Au] Autor:Cronin AA; Odagiri M; Arsyad B; Nuryetty MT; Amannullah G; Santoso H; Darundiyah K; Nasution N'
[Ad] Endereço:UNICEF Indonesia, World Trade Center 6 (10th Floor), Jalan Jenderal Sudirman Kav. 31, Jakarta 12920, Indonesia. Electronic address: acronin@unicef.org.
[Ti] Título:Piloting water quality testing coupled with a national socioeconomic survey in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, towards tracking of Sustainable Development Goal 6.
[So] Source:Int J Hyg Environ Health;220(7):1141-1151, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1618-131X
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:There remains a pressing need for systematic water quality monitoring strategies to assess drinking water safety and to track progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This study incorporated water quality testing into an existing national socioeconomic survey in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia; the first such study in Indonesia in terms of SDG tracking. Multivariate regression analysis assessed the association between faecal and nitrate contamination and drinking water sources household drinking water adjusted for wealth, education level, type of water sources and type of sanitation facilities. The survey observed widespread faecal contamination in both sources for drinking water (89.2%, 95%CI: 86.9-91.5%; n=720) and household drinking water (67.1%, 95%CI: 64.1-70.1%; n=917) as measured by Escherichia coli. This was despite widespread improved drinking water source coverage (85.3%) and commonly self-reported boiling practices (82.2%). E.coli concentration levels in household drinking water were associated with wealth, education levels of a household head, and type of water source (i.e. vender water or local sources). Following the proposed SDG definition for Target 6.1 (water) and 6.2 (sanitation), the estimated proportion of households with access to safely managed drinking water and sanitation was 8.5% and 45.5%, respectively in the study areas, indicating substantial difference from improved drinking water (82.2%) and improved sanitation coverage (70.9%) as per the MDGs targets. The greatest contamination and risk factors were found in the poorest households indicating the urgent need for targeted and effective interventions here. There is suggested evidence that sub-surface leaching from on-site sanitation adversely impacts on drinking water sources, which underscores the need for further technical assistance in promoting latrine construction. Urgent action is still needed to strengthen systematic monitoring efforts towards tracking SDG Goal 6.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Água Potável/microbiologia
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Qualidade da Água
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cloretos/análise
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Água Potável/análise
Fezes/microbiologia
Metas
Seres Humanos
Indonésia
Nitratos/análise
Pobreza
Análise de Regressão
Saneamento/métodos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Inquéritos e Questionários
Microbiologia da Água
Abastecimento de Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chlorides); 0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Nitrates); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28453115
[Au] Autor:Rodríguez Miranda JP; García-Ubaque CA; García-Ubaque JC
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas. Bogotá, Colombia. jprodriguezm@udistrital.edu.co.
[Ti] Título:[Waterborne diseases and basic sanitation in Colombia].
[Ti] Título:Enfermedades transmitidas por el agua y saneamiento básico en Colombia..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);18(5):738-745, 2016 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objective : To analyze the relationship of sewerage coverage and wastewater treatment with waterborne disease behaviour. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted using secondary sources (document review and information available in databases) about basic sanitation coverage, treatment of domestic sewage in the country and the prevalence of waterborne diseases during the period 2008-2014. Results : The country invested USD 1,100 million in the implementation of wastewater treatment systems from 2011 until the first half of 2013. However, the incidence of waterborne diseases, such as acute diarrheal disease, foodborne diseases and typhoid and paratyphoid fever did not decrease during the period 2008-2014; only hepatitis A registered a decrease. Discussion: Investment in water supply and sewerage systems is relevant to improve health conditions of the population and to reduce the incidence and prevalence of various health conditions; however, it is necessary to address other aspects such as health education and social empowerment to address this problem more efficiently.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Saneamento
Esgotos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas
Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Colômbia/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Estudos Retrospectivos
Abastecimento de Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Sewage)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28453114
[Au] Autor:Leal-Bohórquez AF; Castro-Osorio CM; Wintaco-Martínez LM; Villalobos R; Puerto-Castro GM
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto Nacional de Salud. Bogotá. Colombia. andres_leal@yahoo.com; ccastro@ins.gov.co; mairawm@hotmail.com; gpuerto@ins.gov.co.
[Ti] Título:[Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in workers of bovine tuberculosis sanitation farms in Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca].
[Ti] Título:Tuberculosis por Mycobacterium bovis en trabajadores de fincas en saneamiento para tuberculosis bovina, de Antioquia, Boyacá y Cundinamarca..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);18(5):727-737, 2016 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objective: To perform classic and molecular epidemiological surveillance of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in bovine supply chains at farms with PPD positive bovines in the departments of Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca during a one-year period. Methods: Livestock farms with PPD positive bovines or buffalos were visited in the study departments according to information obtained in the "Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis bovina" (National program on bovine Tuberculosis) released by ICA (Colombian Agriculture and Livestock Institute). Data on socio-demographic information and tuberculosis risk factors associated to the occupation were collected through a survey applied to all workers at the visited farms. Sputum samples were obtained after informed consent. The sputa underwent microbiological and molecular testing to identify members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Results : Thirty-three livestock farms were visited and information of 164 workers from the bovine supply chain was collected. Staying in a PPD positive farm for more than a year, ignorance about the disease and the presence of possible vectors, like dogs and cats, were identified as possible risk factors for developing tuberculosis. No cases of tuberculosis caused by M. bovis or M. tuberculosis in workers of the visited farms were found. Conclusion : No cases of the disease caused by this zoonotic agent were documented in the departments of Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/microbiologia
Criação de Animais Domésticos
Fazendas
Mycobacterium bovis
Tuberculose/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/diagnóstico
Animais
Gatos
Bovinos
Colômbia
Vetores de Doenças
Cães
Escolaridade
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Saneamento
Escarro/microbiologia
Tuberculose/diagnóstico
Tuberculose Bovina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29372995
[Au] Autor:Harris JM
[Ti] Título:The Eminent Domain of Sanitary Science and the Usefulness of State Boards in Guarding the Public Welfare.
[So] Source:W V Med J;113(1):10-12, 2017 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0043-3284
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Promoção da Saúde
Saúde Pública
Saneamento
Seguridade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Emigração e Imigração
Seres Humanos
Governo Estadual
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28449238
[Au] Autor:Jung YT; Lou W; Cheng YL
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Global Engineering and the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.
[So] Source:Trop Med Int Health;22(7):857-865, 2017 07.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3156
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. METHODS: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. RESULTS: A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diarreia/epidemiologia
Distribuição Espacial da População
Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia
Ásia/epidemiologia
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tmi.12886


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[PMID]:27775463
[Au] Autor:Mpyet C; Muhammad N; Adamu MD; Muazu H; Umar MM; Goyol M; Onyebuchi U; Chima I; Idris H; William A; Isiyaku S; Nwobi B; Flueckiger RM; Willis R; Pavluck A; Chu BK; Olobio N; Solomon AW
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Ophthalmology , University of Jos , Jos , Nigeria.
[Ti] Título:Prevalence of Trachoma in Katsina State, Nigeria: Results of 34 District-Level Surveys.
[So] Source:Ophthalmic Epidemiol;23(sup1):55-62, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5086
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To determine the local government area (LGA)-level prevalence of trachoma in all 34 LGAs of Katsina State. METHODS: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each LGA of Katsina State, using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 3-stage cluster random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters. We examined all residents of selected households aged 1 year and older for the clinical signs of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading scheme. RESULTS: We examined 129,281 persons. Six LGAs had a TF prevalence ≥10%, and another six LGAs had a TF prevalence between 5% and 9.9%; all 12 require mass drug administration with azithromycin plus other interventions. The prevalence of trichiasis was ≥1.0% in 13 LGAs, and there is a need to perform trichiasis surgery in over 26,000 persons to reach targets set by the WHO for elimination of trichiasis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TF is generally low in Katsina state, but urgent steps must be taken to implement the full SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement) in at least 12 LGAs while also stepping up efforts to provide community-based trichiasis surgery throughout the whole state, in order to make trachoma elimination by 2020 a reality.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tracoma/epidemiologia
Triquíase/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
Seres Humanos
Higiene/normas
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Nigéria/epidemiologia
Prevalência
Saneamento/normas
Tracoma/prevenção & controle
Abastecimento de Água/normas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180123
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180123
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09286586.2016.1236975


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[PMID]:29206842
[Au] Autor:Baker KK; Padhi B; Torondel B; Das P; Dutta A; Sahoo KC; Das B; Dreibelbis R; Caruso B; Freeman MC; Sager L; Panigrahi P
[Ad] Endereço:University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:From menarche to menopause: A population-based assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors for reproductive tract infection symptoms over life stages in rural girls and women in India.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188234, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot be inferred from this study design. Future research is needed to understand whether improvements in water and sanitation access could improve the practice of safe hygiene behaviors and reduce the global burden of RTIs in women.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Higiene
Menarca
Menopausa
População Rural
Saneamento
Abastecimento de Água
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Índia
Meia-Idade
Gravidez
Fatores de Risco
Classe Social
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188234


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[PMID]:29200432
[Au] Autor:Kaminsky JA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188905, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comparação Transcultural
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/economia
Financiamento de Construções/métodos
Parcerias Público-Privadas
Saneamento/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comportamento de Escolha
Proposta de Concorrência
Contratos/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Investimentos em Saúde
Saneamento/economia
Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos
Esgotos
Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Sewage); 059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188905


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[PMID]:29216244
[Au] Autor:Khan SM; Bain RES; Lunze K; Unalan T; Beshanski-Pedersen B; Slaymaker T; Johnston R; Hancioglu A
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Data, Research and Policy, UNICEF, New York City, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Optimizing household survey methods to monitor the Sustainable Development Goals targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: A mixed-methods field-test in Belize.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189089, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require household survey programmes such as the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to enhance data collection to cover new indicators. This study aims to evaluated methods for assessing water quality, water availability, emptying of sanitation facilities, menstrual hygiene management and the acceptability of water quality testing in households which are key to monitoring SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and emerging issues. METHODS: As part of a MICS field test, we interviewed 429 households and 267 women age 15-49 in Stann Creek, Belize in a split-sample experiment. In a concurrent qualitative component, we conducted focus groups with interviewers and cognitive interviews with respondents during and immediately following questionnaire administration in the field to explore their question comprehension and response processes. FINDINGS: About 88% of respondents agreed to water quality testing but also desired test results, given the potential implications for their own health. Escherichia coli was present in 36% of drinking water collected at the source, and in 47% of samples consumed in the household. Both questions on water availability necessitated probing by interviewers. About one quarter of households reported emptying of pit latrines and septic tanks, though one-quarter could not provide an answer to the question. Asking questions on menstrual hygiene was acceptable to respondents, but required some clarification and probing. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of Belize, this study confirmed the feasibility of collecting information on the availability and quality of drinking water, emptying of sanitation facilities and menstrual hygiene in a multi-purpose household survey, indicating specific areas to improve question formulation and field protocols. Improvements have been incorporated into the latest round of MICS surveys which will be a major source of national data for monitoring of SDG targets for drinking water, sanitation and hygiene and emerging issues for WASH sector programming.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Água Potável
Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Belize
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Menstruação
Inquéritos e Questionários
Microbiologia da Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drinking Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189089



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