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[PMID]:29251226
[Au] Autor:Veenstra G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sociology, The University of British Columbia, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Infusing fundamental cause theory with features of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of symbolic power.
[So] Source:Scand J Public Health;46(1):49-52, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1651-1905
[Cp] País de publicação:Sweden
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The theory of fundamental causes is one of the more influential attempts to provide a theoretical infrastructure for the strong associations between indicators of socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation) and health. It maintains that people of higher socioeconomic status have greater access to flexible resources such as money, knowledge, prestige, power, and beneficial social connections that they can use to reduce their risks of morbidity and mortality and minimize the consequences of disease once it occurs. However, several key aspects of the theory remain underspecified, compromising its ability to provide truly compelling explanations for socioeconomic health inequalities. In particular, socioeconomic status is an assembly of indicators that do not necessarily cohere in a straightforward way, the flexible resources that disproportionately accrue to higher status people are not clearly defined, and the distinction between socioeconomic status and resources is ambiguous. I attempt to address these definitional issues by infusing fundamental cause theory with features of a well-known theory of socioeconomic stratification in the sociological literature-Pierre Bourdieu's theory of symbolic power.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teoria Psicológica
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
Teoria Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Poder (Psicologia)
Classe Social
Simbolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1403494817748253


  2 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:28453119
[Au] Autor:Rodríguez-Gómez R
[Ad] Endereço:Diagnostico Ocular del Country. Bogotá, Colombia. fitopolux@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:[Dynamics and interactions between the university community and public health 2.0].
[Ti] Título:Dinámicas e interacciones entre comunidad universitaria y salud pública 2.0..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);18(5):782-793, 2016 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objectives: To explore the experiences of a group of participants in a university community with the web in general and with digital contents on public health, to describe their motivations and to understand how social networks influence their interaction with content on public health. Methodology: Qualitative research. Deep semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand the phenomenon. Results: Five categories emerged after the study: socialization and internalization of the cyberculture, social marketing linked to the web and public health, culture of fear and distrust, the concept of health, and the health system and public health. Conclusions: Participants have internalized the web and have given it a strong symbolic capital. The challenges of public health 2.0 are not only to achieve interaction with users and to get a place in cyberspace, but also to fight against the stigma of the "public" and to take advantage of the influence of the web on small-world networks to communicate.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Motivação
Saúde Pública
Marketing Social
Mídias Sociais
Universidades
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Simbolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28460299
[Au] Autor:Laing CE
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. Electronic address: catherine.laing@duke.edu.
[Ti] Título:A perceptual advantage for onomatopoeia in early word learning: Evidence from eye-tracking.
[So] Source:J Exp Child Psychol;161:32-45, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0457
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A perceptual advantage for iconic forms in infant language learning has been widely reported in the literature, termed the "sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis" by Imai and Kita (2014). However, empirical research in this area is limited mainly to sound symbolic forms, which are very common in languages such as Japanese but less so in Indo-European languages such as English. In this study, we extended this body of research to onomatopoeia-words that are thought to be present across most of the world's languages and that are known to be dominant in infants' early lexicons. In a picture-mapping task, 10- and 11-month-old infants showed a processing advantage for onomatopoeia (e.g., woof woof) over their conventional counterparts (e.g., doggie). However, further analysis suggests that the input may play a key role in infants' experience and processing of these forms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
Fonética
Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Simbolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28362232
[Au] Autor:Lo LY; Luk HM; Thompson N
[Ad] Endereço:a Hong Kong Shue Yan University.
[Ti] Título:An Investigation of Sound-Symbolism in the Context of Tactile Feeling.
[So] Source:J Gen Psychol;144(2):157-167, 2017 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1940-0888
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sound symbolism suggests a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and the concepts to which those sounds refer (Hinton, Nichols, & Ohala, 2006 ). Supporting evidence comes primarily from studies investigating how speech sounds relate to semantically compatible visual concepts. The present study therefore attempted to examine sound symbolism in the context of tactile perception. Contrary to the propositions of sound symbolism, participants in Experiment 1 did not consistently assign names with plosive consonant to objects with curved frames. Experiment 2, however, found that names with fricative consonants were more likely to be applied to materials with rough surfaces. The results suggested the existence of a direct relationship between speech sounds and their referent concepts that could be crucial in revealing the phenomenon of sound symbolism. A future study was also proposed to study the contributions of mouth shape and airflow to associations between speech sounds and tactile feelings. (161 words).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fonética
Simbolismo
Percepção do Tato/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/00221309.2016.1276047


  5 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28300954
[Au] Autor:Ferreira C; Bevilacqua M; Ishihara M; Fiori A; Armonia A; Perissinoto J; Tamanaha AC
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - São Paulo (SP), Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.
[Ti] Título:Seleção de vocábulos para implementação do Picture Exchange Communication System ­ PECS em autistas não verbais..
[So] Source:Codas;29(1):e20150285, 2017 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2317-1782
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:por; eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Results: There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. Conclusion: The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno Autístico/reabilitação
Auxiliares de Comunicação para Pessoas com Deficiência
Comunicação não Verbal
Simbolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Transtorno Autístico/complicações
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Transtornos da Comunicação/etiologia
Transtornos da Comunicação/reabilitação
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170705
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170705
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170317
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28222116
[Au] Autor:Attout L; Noël MP; Nassogne MC; Rousselle L
[Ad] Endereço:Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
[Ti] Título:The role of short-term memory and visuo-spatial skills in numerical magnitude processing: Evidence from Turner syndrome.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0171454, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Most studies on magnitude representation have focused on the visual modality with no possibility of disentangling the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM) abilities on quantification processes. This study examines this issue in patients with Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic condition characterized by a specific cognitive profile frequently associating poor mathematical achievement, low spatial skills and reduced STM abilities. In order to identify the influence of visuo-spatial and STM processing on numerical magnitude abilities, twenty female participants with TS and twenty control female participants matched for verbal IQ and education level were administered a series of magnitude comparison tasks. The tasks differed on the nature of the magnitude to be processed (continuous, discrete and symbolic magnitude), on visuo-spatial processing requirement (no/high) and on STM demands (low in simultaneous presentation vs. high in sequential presentation). Our results showed a lower acuity when participants with TS compared the numerical magnitudes of stimuli presented sequentially (low visuo-spatial processing and high STM load: Dot sequence and Sound sequence) while no difference was observed in the numerical comparison of sets presented simultaneously. In addition, the group difference in sequential tasks disappeared when controlling for STM abilities. Finally, both groups demonstrated similar performance when comparing continuous or symbolic magnitude stimuli and they exhibited comparable subitizing abilities. These results highlight the importance of STM abilities in extracting numerosity through a sequential presentation and underline the importance of considering the impact of format presentation on magnitude judgments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos de Aprendizagem/psicologia
Conceitos Matemáticos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
Navegação Espacial/fisiologia
Síndrome de Turner/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Julgamento
Transtornos de Aprendizagem/genética
Transtornos de Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia
Simbolismo
Fatores de Tempo
Síndrome de Turner/fisiopatologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170821
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170821
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0171454


  7 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28215284
[Au] Autor:Allen ML; Armitage E
[Ad] Endereço:Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom. Electronic address: melissa.allen@lancaster.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:How Children Learn to Navigate the Symbolic World of Pictures: The Importance of the Artist's Mind and Differentiating Picture Modalities.
[So] Source:Adv Child Dev Behav;52:153-184, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0065-2407
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pictures offer a unique and essential contribution to our lives, both in terms of aesthetic pleasure and links to symbolic thought. As such, psychologists have devoted significant time to investigating how children acquire an understanding of pictures. This chapter focuses on two particular facets of this development: the role of the artist and the importance of picture modality. First, we review work that has focused on tracking children's ability to (a) map the relationship between the mental state of the artist and their pictures, and (b) incorporate such considerations into their evaluations of pictures. Drawing these literatures together provides an up-to-date account of how children acquire a mentalistic understanding of pictures. Second, we argue that a mature theory of pictures must enable children to distinguish between different picture types (e.g., photographs vs drawings), and therefore that picture modality should be incorporated into existing theoretical accounts of pictorial development.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arte
Compreensão
Intenção
Processos Mentais
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
Simbolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Fatores Etários
Atenção
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Sinais (Psicologia)
Decepção
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Fotografia
Teoria Psicológica
Teoria da Mente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27866264
[Au] Autor:Naish KR; Rajagobal A; Galang CM; Sartori L; Obhi SS
[Ad] Endereço:Social Brain, Body and Action Lab, Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L8, Canada. naishek@mcmaster.ca.
[Ti] Título:Effects of intentional movement preparation on response times to symbolic and imitative cues.
[So] Source:Exp Brain Res;235(3):753-761, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1106
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Speeded responses to an external cue are slower when the cue interrupts preparation to perform the same or a similar action in a self-paced manner. To explore the mechanism underlying this 'cost of intention', we examined whether the size of the cost is influenced by the nature of the external cue. Specifically, we assessed whether the cost of intention is different for movements made in response to an imitative cue (an on-screen hand movement) compared to those made in response to a symbolic cue. Consistent with previous reports, externally cued responses were significantly slower on trials where participants were preparing to perform an internally driven movement later in the trial. Also as predicted, simple response times to the imitative cue were faster than those made to the symbolic cue. Critically, the cost of intention was similar for each cue type, suggesting that preparing an intentional action influenced responses cued by the symbolic and imitative cues to a similar degree. These findings suggest that the nature of the external cue does not influence the response time delay associated with concurrent intentional preparation. Together with previous findings, the results of the current study shed further light on the potential mechanisms underlying the cost of intention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sinais (Psicologia)
Comportamento Imitativo
Intenção
Movimento/fisiologia
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
Simbolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Análise de Variância
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estimulação Luminosa
Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00221-016-4837-8


  9 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27400699
[Au] Autor:Tredinnick-Rowe J
[Ad] Endereço:Collaboration for the Advancement of Medical Education Research & Assessment (CAMERA), Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, UK.
[Ti] Título:The (re)-introduction of semiotics into medical education: on the works of Thure von Uexküll.
[So] Source:Med Humanit;43(1):1-8, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1473-4265
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Thure von Uexküll's reputation as a pioneer in biosemiotics and also in psychosomatic medicine is well documented. It is easy to see these disciplines reflected in his notable publications, both in English and in German. However, if one spares the time to filter through all of his articles, monographs, conference papers and editorials in English and in German, a notable gap arises in his English language publications: that of clinical education. This gap in the English language literature may seem unimportant in and of itself, but it speaks volumes when we consider the total absence of medical semiotics in the curriculum of medical schools in the English speaking world. This runs in stark contrast to the strong traditions of psychosomatic medicine in Germany, which Thure von Uexküll largely helped to instil. Do the works of Thure von Uexküll offer a possible step towards a resurrection of medical semiotics in clinical education? This chapter attempts to explore the lesser known German literature on clinical education that Thure von Uexküll produced, and explore the role semiotics can play in Medical Education in the English speaking world. While also seeking to contrast this literature with other existing approaches in British and American medical schools who have attempted to reintroduce medical humanities and reflexive thinking into clinical education.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Currículo
Educação Médica
Linguagem
Literatura Moderna
Filosofia
Medicina Psicossomática
Pensamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tomada de Decisão Clínica
Alemanha
Seres Humanos
Filosofia Médica
Faculdades de Medicina
Simbolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170901
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170901
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160713
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/medhum-2016-010969


  10 / 3651 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28105044
[Au] Autor:Wu H; Zhou Y; Luo Q; Basset MA
[Ad] Endereço:College of Information Science and Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006, China.
[Ti] Título:Training Feedforward Neural Networks Using Symbiotic Organisms Search Algorithm.
[So] Source:Comput Intell Neurosci;2016:9063065, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1687-5273
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Symbiotic organisms search (SOS) is a new robust and powerful metaheuristic algorithm, which stimulates the symbiotic interaction strategies adopted by organisms to survive and propagate in the ecosystem. In the supervised learning area, it is a challenging task to present a satisfactory and efficient training algorithm for feedforward neural networks (FNNs). In this paper, SOS is employed as a new method for training FNNs. To investigate the performance of the aforementioned method, eight different datasets selected from the UCI machine learning repository are employed for experiment and the results are compared among seven metaheuristic algorithms. The results show that SOS performs better than other algorithms for training FNNs in terms of converging speed. It is also proven that an FNN trained by the method of SOS has better accuracy than most algorithms compared.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Algoritmos
Retroalimentação
Aprendizagem
Redes Neurais (Computação)
Simbolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Análise de Variância
Simulação por Computador
Mineração de Dados
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170224
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170224
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2016/9063065



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