Base de dados : MEDLINE
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[PMID]:28468920
[Au] Autor:Creanza N; Kolodny O; Feldman MW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235-1634, USA nicole.creanza@vanderbilt.edu.
[Ti] Título:Greater than the sum of its parts? Modelling population contact and interaction of cultural repertoires.
[So] Source:J R Soc Interface;14(130), 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1742-5662
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Evidence for interactions between populations plays a prominent role in the reconstruction of historical and prehistoric human dynamics; these interactions are usually interpreted to reflect cultural practices or demographic processes. The sharp increase in long-distance transportation of lithic material between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, for example, is seen as a manifestation of the cultural revolution that defined the transition between these epochs. Here, we propose that population interaction is not only a reflection of cultural change but also a potential driver of it. We explore the possible effects of inter-population migration on cultural evolution when migrating individuals possess core technological knowledge from their original population. Using a computational framework of cultural evolution that incorporates realistic aspects of human innovation processes, we show that migration can lead to a range of outcomes, including punctuated but transient increases in cultural complexity, an increase of cultural complexity to an elevated steady state and the emergence of a positive feedback loop that drives ongoing acceleration in cultural accumulation. Our findings suggest that population contact may have played a crucial role in the evolution of hominin cultures and propose explanations for observations of Palaeolithic cultural change whose interpretations have been hotly debated.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cultura
Modelos Teóricos
Dinâmica Populacional
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Cultural
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:28453102
[Au] Autor:Sánchez-Suárez DM; Giraldo-Puerta A; Giraldo-Pineda Á; Forero-Pulido C
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, alvaro.giraldo@udea.edu.co.
[Ti] Título:[Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations].
[Ti] Título:Compartir y desconfiar: mirada de los venteros acerca de los niños en situación de calle..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);18(3):391-403, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comércio
Jovens em Situação de Rua
Relações Interpessoais
Confiança
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Cultural
Atitude
Criança
Cidades
Colômbia
Seres Humanos
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Normas Sociais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28464942
[Au] Autor:Knight R; Fast D; DeBeck K; Shoveller J; Small W
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada. rodney.knight@sfu.ca.
[Ti] Título:"Getting out of downtown": a longitudinal study of how street-entrenched youth attempt to exit an inner city drug scene.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;17(1):376, 2017 05 02.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Urban drug "scenes" have been identified as important risk environments that shape the health of street-entrenched youth. New knowledge is needed to inform policy and programing interventions to help reduce youths' drug scene involvement and related health risks. The aim of this study was to identify how young people envisioned exiting a local, inner-city drug scene in Vancouver, Canada, as well as the individual, social and structural factors that shaped their experiences. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2016, we draw on 150 semi-structured interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth. We also draw on data generated through ethnographic fieldwork conducted with a subgroup of 25 of these youth between. RESULTS: Youth described that, in order to successfully exit Vancouver's inner city drug scene, they would need to: (a) secure legitimate employment and/or obtain education or occupational training; (b) distance themselves - both physically and socially - from the urban drug scene; and (c) reduce their drug consumption. As youth attempted to leave the scene, most experienced substantial social and structural barriers (e.g., cycling in and out of jail, the need to access services that are centralized within a place that they are trying to avoid), in addition to managing complex individual health issues (e.g., substance dependence). Factors that increased youth's capacity to successfully exit the drug scene included access to various forms of social and cultural capital operating outside of the scene, including supportive networks of friends and/or family, as well as engagement with addiction treatment services (e.g., low-threshold access to methadone) to support cessation or reduction of harmful forms of drug consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Policies and programming interventions that can facilitate young people's efforts to reduce engagement with Vancouver's inner-city drug scene are critically needed, including meaningful educational and/or occupational training opportunities, 'low threshold' addiction treatment services, as well as access to supportive housing outside of the scene.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição Espacial da População
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Antropologia Cultural
Canadá
Emprego
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Meio Social
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4313-9


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[PMID]:28859001
[Au] Autor:Weaver SH; Lindgren TG; Cadmus E; Flynn L; Thomas-Hawkins C
[Ad] Endereço:Hackensack Meridian Health, Neptune, New Jersey (Dr Weaver); Center for Healthcare Quality (Drs Weaver, Cadmus, Flynn and Thomas-Hawkins), School of Nursing (Drs Lindgren, Cadmus and Thomas-Hawkins), Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark; New Jersey Collaborating Center for Nursing (Drs Weaver and Cadmus), Newark, New Jersey; and College of Nursing (Dr Flynn), University of Colorado, Aurora.
[Ti] Título:Report From the Night Shift: How Administrative Supervisors Achieve Nurse and Patient Safety.
[So] Source:Nurs Adm Q;41(4):328-336, 2017 Oct/Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1550-5103
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The administrative supervisor role (the nurse leader on the evening or night shift) has been present in hospitals for more than 100 years, but research is just commencing regarding how this leader achieves nurse and patient safety. This focused ethnographic study was conducted in 2 parts. The first part consisted of focus groups with night-shift staff nurses, held at 7 hospitals in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, with the objective of obtaining the staff nurses' perception of the supervisors' role. The second part consisted of interviews with 30 administrative supervisors, recruited nationally from 20 different states, to explore the supervisors' perspective on practices used to enhance safety. The focus group and interview transcripts were thematically analyzed, using an iterative, comparative method to identify codes and sort for patterns. The findings reveal that administrative supervisors "make it (whatever needs to be done) work" and achieve nurse and patient safety by building trust with the staff, doing rounds, educating, and providing support to the front line team. These shift leaders foster a culture of safety with their relationship-oriented leadership style. By gaining further understanding about the administrative supervisor role, new workflow processes can be explored; specific continuing education programs can be developed; and additional research can be conducted.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Liderança
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia
Supervisão de Enfermagem/organização & administração
Saúde do Trabalhador
Segurança do Paciente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Cultural
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Grupos Focais
Seres Humanos
Enfermeiras Administradoras
Pesquisa Qualitativa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000252


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[PMID]:28798105
[Au] Autor:Haas WR; Aldenderfer MS; Meyer MC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. wrhaas@ucdavis.edu maldenderfer@ucmerced.edu michael.meyer@uibk.ac.at.
[Ti] Título:Response to Comment on "Permanent human occupation of the central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene".
[So] Source:Science;357(6351), 2017 08 11.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Zhang contest that Chusang was part of an annual mobility round that "more likely" included seasonal use of high-elevation environments than permanent use. We show that their probabilistic statement hinges on indefensible claims about hunter-gatherer mobility. In the context of quantitative data from hunter-gatherer ethnography, our travel model shows that seasonal-use models are highly unlikely to explain Chusang.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Altitude
Ocupações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Cultural
Meio Ambiente
Seres Humanos
Tibet
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170812
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28764920
[Au] Autor:Teasdale EJ; Leydon G; Fraser S; Roderick P; Taal MW; Tonkin-Crine S
[Ad] Endereço:Primary Care and Population Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom. Electronic address: e.j.teasdale@soton.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Patients' Experiences After CKD Diagnosis: A Meta-ethnographic Study and Systematic Review.
[So] Source:Am J Kidney Dis;70(5):656-665, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1523-6838
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often asymptomatic at first diagnosis, and awareness of CKD is low in the general population. Thus, individuals who are unexpectedly identified as having CKD may struggle to adjust to living with this diagnosis. This study aims to synthesize qualitative research exploring patients' views and experiences of a CKD diagnosis and how they adjust to it. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-ethnography. SETTING & POPULATION: Adult patients with CKD stages 1 to 5. SEARCH STRATEGY & SOURCES: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and Web of Science were searched from the earliest date available to November 2015. Qualitative studies were selected that explored patients' views and experiences of a CKD diagnosis and their adjustment. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Meta-ethnography was adopted to synthesize the findings. RESULTS: 10 studies involving 596 patients with CKD from secondary-care settings were included. 7 key themes were identified: a challenging diagnosis, diverse beliefs about causation, anticipated concerns about progression, delaying disease progression, unmet informational needs, psychosocial impact of CKD, and adjustment to life with CKD. LIMITATIONS: Limited to views and experiences of participants in included studies, which were mostly conducted in high-income countries. Studies not written in English were excluded. Transferability of findings to other populations may be limited. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights variation in patients' understanding of CKD, an overall lack of information on the trajectory of CKD, and a need for psychosocial support, especially in later stages, to help patients adjust to living with CKD. Future research that acknowledges CKD as a condition with diverse complicating morbidities and explores how patients' information and psychosocial needs vary according to severity and comorbid conditions would be beneficial. This will support delivery of easily understandable, timely, and targeted information about CKD, as well as practical advice about recommended lifestyle changes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Psicológica
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia
Apoio Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Cultural
Progressão da Doença
Seres Humanos
Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170803
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28729079
[Au] Autor:Mehta N; Srivastava RK
[Ad] Endereço:Dept. of Burns, Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, India. Electronic address: dr.nikhilmehta84@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:The Indian nose: An anthropometric analysis.
[So] Source:J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg;70(10):1472-1482, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1878-0539
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anthropometric measurements of the nose are of great importance in planning aesthetic nasal surgery. Abundant literature is available on anthropometric analysis of Caucasians and Orientals, without similar references on the Indian nose and its regional differences. Thus, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study of 1000 volunteers, with equal number of subjects derived from five geographic groups, namely North, Central, West, South, and the Himalayan region, to determine differences in nasal morphology of Indian population and among its various regions. The objective was to establish a standard Indian data for guidance in nasal surgery. All measurements were deduced using photographic analysis. The mean nasal height and width of our study population was 50.48 and 36.59 mm, respectively. Nasal profile varied among all five regions of the country. North Indians had the longest (52.69 mm nasal height) but the narrowest nose (35.01 mm width), thus having a leptorrhine nose with Caucasoid features. South Indians had the broadest nose (nasal width = 38.66 mm), whereas subjects from the Himalayan region had the shortest nose (nasal height = 47.2 mm). Indians on average had a mesorrhine nose as compared to Caucasians and Orientals who have a leptorrhine nose and Africans who have a platyrrhine nose. We thus conclude that the Indian nose should be considered a different entity in comparison to the nose of Caucasian, Oriental, and African populations. There are obvious differences in the facial architecture of people from different regions within the country. Therefore, appropriate adjustments need to be made according to different racial descents during nasal surgeries so as to give patients results that blend harmoniously with other facial features.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropometria/métodos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais
Nariz
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Antropologia Cultural/métodos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Índia/etnologia
Masculino
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/ética
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/métodos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/psicologia
Nariz/anatomia & histologia
Nariz/cirurgia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170722
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28644877
[Au] Autor:Rosbach M; Andersen JS
[Ad] Endereço:The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
[Ti] Título:Patient-experienced burden of treatment in patients with multimorbidity - A systematic review of qualitative data.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0179916, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To synthesize existing qualitative literature on patient-experienced burden of treatment in multimorbid patients. METHODS: A literature search identified available qualitative studies on the topic of burden of treatment in multimorbidity and meta-ethnography was applied as method. The authors' original findings were preserved, but also synthesized to new interpretations to investigate the concept of the burden of treatment using the Cumulative Complexity Model. RESULTS: Nine qualitative studies were identified. The majority of the 1367 participants from 34 different countries were multimorbid. The treatment burden components, experienced by patients, were identified for each study. The components financial burden, lack of knowledge, diet and exercise, medication burden and frequent healthcare reminding patients of their health problem were found to attract additional attention from the multimorbid patients. In studies conducted in the US and Australia the financial burden and the time and travel burden were found most straining to patients with deprived socioeconomic status. The burden of treatment was found to be a complex concept consisting of many different components and factors interacting with each other. The size of the burden was associated to the workload of demands (number of conditions, number of medications and health status), the capacity (cognitive, physical and financial resources, educational level, cultural background, age, gender and employment conditions) and the context (structure of healthcare and social support). Patients seem to use strategies such as prioritizing between treatments to diminish the workload and mobilizing and coordinating resources to improve their ability to manage the burden of treatment. They try to routinize and integrate the treatment into their daily lives, which might be a way to maintain the balance between workload and capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers need to increase the focus on minimizing multimorbid patients' burden of treatment. Findings in this review suggest that the weight of the burden needs to be established in the individual patient and components of the burden must be identified.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comorbidade
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
Gerenciamento Clínico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Cultural
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170624
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0179916


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[PMID]:28445544
[Au] Autor:Rots V; Lentfer C; Schmid VC; Porraz G; Conard NJ
[Ad] Endereço:Chercheur Qualifié du FNRS, TraceoLab / Prehistory, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
[Ti] Título:Pressure flaking to serrate bifacial points for the hunt during the MIS5 at Sibudu Cave (South Africa).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0175151, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Projectile technology is considered to appear early in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA) and the rich and high resolution MSA sequence of Sibudu Cave in KwaZulu-Natal has provided many new insights about the use and hafting of various projectile forms. We present the results of a functional and technological analysis on a series of unpublished serrated bifacial points recently recovered from the basal deposits of Sibudu Cave. These serrated tools, which only find equivalents in the neighbouring site of Umhlatuzana, precede the Still Bay techno-complex and are older than 77 ka BP. Independent residue and use-wear analyses were performed in a phased procedure involving two separate analysts, which allowed the engagement between two separate lines of functional evidence. Thanks to the excellent preservation at Sibudu Cave, a wide range of animal, plant and mineral residues were observed in direct relation with diagnostic wear patterns. The combination of technological, wear and residue evidence allowed us to confirm that the serration was manufactured with bone compressors and that the serrated points were mounted with a composite adhesive as the tips of projectiles used in hunting activities. The suite of technological and functional data pushes back the evidence for the use of pressure flaking during the MSA and highlights the diversity of the technical innovations adopted by southern African MSA populations. We suggest the serrated points from the stratigraphic units Adam to Darya of Sibudu illustrate one important technological adaptation of the southern African MSA and provide another example of the variability of MSA bifacial technologies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia Cultural
Arqueologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cavernas
Fósseis/história
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
Pressão
África do Sul
Tecnologia
Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170427
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0175151


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[PMID]:28445491
[Au] Autor:Hodgskiss T; Wadley L
[Ad] Endereço:Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:How people used ochre at Rose Cottage Cave, South Africa: Sixty thousand years of evidence from the Middle Stone Age.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0176317, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We describe colour, hardness, grain size, geological type and surface modifications of ochre pieces excavated, first by Malan and later by Harper, from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of Rose Cottage Cave, 96, 000 to 30, 000 years ago. Soft, bright-red shales are abundant, and most ochre has clayey or silty grain sizes. The post-Howiesons Poort layers contain the most ochre pieces, but the Howiesons Poort layers have the highest frequency of ochre per sediment volume. The pre-Howiesons Poort layers have the highest utilization rate. Use-traces include rubbing, grinding, combined grinding and rubbing, and rare instances of scoring. The processing techniques are proxies for ochre use. Rubbing transfers red ochre powder directly onto soft surfaces, such as human skin, or animal hide. This is appropriate when skin colouring and marking or skin protection (for example from sun, insects or bacteria) is the purpose. Grinding produces ochre powder that can be used for a variety of tasks. It can be mixed with water or other products to create paint, cosmetics or adhesives. Multiple uses of ochre powder and ochre pieces are therefore implied at Rose Cottage and changes through time are apparent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Silicatos de Alumínio/história
Arqueologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Cultural
Cavernas
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Aluminum Silicates); 1302-87-0 (clay)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170427
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0176317



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