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[PMID]:29231006
[Au] Autor:Sun ZW; Shi TT; Fu PX
[Ad] Endereço:Beijing Ankang Hospital, Beijing 101300, China.
[Ti] Título:[Characteristics of Schizophrenia Patients' Homicide Behaviors and Their Correlations with Criminal Capacity].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(1):32-35, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristics of schizophrenia patients' homicide behaviors and the influences of the assessments of criminal capacity. METHODS: Indicators such as demographic and clinical data, characteristics of criminal behaviors and criminal capacity from the suspects whom were diagnosed by forensic psychiatry as schizophrenia ( =110) and normal mental ( =70) with homicide behavior, were collected by self-made investigation form and compared. The influences of the assessments of criminal capacity on the suspects diagnosed as schizophrenia were also analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant statistical differences between the schizophrenic group and the normal mental group concerning age, gender, education and marital status ( >0.05). There were significant statistical differences between the two groups concerning thought disorder, emotion state and social function before crime ( <0.05) and there were significant statistical differences in some characteristics of the case such as aggressive history ( <0.05), cue, trigger, plan, criminal incentives, object of crime, circumstance cognition and self-protection ( <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that thought disorder, emotion state, social function, criminal incentives, plan and self-protection before crime of the schizophrenic group were positively correlated with the criminal capacity ( <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The relevant influences of psychopathology and crime characteristics should be considered comprehensively for improving the accuracy of the criminal capacity evaluation on the suspects diagnosed as schizophrenia with homicide behavior.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agressão/psicologia
Crime
Homicídio/psicologia
Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criminosos
Psiquiatria Legal
Seres Humanos
Motivação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.01.008


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[PMID]:28471338
[Au] Autor:Coburn PI; Chong K; Connolly DA
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Psychology , Simon Fraser University , Burnaby , British Columbia , Canada.
[Ti] Título:The Effect of Case Severity on Sentence Length in Cases of Child Sexual Assault in Canada.
[So] Source:J Child Sex Abus;26(3):319-333, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1547-0679
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Surprisingly, little research exists on the determination of sentence length in cases of child sexual assault. This is striking given the profound short-term and long-term consequences this crime can have on victims and their families. Previous research shows that severity of the offense commonly accounts for much of the variability in sentences in this context. A critical point, however, is that the definition of offense severity varies widely and is often confounded with the age of the complainant. The current archival study, through the examination of 1,783 judicial sentencing decisions, evaluated the effects of key variables on length of sentence in cases of child sexual assault in Canada. Length of sentence increased as intrusiveness of the offense increased, as frequency increased, and as age decreased for children who experienced the most intrusive forms of abuse. In addition, offenders who pleaded guilty received shorter sentences than offenders who pleaded not guilty.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abuso Sexual na Infância/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Fatores Etários
Canadá
Criança
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10538712.2017.1283651


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[PMID]:29384344
[Au] Autor:Brooks T
[Ti] Título:Alcohol and Controlling Risks through Nudges.
[So] Source:New Bioeth;21(1):46-55, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2050-2885
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article examines the relation of risks and public policy through the lens of alcohol and crime. Alcohol thus lives a double-life as a fountain of celebration while also a wellspring of potentially serious harms. The issue of how risks might be managed much better is approached through considering three different arenas within the criminal law concluding that it is a crude mechanism for grappling with complex issues of criminal responsibility for any higher risks associated with becoming under the influence. The article defends the use of nudges as an under explored area for public policy decision-making and proposes new policies based on them.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Direito Penal
Política Pública
Risco
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Crime
Tomada de Decisões
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29176519
[Au] Autor:Brewer-Smyth K; Pohlig RT
[Ad] Endereço:Author Affiliations: College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware.
[Ti] Título:Risk Factors for Women Being Under the Influence of Alcohol Compared With Other Illicit Substances at the Time of Committing Violent Crimes.
[So] Source:J Forensic Nurs;13(4):186-195, 2017 Oct/Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1939-3938
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: We investigated women under the influence of alcohol compared with other illicit substances at the time of committing a crime to identify predictors of being under the influence of alcohol and female-enacted crime. METHODS: Analyses of data, obtained from private interviews and examinations of female prison inmates, included regression analyses exploring predictors of being under the influence of alcohol at the time of the crime and predictors of violent crime. In addition, a reanalysis of a previously reported model, predicting conviction of a violent crime, was conducted including a new variable, being under the influence of alcohol at the time of the crime. RESULTS: Those under the influence of alcohol at the time of their crime had experienced greater nonfamilial childhood sexual abuse and traumatic brain injuries with loss of consciousness predating their crime. They were more likely to have committed a violent, rather than nonviolent, crime compared with those under the influence of other substances, with the latter being not significantly different for those not under the influence of any substance. Being under the influence of alcohol increased the risk of committing a violent crime, adjusting for other predictors of female violence. CONCLUSION: Women under the influence of alcohol are at a greater risk for committing violent crimes than those under the influence of other substances. Female nonfamilial childhood sexual abuse and traumatic brain injury victims were at a higher risk for being under the influence of alcohol, in comparison with other substances, at the time of committing a violent crime.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia
Crime
Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos
Violência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Adultos Sobreviventes de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Fatores de Risco
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
Inconsciência/epidemiologia
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/JFN.0000000000000177


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[PMID]:29359897
[Au] Autor:Berry MD
[Ad] Endereço:Thomson Reuters Accelus.
[Ti] Título:Business of Health: Business of Healthcare.
[So] Source:Issue Brief Health Policy Track Serv;2017:1-76, 2017 Dec 26.
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
Seguro Saúde/organização & administração
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislação & jurisprudência
Política
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aborto Legal
Analgésicos Opioides
Doença Crônica
Crime
Revelação
Custos de Medicamentos
Indústria Farmacêutica
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência
Fraude
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Seres Humanos
Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos
Marketing de Serviços de Saúde
Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde
Enfermagem/recursos humanos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides
Pessoas Transgênero
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics, Opioid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:T
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180124
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29346394
[Au] Autor:Sauerland M; Sagana A; Sporer SL; Wixted JT
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Decision time and confidence predict choosers' identification performance in photographic showups.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190416, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In vast contrast to the multitude of lineup studies that report on the link between decision time, confidence, and identification accuracy, only a few studies looked at these associations for showups, with results varying widely across studies. We therefore set out to test the individual and combined value of decision time and post-decision confidence for diagnosing the accuracy of positive showup decisions using confidence-accuracy characteristic curves and Bayesian analyses. Three-hundred-eighty-four participants viewed a stimulus event and were subsequently presented with two showups which could be target-present or target-absent. As expected, we found a negative decision time-accuracy and a positive post-decision confidence-accuracy correlation for showup selections. Confidence-accuracy characteristic curves demonstrated the expected additive effect of combining both postdictors. Likewise, Bayesian analyses, taking into account all possible target-presence base rate values showed that fast and confident identification decisions were more diagnostic than slow or less confident decisions, with the combination of both being most diagnostic for postdicting accurate and inaccurate decisions. The postdictive value of decision time and post-decision confidence was higher when the prior probability that the suspect is the perpetrator was high compared to when the prior probability that the suspect is the perpetrator was low. The frequent use of showups in practice emphasizes the importance of these findings for court proceedings. Overall, these findings support the idea that courts should have most trust in showup identifications that were made fast and confidently, and least in showup identifications that were made slowly and with low confidence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Crime
Tomada de Decisões
Reconhecimento Facial
Fotografia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Teorema de Bayes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190416


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[PMID]:27770695
[Au] Autor:Carrieri P; Vilotitch A; Nordmann S; Lions C; Michel L; Mora M; Morel A; Maradan G; Spire B; Roux P; Methaville Study Group
[Ad] Endereço:INSERM U912 (SESSTIM), Marseille, France; Université Aix Marseille, IRD, UMR-S912, Marseille, France; ORS PACA, Observatoire Régional de la Santé Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur, Marseille, France.
[Ti] Título:Decrease in self-reported offences and incarceration rates during methadone treatment: A comparison between patients switching from buprenorphine to methadone and maintenance treatment incident users (ANRS-Methaville trial).
[So] Source:Int J Drug Policy;39:86-91, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4758
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Patients receiving buprenorphine who are poor responders can continue to commit drug-related offences. Switching them from buprenorphine to methadone may result in reduced criminal behaviour. We compared self-reported offences and incarceration before and after starting methadone treatment of patients switching from buprenorphine (PSB) and maintenance treatment incident users (MIU). METHODS: Data on offences, incarceration and other information, were obtained via a telephone interview. Mixed models were used to assess the impact of methadone initiation and being PSB or MIU on (1) the number of days when offences were committed (drug sale, drug purchase, other offences) and (2) experiencing incarceration during the previous 6 months. RESULTS: Among the 176 patients with at least one assessment for self-reported offences, 51.7% were PSB. Receiving methadone was significantly associated with a reduction in the number of days when drug sale or drug purchase offences were committed, but not other offences. PSB and MIU groups were different only for drug purchase, as PSB were more likely to have a higher number of days of drug purchase from month 3 onwards. A reduction of 77% in the likelihood of experiencing incarceration was observed and this was comparable in PSB and MIU. CONCLUSION: Switching non-responding buprenorphine patients to methadone can result in a major reduction in offences and incarceration rates. Increasing access to methadone, using more flexible models of care is urgent for clinical and public health reasons.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos
Metadona/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Tráfico de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
França
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
Autorrelato
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
40D3SCR4GZ (Buprenorphine); UC6VBE7V1Z (Methadone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27770693
[Au] Autor:Hayhurst KP; Pierce M; Hickman M; Seddon T; Dunn G; Keane J; Millar T
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Mental Health and Safety, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address: karen.hayhurst@manchester.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Pathways through opiate use and offending: A systematic review.
[So] Source:Int J Drug Policy;39:1-13, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4758
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Although evidence points to a strong link between illicit drug use and crime, robust evidence for temporal order in the relationship is scant. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence for pathways through opiate/crack cocaine use and offending to determine temporal order. METHODS: A systematic review sourced five databases, three online sources, bibliographies and citation mapping. Inclusion criteria were: focus on opiate/crack use, and offending; pre-drug use information; longitudinal design; corroborative official crime records. Rate ratios (RR) of post-drug use initiation to pre-drug use initiation were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: 20 studies were included; UK (9) and US (11). All were of opiate use. Mean age at (recorded) offending onset (16.7yrs) preceded mean age at opiate-use onset (19.6yrs). Substantial heterogeneity (over 80%: unexplained by meta-regression) meant that RRs were not pooled. The RR for total (recorded) offending ranged from 0.71 to 25.7 (10 studies; 22 subsamples: positive association, 4: equivocal, 1: negative association). Positive associations were observed in 14/15 independent samples; unlikely to be a chance finding (sign test p=0.001). Individual offence types were examined: theft (RR 0.63-8.3, 13 subsamples: positive, 9: equivocal, 1 negative); burglary (RR 0.74-50.0, 9 subsamples: positive, 13: equivocal); violence (RR 0.39-16.0, 6 subsamples: positive, 15: equivocal); and robbery (RR 0.50-5.0, 5 subsamples: positive, 15: equivocal). CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence suggests that onset-opiate use accelerates already-existing offending, particularly for theft. However, evidence is out of date, with studies characterised by heterogeneity and failure to use a matched non-opiate-user comparison group to better-establish whether onset-opiate use is associated with additional crime.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Crime/estatística & dados numéricos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idade de Início
Seres Humanos
Reino Unido/epidemiologia
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29271626
[Au] Autor:Starr L
[Ti] Título:WHAT IS THE CRIMINAL REGISTRATION STANDARD?
[So] Source:Aust Nurs Midwifery J;24(9):19, 2017 04.
[Is] ISSN:2202-7114
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Under the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act (2009) in each Australian jurisdiction registered health practitioners, and in some instances students are required to provide their National Board with certain information when applying for registration.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Certificação/legislação & jurisprudência
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência
Pessoal de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Austrália
Conselho Diretor
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180118
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180118
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171223
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29211735
[Au] Autor:Ariel B; Bland M; Sutherland A
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:'Lowering the threshold of effective deterrence'-Testing the effect of private security agents in public spaces on crime: A randomized controlled trial in a mass transit system.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0187392, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Supplementing local police forces is a burgeoning multibillion-dollar private security industry. Millions of formal surveillance agents in public settings are tasked to act as preventative guardians, as their high visibility presence is hypothesized to create a deterrent threat to potential offenders. Yet, rigorous evidence is lacking. We randomly assigned all train stations in the South West of England that experienced crime into treatment and controls conditions over a six-month period. Treatment consisted of directed patrol by uniformed, unarmed security agents. Hand-held trackers on every agent yielded precise measurements of all patrol time in the stations. Count-based regression models, estimated marginal means and odds-ratios are used to assess the effect of these patrols on crimes reported to the police by victims, as well as new crimes detected by police officers. Outcomes are measured at both specified target locations to which security guards were instructed to attend, as well as at the entire station complexes. Analyses show that 41% more patrol visits and 29% more minutes spent by security agents at treatment compared to control stations led to a significant 16% reduction in victim-generated crimes at the entirety of the stations' complexes, with a 49% increase in police-generated detections at the target locations. The findings illustrate the efficacy of private policing for crime prevention theory.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Crime
Setor Público
Medidas de Segurança
Transportes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171207
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0187392



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