Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : I01.076.368 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29238953
[Au] Autor:Grauer AL
[Ti] Título:Proceedings of the Eighty-Sixth Business Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists New Orleans, Louisiana April 21, 2017.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165(2):378-408, 2018 02.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia Física/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Nova Orleans
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23354


  2 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29178597
[Au] Autor:Larson JR; Manyama MF; Cole JB; Gonzalez PN; Percival CJ; Liberton DK; Ferrara TM; Riccardi SL; Kimwaga EA; Mathayo J; Spitzmacher JA; Rolian C; Jamniczky HA; Weinberg SM; Roseman CC; Klein O; Lukowiak K; Spritz RA; Hallgrimsson B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Body size and allometric variation in facial shape in children.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165(2):327-342, 2018 02.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Morphological integration, or the tendency for covariation, is commonly seen in complex traits such as the human face. The effects of growth on shape, or allometry, represent a ubiquitous but poorly understood axis of integration. We address the question of to what extent age and measures of size converge on a single pattern of allometry for human facial shape. METHODS: Our study is based on two large cross-sectional cohorts of children, one from Tanzania and the other from the United States (N = 7,173). We employ 3D facial imaging and geometric morphometrics to relate facial shape to age and anthropometric measures. RESULTS: The two populations differ significantly in facial shape, but the magnitude of this difference is small relative to the variation within each group. Allometric variation for facial shape is similar in both populations, representing a small but significant proportion of total variation in facial shape. Different measures of size are associated with overlapping but statistically distinct aspects of shape variation. Only half of the size-related variation in facial shape can be explained by the first principal component of four size measures and age while the remainder associates distinctly with individual measures. CONCLUSIONS: Allometric variation in the human face is complex and should not be regarded as a singular effect. This finding has important implications for how size is treated in studies of human facial shape and for the developmental basis for allometric variation more generally.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia
Face/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Antropologia Física
Evolução Biológica
Biometria
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Imagem Tridimensional
Masculino
Tanzânia
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23356


  3 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380887
[Au] Autor:Young JW; Shapiro LJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED), Rootstown, Ohio, 44272.
[Ti] Título:Developments in development: What have we learned from primate locomotor ontogeny?
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:37-71, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The importance of locomotion to evolutionary fitness has led to extensive study of primate locomotor behavior, morphology and ecology. Most previous research has focused on adult primates, but in the last few decades, increased attention to locomotor development has provided new insights toward our broader understanding of primate adaptation and evolution. Here, we review the contributions of this body of work from three basic perspectives. First, we assess possible determinants on the timing of locomotor independence, an important life history event. Significant influences on timing of locomotor independence include adult female body mass, age at weaning, and especially relative brain size, a significant predictor of other primate life history variables. Additionally, we found significant phylogenetic differences in the timing of locomotor independence, even accounting for these influences. Second, we discuss how structural aspects of primate growth may enhance the locomotor performance and safety of young primates, despite their inherent neuromotor and musculoskeletal limitations. For example, compared to adults, growing primates have greater muscle mechanical advantage, greater bone robusticity, and larger extremities with relatively long digits. Third, focusing on primate quadrupedalism, we provide examples that illustrate how ontogenetic transitions in morphology and locomotion can serve as a model system for testing broader principles underlying primate locomotor biomechanics. This approach has led to a better understanding of the key features that contribute to primates' stride characteristics, gait patterns, limb force distribution, and limb postures. We have learned a great deal from the study of locomotor ontogeny, but there is much left to explore. We conclude by offering guidelines for future research, both in the laboratory and the field.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia
Marcha/fisiologia
Locomoção/fisiologia
Primatas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antropologia Física
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia
Feminino
Força da Mão/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23388


  4 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380884
[Au] Autor:Smith SL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas.
[Ti] Título:Single (sub)species then and now: An examination of the nonracial perspective of C. Loring Brace.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:104-125, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:C. Loring Brace's writings on the concept of race have been among the most influential within anthropology. A review of the development of Brace's perspective on race shows that his philosophical approaches to fossil and modern human variation are consistent and integrated. Brace's views on race are compared with those of Ashley Montagu and Frank Livingstone, who also proposed eliminating "race" from anthropology, and with those of Stanley Garn and Alice Brues, who accepted "racial" subdivisions of humans. Carleton Coon's writings are more divergent; the aftermath of the publication of his Origin of Races highlights significant political tensions of the 1960s that intersected with scientific changes in anthropology emanating from the Evolutionary Synthesis. Recent forensic and "no race" positions are compared to explore their differences and the possibility of reconciliation, and the role of Brace and others in combating proposals of intellectual differences among human groups is discussed. While a spectrum of anthropological opinion regarding race exists, the commonalities are sufficient to allow valuable, united commentary emphasizing the complexity of modern human cultural and biological variation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia Física
Grupos de Populações Continentais
Variação Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Hominidae
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23385


  5 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29380883
[Au] Autor:Allan ATL; Hill RA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Dawson Building, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:What have we been looking at? A call for consistency in studies of primate vigilance.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:4-22, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Vigilance functions to detect threats. In primates, these threats emerge from both predators and conspecifics, but a host of other social, demographic, and ecological factors have been shown to influence primate vigilance patterns. The primate vigilance literature is thus characterized by considerable variation in findings, with inconsistent or contradictory results reported not only across different species but also within species and populations across studies. Some of this variation could emerge from fundamental differences in the methods employed, making comparisons across species and groups challenging. Furthermore, identifying consistent behavioral markers for the state of vigilance appears to have proved challenging in primates, leading to a range of definitions being developed. Deviation at this level leads directly into concomitant variation at the level of sampling methodologies. As a result, the primate vigilance literature currently presents a diverse series of approaches to exploring subtly different behaviors and phenomena. This review calls for a greater consistency in studying vigilance, with the aim of encouraging future research to follow similar principles leading to more comparable results. Identifying whether an animal is in a vigilant state is challenging for most field researchers; identifying and recording a more general behavior of "looking" should though be more achievable. Experimental approaches could then be employed to understand the compatibility "looking" has with predator detection (and other threats) in individual study systems. The outcome of this approach will allow researchers to understand the key determinants of looking in their study groups and explore threat detection probabilities given an individual or group's relative level of looking.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia Física/métodos
Antropologia Física/normas
Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
Primatas/fisiologia
Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
Predomínio Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23381


  6 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29265189
[Au] Autor:Ellison PT
[Ad] Endereço:Editor-in-chief, American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
[Ti] Título:One hundred years and counting.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165(1):3, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia Física/história
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
I Guerra Mundial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL; HISTORICAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23377


  7 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28748526
[Au] Autor:Allen KG; von Cramon-Taubadel N
[Ad] Endereço:Buffalo Human Evolutionary Morphology Lab, Department of Anthropology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 14261.
[Ti] Título:A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;164(3):477-487, 2017 11.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D -matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian. RESULTS: Affinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cefalometria/métodos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia
Migração Humana/história
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Antropologia Física
Feminino
História do Século XVI
História do Século XVII
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Hungria/etnologia
Masculino
Império Otomano/etnologia
Romênia/etnologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23287


  8 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28467628
[Au] Autor:Couoh LR
[Ad] Endereço:Postgraduate Division, Faculty of Philosophy and Literature, Institute of Anthropological Research, The National Autonomous University of Mexico [UNAM], Coyoacán, Mexico city, 04510, Mexico.
[Ti] Título:Differences between biological and chronological age-at-death in human skeletal remains: A change of perspective.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;163(4):671-695, 2017 08.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: This analysis seeks to determine whether differences between real and estimated chronological age (CA) with biological age (BA) in skeletal individuals reflect variability in aging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 87 individuals of two samples, ranging from 20 to 94 years old, were analyzed. One, partially documented, belongs to a Mexican skeletal collection dating to the 20th century; the other is an assemblage of prehispanic individuals from different archaeological sites. In all specimens, the tooth annulation method (TCA) was applied to estimate CA, while-excluding individuals older than 80 years-auricular surface (AS) and pubic symphysis (PS) methods were used to estimate BA. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify correlations and significance of the differences between CA vs. TCA, CA vs. AS/PS, TCA vs. AS/PS. Sex of individuals was assessed for its influence in aging. RESULTS: The use of TCA to estimate CA was successful for most individuals. A strong correlation was found between CA vs. TCA, CA vs. AS/PS, TCA vs. AS/PS and their differences were significant but variation in these were found when assessed by separate age groups. Sex did not influence such differences. DISCUSSION: TCA can be used to estimate CA and its differences with BA, being less than 10 years, are similar to those found in living populations. Differences between CA and BA are due to intra-population variability, which could be the consequence of individual differences in aging. More research is needed to have confidence that under- and overestimations of BA are indicators of aging variability at the level of the individual.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos
Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Antropologia Física
Cemento Dentário/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Índios Centro-Americanos
Masculino
México
Meia-Idade
Modelos Estatísticos
Raiz Dentária/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23236


  9 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28464269
[Au] Autor:Cameron N; Bogin B; Bolter D; Berger LR
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Global Health and Human Development, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:The postcranial skeletal maturation of Australopithecus sediba.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;163(3):633-640, 2017 07.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: In 2008, an immature hominin defined as the holotype of the new species Australopithecus sediba was discovered at the 1.9 million year old Malapa site in South Africa. The specimen (MH1) includes substantial post-cranial skeletal material, and provides a unique opportunity to assess its skeletal maturation. METHODS: Skeletal maturity indicators observed on the proximal and distal humerus, proximal ulna, distal radius, third metacarpal, ilium and ischium, proximal femur and calcaneus were used to assess the maturity of each bone in comparison to references for modern humans and for wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). RESULTS: In comparison to humans the skeletal maturational ages for Au. sediba correspond to between 12.0 years and 15.0 years with a mean (SD) age of 13.1 (1.1) years. In comparison to the maturational pattern of chimpanzees the Au. sediba indicators suggest a skeletal maturational age of 9-11 years. Based on either of these skeletal maturity estimates and the body length at death of MH1, an adult height of 150-156 cm is predicted. DISCUSSION: We conclude that the skeletal remains of MH1 are consistent with an ape-like pattern of maturity when dental age estimates are also taken into consideration. This maturity schedule in australopiths is consistent with ape-like estimates of age at death for the Nariokotome Homo erectus remains (KMN-WT 15000), which are of similar postcranial immaturity to MH1. The findings suggest that humans may have distinctive and delayed post-cranial schedules from australopiths and H. erectus, implicating a recent evolution of somatic and possibly life history strategies in human evolution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Fósseis
Hominidae/anatomia & histologia
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antropologia Física
Hominidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23234


  10 / 3281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28464262
[Au] Autor:Reales G; Rovaris DL; Jacovas VC; Hünemeier T; Sandoval JR; Salazar-Granara A; Demarchi DA; Tarazona-Santos E; Felkl AB; Serafini MA; Salzano FM; Bisso-Machado R; Comas D; Paixão-Côrtes VR; Bortolini MC
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:A tale of agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers: Exploring the thrifty genotype hypothesis in native South Americans.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;163(3):591-601, 2017 07.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To determine genetic differences between agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer southern Native American populations for selected metabolism-related markers and to test whether Neel's thrifty genotype hypothesis (TGH) could explain the genetic patterns observed in these populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 375 Native South American individuals from 17 populations were genotyped using six markers (APOE rs429358 and rs7412; APOA2 rs5082; CD36 rs3211883; TCF7L2 rs11196205; and IGF2BP2 rs11705701). Additionally, APOE genotypes from 39 individuals were obtained from the literature. AMOVA, main effects, and gene-gene interaction tests were performed. RESULTS: We observed differences in allele distribution patterns between agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers for some markers. For instance, between-groups component of genetic variance (F ) for APOE rs429358 showed strong differences in allelic distributions between hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists (p = 0.00196). Gene-gene interaction analysis indicated that the APOE E4/CD36 TT and APOE E4/IGF2BP2 A carrier combinations occur at a higher frequency in hunter-gatherers, but this combination is not replicated in archaic (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and ancient (Anzick, Saqqaq, Ust-Ishim, Mal'ta) hunter-gatherer individuals. DISCUSSION: A complex scenario explains the observed frequencies of the tested markers in hunter-gatherers. Different factors, such as pleotropic alleles, rainforest selective pressures, and population dynamics, may be collectively shaping the observed genetic patterns. We conclude that although TGH seems a plausible hypothesis to explain part of the data, other factors may be important in our tested populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/história
Índios Sul-Americanos/genética
Índios Sul-Americanos/história
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Física
Apolipoproteínas E/genética
Antígenos CD36/genética
Genótipo
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (ApoE protein, human); 0 (Apolipoproteins E); 0 (CD36 Antigens); 0 (IGF2BP2 protein, human); 0 (RNA-Binding Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23233



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