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[PMID]:29253857
[Au] Autor:Burgueño E; Carlos S; Lopez-Del Burgo C; Osorio A; Stozek M; Ndarabu A; Muamba P; Tshisuaka P; De Irala J
[Ad] Endereço:CEFA-Monkole, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
[Ti] Título:Forced sexual intercourse and its association with HIV status among people attending HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in a healthcare center in Kinshasa (DRC).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189632, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Sexual violence, an HIV determinant, is an integrated behavior in the D.R.Congo. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of forced sexual intercourse (FSI) among people receiving HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in a hospital in Kinshasa, and its association with socio-demographics, behaviors and HIV status. METHODOLOGY: Case-control study (2010-2012). Two-hundred and seventy-four cases with a new HIV+ test and 1,340 controls with an HIV- test were interviewed about HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, including FSI. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of the participants declared having had FSI (38% of women and 32% of men). Being a woman, aged 25-49 and reporting multiple sexual partners were associated with reporting FSI. For men, being single was protective against FSI; and cohabiting, having a high socioeconomic status, and alcohol consumption increased the odds. For women, being single, divorced/separated and widow was associated with reporting FSI. A significant positive association was found between FSI and an HIV positive test. CONCLUSION: Among our Congolese population, FSI was strongly associated with HIV infection and it was also associated with alcohol consumption and multiple sexual partnerships, other key HIV determinants. These behaviors need to be identified as potential risk factors of FSI during counseling interventions. Researchers, practitioners and decision-makers should work together to get violence prevention integrated into health, social and educational policies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coito
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Estupro
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Aconselhamento
República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia
Feminino
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico
Soropositividade para HIV
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Prevalência
Fatores de Risco
Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
Parceiros Sexuais
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189632


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[PMID]:29176826
[Au] Autor:Boutwell BB; Nelson EJ; Qian Z; Vaughn MG; Wright JP; Beaver KM; Barnes JC; Petkovsek M; Lewis R; Schootman M; Rosenfeld R
[Ad] Endereço:School of Social Work, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0187953, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:CONTEXT: An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. OBJECTIVE: The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. DESIGN: Ecological study. SETTING: St. Louis, Missouri. EXPOSURE MEASURE: Blood lead levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. RESULTS: With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Armas de Fogo
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
Chumbo/sangue
Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos
Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Geografia
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Missouri/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
2P299V784P (Lead)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0187953


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[PMID]:29040329
[Au] Autor:Abrahams N; Mathews S; Lombard C; Martin LJ; Jewkes R
[Ad] Endereço:Gender & Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town & Pretoria, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Sexual homicides in South Africa: A national cross-sectional epidemiological study of adult women and children.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186432, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:METHODS: We conducted a retrospective national mortuary based study to identify all adult female homicides (18 years and older) and all child homicides (boys and girls < 18 years) in 2009 in a randomly selected, proportionate sample of mortuaries. Victim, perpetrator and crime data were collected in three processes: from the mortuary register, the autopsy report and from police with the identification of sexual homicides validated across the data collection processes. FINDINGS: Among the 2670 (95% CI: 2311-2979) adult women killed in 2009, 494 (95% CI: 406-574) were identified as sexual homicides which was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.6-22.0) of all adult female homicides and among 1277 (95% CI: 1091-1462) children killed in SA, sexual homicides were found in 104 (95% CI: 77-132) of the child homicides which was 8.7% (95% CI: 10.9-11.2%) of these murders. Strangulation was the most common cause of death for both children and adult females. A distinct age and sex pattern was found among children with only 1% boy child death identified as a sexual homicide and 92% of all the child sexual homicides were among girls. Strangulation was the most common manner of death among children (35.5%) and perpetrators were seldom strangers. However, no difference in the proportion of convictions between the sexual homicides and non-sexual homicides were found for both adult females and children. CONCLUSION: Rape homicide is not a rare event in South Africa, with one in five female homicides and nearly one in ten child homicides identified with an associated sexual crime. These high prevalences are amongst the highest levels reported in the literature with our study among the few reporting on the epidemiology of child sexual homicide. Reducing mortality is an important policy goal for South Africa and for the rest of the world and the prevention of female and child homicide is an important part of attaining this goal.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Asfixia/epidemiologia
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Distribuição por Idade
Asfixia/mortalidade
Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos
Criança
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Necrotério/estatística & dados numéricos
Prevalência
Estudos Retrospectivos
Distribuição por Sexo
África do Sul/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171018
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186432


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[PMID]:28934344
[Au] Autor:Harrison RE; Pearson L; Vere M; Chonzi P; Hove BT; Mabaya S; Chigwamba M; Nhamburo J; Gura J; Vandeborne A; Simons S; Lagrou D; De Plecker E; Van den Bergh R
[Ad] Endereço:MSF-OCB, Harare, Zimbabwe.
[Ti] Título:Care requirements for clients who present after rape and clients who presented after consensual sex as a minor at a clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, from 2011 to 2014.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184634, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:STUDY GOALS: To describe the differences between clients presenting after rape and clients who have consented to sex as a minor to an SGBV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, and how these differences affect their care requirements. BACKGROUND: Adolescents and adults presenting at the specialized Sexual and Gender Based Violence clinic in Harare are offered a standardised package of free medical and psychosocial care. Zimbabwe has an HIV prevalence of 14%, so prevention of HIV infection using PEP for those that present within 72 hours is a key part of the response. STI treatment, emergency contraceptive pills, referral for termination of pregnancy, psychological, social and legal support is also provided. METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study of routine programmatic data collected at the Edith Opperman polyclinic in Mbare SGBV clinic from 2011 to 2014. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to describe the different experiences and the differences in uptake of care between clients presenting for rape compared to those who consented to sex as a minor. RESULTS: During the study period a total of 3617 clients presented to the clinic. 2242 (62%) sought care after rape, 602 (17%) for having consented to sex as a minor and 395 (11%) for suspected sexual abuse. 1615 (45%) of people presenting were 12-15 year olds. Minors who consented to sex compared to survivors of rape were less likely to report within 72 hours- 156 (26%) vs 894 (40%) p<0.001; less likely to report that they delayed due to fear- 68 (17%) vs 472 (40%) p<0.001, less likely to have experienced accompanying violence- 9 (1%) vs 176 (8%) p<0.001 or physical trauma-34 (6%) vs 427 (19%) p<0.001; and less likely to display psychological symptoms at presentation 51 (8%) vs 411 (18%) p<0.001. Minors who consented to sex compared to those who were raped were less likely to start PEP if eligible-123 (80%) vs 751 (93%) p<0.001, less likely to take emergency contraceptives if eligible-125 (81%) vs 598 (88%) p<0.001, more likely to be pregnant- 132 (23%) vs 241 (15%) p<0.001; less likely to request a termination of pregnancy if pregnant-10 (8%) vs 74 (31%) p<0.001; and less likely to come for at least one follow up 281 (47%) vs 1304 (58%) p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The experiences of those who consent to sex as a minor and those that have experienced forced sex were very different. The standardised SGBV medical response does not fully meet the needs to protect minors who have consented to sex from HIV or unwanted pregnancies. Clients who present for having consented to sex as a minor might benefit more from being offered long-term family planning or being assessed as a sero-discordant couple rather than simply PEP and ECP as is relevant for clients who have been raped. More provision of health care is needed for minors to ensure they have access to enough information and protection from HIV, other STIs and unwanted pregnancy, before they decide to engage in sexual intercourse, rather than as an emergency at an SGBV clinic.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abuso Sexual na Infância
Serviços de Saúde
Menores de Idade
Estupro
Comportamento Sexual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Fatores Etários
Criança
Anticoncepção Pós-Coito
Serviços Médicos de Emergência
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar
Feminino
Seguimentos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Gravidez
Gravidez não Desejada
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
Zimbábue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184634


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[PMID]:28873087
[Au] Autor:Jewkes R; Fulu E; Tabassam Naved R; Chirwa E; Dunkle K; Haardörfer R; Garcia-Moreno C; UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence Study Team
[Ad] Endereço:Gender & Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council and School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Pretoria, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Women's and men's reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women's risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(9):e1002381, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific. A further objective is to describe the risk factors associated with women's experience of past-year physical or sexual IPV from women's reports and factors driving women's past-year experience of partner violence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This paper presents findings from the United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. In the course of this study, in population-based cross-sectional surveys, 5,206 men and 3,106 women aged 18-49 years were interviewed from 4 countries: Cambodia, China, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Sri Lanka. To measure risk factors, we use logistic regression and structural equation modelling to show pathways and mediators. The analysis was not based on a written plan, and following a reviewer's comments, some material was moved to supplementary files and the regression was performed without variable elimination. Men reported more lifetime perpetration of IPV (physical or sexual IPV range 32.5%-80%) than women did experience (physical or sexual IPV range 27.5%-67.4%), but women's reports of past-year experience (physical or sexual IPV range 8.2%-32.1%) were not very clearly different from men's (physical or sexual IPV range 10.1%-34.0%). Women reported much more emotional/economic abuse (past-year ranges 1.4%-5.7% for men and 4.1%-27.7% for women). Reports of nonpartner rape were similar for men (range 0.8%-1.9% in the past year) and women (range 0.4%-2.3% in past year), except in Bougainville, where they were higher for men (11.7% versus 5.7%). The risk factor modelling shows 4 groups of variables to be important in experience of past-year sexual and/or physical IPV: (1) poverty, (2) all childhood trauma, (3) quarrelling and women's limited control in relationships, and (4) partner factors (substance abuse, unemployment, and infidelity). The population attributable fraction (PAF) was largest for quarrelling often, but the second greatest PAF was for the group related to exposure to violence in childhood. The relationship control variable group had the third highest PAF, followed by other partner factors. Currently married women were also more at risk. In the structural model, a resilience pathway showed less poverty, higher education, and more gender-equitable ideas were connected and conveyed protection from IPV. These are all amenable risk factors. This research was cross-sectional, so we cannot be sure of the temporal sequence of exposure, but the outcome being a past-year measure to some extent mitigates this problem. CONCLUSIONS: Past-year IPV indicators based on women's reported experience that were developed to track SDG 5 are probably reasonably reliable but will not always give the same prevalence as may be reported by men. Report validity requires further research. Interviews with men to track past-year nonpartner rape perpetration are feasible and important. The findings suggest a range of factors are associated with past-year physical and/or sexual IPV exposure; of particular interest is the resilience pathway suggested by the structural model, which is highly amenable to intervention and explains why combining economic empowerment of women and gender empowerment/relationship skills training has been successful. This study provides additional rationale for scaling up violence prevention interventions that combine economic and gender empowerment/relationship skills building of women, as well as the value of investing in girls' education with a view to long-term violence reduction.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos
Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Mulheres Agredidas/estatística & dados numéricos
Camboja/epidemiologia
China/epidemiologia
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Homens
Meia-Idade
Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia
Prevalência
Fatores de Risco
Autorrelato
Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
Mulheres
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170917
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170917
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170906
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002381


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[PMID]:28806368
[Au] Autor:Brignone E; Gundlapalli AV; Blais RK; Kimerling R; Barrett TS; Nelson RE; Carter ME; Samore MH; Fargo JD
[Ad] Endereço:*Informatics, Decision Enhancement, and Analytic Sciences Center, VA Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City †Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan ‡Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT §National Center for PTSD ∥Center for Innovation to Implementation, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA.
[Ti] Título:Increased Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Veterans With a Positive Screen for Military Sexual Trauma.
[So] Source:Med Care;55 Suppl 9 Suppl 2:S70-S77, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1537-1948
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The effects of sexual trauma on long-term health care utilization and costs are not well understood due to infrequent documentation of sexual trauma history in health care systems. The Veteran's Health Administration provides a unique opportunity to address this constraint as sexual trauma is actively screened for as part of routine care. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort design to analyze Veteran's Health Administration mental health and medical service utilization and costs as a function of a positive screen for exposure to military sexual trauma (MST) among Veterans of recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We computed adjusted 5-year estimates of overall utilization and costs, and utilization and costs determined not to be related to MST. RESULTS: The cohort included 426,223 men and 59,611 women. A positive MST screen was associated with 50% higher health care utilization and costs relative to a negative screen. Overall, a positive relative to negative MST screen was associated with a 5-year incremental difference of 34.6 encounters and $10,734 among women, and 33.5 encounters and $11,484 among men. After accounting for MST-related treatment, positive MST screen was associated with 11.9 encounters and $4803 among women, and 19.5 encounters and $8001 among men. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate significant and consistent differences in health care utilization and costs between Veterans with a positive relative to negative MST screen. Even after accounting for MST-related care, a positive screen was associated with significantly higher utilization and costs. MST-related needs may be more readily recognized in women relative to men.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos Mentais/economia
Militares/psicologia
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia
Veteranos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
Estupro/psicologia
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores Sexuais
Assédio Sexual/psicologia
Estados Unidos
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170815
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000767


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[PMID]:28704207
[Au] Autor:Casali MB; Palazzo E; Blandino A; Battistini A; Motta F; Kustermann A; Cattaneo C
[Ad] Endereço:From the *Institute of Legal Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan; and †SVSeD, Clinica Luigi Mangiagalli, Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
[Ti] Título:The Adult Male Rape Victim: Forensic Description of a Series of 57 Cases.
[So] Source:Am J Forensic Med Pathol;38(3):175-179, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1533-404X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86.8% of cases, mostly performed by a single assailant. Anogenital injuries were recorded in 61.4% of cases, whereas extragenital injuries in 35.1%: abrasions and perianal reddening were the most frequent acute anogenital marks, whereas the head and lower limbs were the body parts most commonly affected by blunt trauma. No clinically severe injuries were found. Anal and perianal swabs for semen detection tested positive in less than 20% cases, whereas oral swabs always tested negative. When performed, nearly 50% of cases tested positive in drug tests, above all for psychoactive substances. No definite forensic diagnosis in terms of confirmation of rape was possible on the basis of type and topography of injuries.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos
Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos
Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Amnésia/epidemiologia
Canal Anal/lesões
Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Itália/epidemiologia
Masculino
Estudos Retrospectivos
Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170714
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/PAF.0000000000000333


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[PMID]:28665832
[Au] Autor:Cappelletti S; Fiore PA; Bottoni E; Aromatario M
[Ad] Endereço:From the *Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopaedic Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome; and †State Police Health Service Department, Ministry of Interior, Rome, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Fourth-Degree Perineal Laceration in Nonconsenual Fisting: A Case Report, Brief Review of the Literature, and Medicolegal Issues.
[So] Source:Am J Forensic Med Pathol;38(3):258-261, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1533-404X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We present the case of an 18-year-old girl who was sexually assaulted with transanal forearm penetration resulting in a fourth-degree perineal laceration. Fisting is an uncommon sexual practice consisting in the penetration of the vagina, anus, or both of them with fingers, hand (fist) or forearm.Perineal lacerations are a relatively common finding in both consensual and nonconsensual fisting victims. Even though cases of fisting with first-, second-, and third-degree lacerations have been reported in literature, only one previous case of fourth-degree perineal laceration has been described in a woman, who died after anal fisting.The clinical and morphological findings related to this sexual practice have been presented. No previous reports concerning nonfatal cases of fourth-degree perineal laceration, due to anal fisting, exists in literature. We report a case in which the forensic evaluation and the identification of the sexual assault were delayed because of both the atypical and uncommon pattern of injury and the unconsciousness of the patient. The information gathered thanks to this article would support forensic pathologists and sexual assault forensic examiners in recognizing doubtful cases, and this is particularly important when the suspect of sexual assault arise.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Canal Anal/lesões
Períneo/lesões
Estupro
Vagina/lesões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Canal Anal/cirurgia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lacerações
Períneo/cirurgia
Vagina/cirurgia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/PAF.0000000000000324


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[PMID]:28589545
[Au] Autor:Möller A; Söndergaard HP; Helström L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Tonic immobility during sexual assault - a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.
[So] Source:Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand;96(8):932-938, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0412
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. RESULTS: Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p < 0.001) and psychiatric treatment history (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.26-3.19, p = 0.003) were associated with the tonic immobility response. CONCLUSIONS: Tonic immobility during rape is a common reaction associated with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia
Resposta de Imobilidade Tônica
Estupro
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170815
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170815
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170608
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/aogs.13174


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[PMID]:28493976
[Au] Autor:Papendick M; Bohner G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany.
[Ti] Título:"Passive victim - strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0177550, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Three experiments (total N = 464) were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents) when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179), participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor") on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active) than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent). In Study 2 (N = 95), labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?"), focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants' gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190), participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
Percepção
Estupro/psicologia
Sobreviventes/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Análise Fatorial
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170512
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0177550



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