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  1 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29377964
[Au] Autor:Stefan M; Holzmeister F; Müllauer A; Kirchler M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Banking and Finance, Leopold-Franzens Universität, Universitätsstraße 15, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
[Ti] Título:Ethnical discrimination in Europe: Field evidence from the finance industry.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191959, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The integration of ethnical minorities has been a hotly discussed topic in the political, societal, and economic debate. Persistent discrimination of ethnical minorities can hinder successful integration. Given that unequal access to investment and financing opportunities can cause social and economic disparities due to inferior economic prospects, we conducted a field experiment on ethnical discrimination in the finance sector with 1,218 banks in seven European countries. We contacted banks via e-mail, either with domestic or Arabic sounding names, asking for contact details only. We find pronounced discrimination in terms of a substantially lower response rate to e-mails from Arabic senders. Remarkably, the observed discrimination effect is robust for loan- and investment-related requests, across rural and urban locations of banks, and across countries.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Economia
Grupos Étnicos
Indústrias
Preconceito
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Europa (Continente)
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191959


  2 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29261363
[Au] Autor:Darrow JJ; Fuse Brown EC; Kesselheim AS
[Ad] Endereço:From the Program on Regulation, Therapeutics, and Law (PORTAL), Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (J.J.D., A.S.K.); and the Georgia State University College of Law, Atlanta (E.C.F.B.).
[Ti] Título:The Regulatory Accountability Act of 2017 - Implications for FDA Regulation and Public Health.
[So] Source:N Engl J Med;378(5):412-414, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1533-4406
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Regulamentação Governamental
Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência
United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Economia
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1056/NEJMp1711643


  3 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29228034
[Au] Autor:Yechiam E; Kauffmann A; Ashby NJS; Zahavi G
[Ad] Endereço:Max Wertheimer Minerva Center for Cognitive Studies, Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
[Ti] Título:On the relation between economic bubbles and effort gaps between sellers and buyers: An experimental study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189359, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Economic bubbles are an empirical puzzle because they do not readily fit the notion of an efficient market. We argue that bubbles are associated with a conflict and a gap in the allocation of effort during negotiation by sellers and buyers. We examined 21 experimental asset markets where in one condition players could buy and sell and in the other they could either buy or sell. The results indicated that when making concurrent buying and selling decisions the mean number of asks for sellers was 71% higher than the number of bids for buyers. Similar findings emerge in a re-analysis of data from Lei et al. (2001). Importantly, bubbles only emerged in markets where the number of asks was larger than that of bids. These findings indicate that bubbles are associated with increased negotiation effort when acting as a seller and diminished effort when acting as a buyer.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Economia
Investimentos em Saúde
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189359


  4 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29065145
[Au] Autor:Moosavi V; Isacchini G
[Ad] Endereço:Chair for Computer Aided Architectural Design, Department of Architecture, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186746, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Economia
Internacionalidade
Cadeias de Markov
Modelos Teóricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186746


  5 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29020029
[Au] Autor:Bardsley N; Büchs M; Schnepf SV
[Ad] Endereço:School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Something from nothing: Estimating consumption rates using propensity scores, with application to emissions reduction policies.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185538, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Consumption surveys often record zero purchases of a good because of a short observation window. Measures of distribution are then precluded and only mean consumption rates can be inferred. We show that Propensity Score Matching can be applied to recover the distribution of consumption rates. We demonstrate the method using the UK National Travel Survey, in which c.40% of motorist households purchase no fuel. Estimated consumption rates are plausible judging by households' annual mileages, and highly skewed. We apply the same approach to estimate CO2 emissions and outcomes of a carbon cap or tax. Reliance on means apparently distorts analysis of such policies because of skewness of the underlying distributions. The regressiveness of a simple tax or cap is overstated, and redistributive features of a revenue-neutral policy are understated.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dióxido de Carbono/análise
Economia
Pontuação de Propensão
Emissões de Veículos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Condução de Veículo
Características da Família
Gasolina/análise
Análise de Regressão
Inquéritos e Questionários
Viagem
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Gasoline); 0 (Vehicle Emissions); 142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171012
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185538


  6 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28981532
[Au] Autor:Rocha LS; Rocha FSA; Souza TTP
[Ad] Endereço:Brazilian Treasury Secretariat, Ministry of Finance, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Is the public sector of your country a diffusion borrower? Empirical evidence from Brazil.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185257, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We propose a diffusion process to describe the global dynamic evolution of credit operations at a national level given observed operations at a subnational level in a sovereign country. Empirical analysis with a unique dataset from Brazilian federate constituents supports the conclusions. Despite the heterogeneity observed in credit operations at a subnational level, the aggregated dynamics at a national level were accurately described by the proposed model. Results may guide management of public finances, particularly debt manager authorities in charge of reaching surplus targets.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Economia
Setor Público
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Pesquisa Empírica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171026
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171026
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185257


  7 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28973592
[Au] Autor:Rusterholz C
[Ad] Endereço:Birkbeck University, Swiss National Science Foundation, Powis square 36F, W112AY London.
[Ti] Título:Testing the Gräfenberg Ring in Interwar Britain: Norman Haire, Helena Wright, and the Debate over Statistical Evidence, Side Effects, and Intra-uterine Contraception.
[So] Source:J Hist Med Allied Sci;72(4):448-467, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1468-4373
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper examines the introduction to Britain of the Gräfenberg ring, an early version of what later became known as an intrauterine device (IUD). The struggle during the interwar years to establish the value of the ring provides an opportunity for a case study of the evaluation and acceptance of a new medical device. With the professionalization of the birth control movement and the expansion of birth control clinics in interwar Britain, efforts to develop better scientific means for contraception grew rapidly. At the end of the nineteenth century, methods for controlling fertility ranged from coitus interruptus and abstinence, to diverse substances ingested or placed into the vagina, to barrier methods. The first decades of the twentieth century brought early work on chemical contraceptives as well as a number of new intrauterine devices, among them the Gräfenberg ring. Developing a cheap, reliable, and widely acceptable contraceptive became a pressing goal for activists in the voluntary birth control movement in Britain between the wars. Yet, tensions developed over the best form of contraception to prescribe. By situating the Gräfenberg ring within the context of the debates and competition among British medical and birth control professionals, this paper reveals broader issues of power relationships and expertise in the assessment of a new medical technology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticoncepção/história
Dispositivos Intrauterinos/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tecnologia Biomédica
Anticoncepcionais/história
Economia
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar
Feminino
Fertilidade
História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos/efeitos adversos
Pesquisa
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Haire N; Wright H
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Contraceptive Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171025
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171025
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171004
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jhmas/jrx044


  8 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28949969
[Au] Autor:Al-Janabi H; Manca A; Coast J
[Ad] Endereço:Health Economics Unit, Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Predicting carer health effects for use in economic evaluation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184886, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Illnesses and interventions can affect the health status of family carers in addition to patients. However economic evaluation studies rarely incorporate data on health status of carers. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether changes in carer health status could be 'predicted' from the health data of those they provide care to (patients), as a means of incorporating carer outcomes in economic evaluation. METHODS: We used a case study of the family impact of meningitis, with 497 carer-patient dyads surveyed at two points. We used regression models to analyse changes in carers' health status, to derive predictive algorithms based on variables relating to the patient. We evaluated the predictive accuracy of different models using standard model fit criteria. RESULTS: It was feasible to estimate models to predict changes in carers' health status. However, the predictions generated in an external testing sample were poorly correlated with the observed changes in individual carers' health status. When aggregated, predictions provided some indication of the observed health changes for groups of carers. CONCLUSIONS: At present, a 'one-size-fits-all' predictive model of carer outcomes does not appear possible and further research aimed to identify predictors of carer's health status from (readily available) patient data is recommended. In the meanwhile, it may be better to encourage the targeted collection of carer data in primary research to enable carer outcomes to be better reflected in economic evaluation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cuidadores
Economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Família
Nível de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Meningite/enfermagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170927
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184886


  9 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28898374
[Au] Autor:Skinner J; Volpp KG
[Ad] Endereço:Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Practice, Hanover, New Hampshire.
[Ti] Título:Behavioral Economics and Health Insurance Reform-Reply.
[So] Source:JAMA;318(10):965, 2017 09 12.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Economia Comportamental
Seguro Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Economia
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia
Seres Humanos
Cobertura do Seguro/economia
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170925
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170925
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170913
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.10556


  10 / 26071 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28898371
[Au] Autor:Colloff E
[Ad] Endereço:Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California.
[Ti] Título:Behavioral Economics and Health Insurance Reform.
[So] Source:JAMA;318(10):964-965, 2017 09 12.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Economia Comportamental
Seguro Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Economia
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia
Seres Humanos
Cobertura do Seguro/economia
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170925
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170925
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170913
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.10548



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