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[PMID]:28741747
[Au] Autor:Carroll C; Hartl B; Goldman GT; Rohlf DJ; Treves A; Kerr JT; Ritchie EG; Kingsford RT; Gibbs KE; Maron M; Watson JEM
[Ad] Endereço:Klamath Center for Conservation Research, Orleans, CA, 95556, U.S.A.
[Ti] Título:Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.
[So] Source:Conserv Biol;31(5):967-975, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1523-1739
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Formulação de Políticas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Austrália
Canadá
Seres Humanos
Políticas
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180310
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180310
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170726
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cobi.12958


  2 / 1444 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29267410
[Au] Autor:Joly L
[Ad] Endereço:Université de Bordeaux, COMPTRASEC - UMR CNRS 5114.
[Ti] Título:[Employment of People with Mental Disorders in Terms of the Policies Developed by the European and International Institutions].
[Ti] Título:L'emploi des personnes atteintes de troubles psychiques à l'aune des politiques développées par les institutions européennes et internationales..
[So] Source:Sante Ment Que;42(2):17-30, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0383-6320
[Cp] País de publicação:Canada
[La] Idioma:fre
[Ab] Resumo:Objectives The aim of this article is to present an overview of the reflections led by various European and international organizations on the employment of people with mental disorders.Methods This study is based on data from websites of international organizations and interviews taken place with a disability specialist at the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and members of the European Commission.Results Unlike the French law of 11 February 2005 which refers expressly to psychic disability, this notion is not explicitly dedicated by various European and international legal rules. However, these standards like the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have adopted the contemporary model which presents disability as the result of an interaction between person and environment. Thus they acknowledge that disabled people include people suffering from mental disorders because in the person's environment, a psychiatric impairment could lead to limitations of activities or restrictions of social participation that constitute a situation of disability of psychiatric origin. Therefore, the legal mechanisms often do not provide appropriate answers to the characteristics of psychiatric disability.Besides, negative attitudes, stereotypes and discrimination towards people with a psychiatric disability are still observed in the workplace, in spite of intensified anti-discrimination legislation.This study inventories the different proposals to remedy to substantial barriers to the employment of people with a psychiatric condition. In the European Union's strategy for increasing the employment of these persons, particular consideration is given to put forward a series of key recommendations to improve practices of reasonable accommodation in the workplace. Nonetheless, it must be emphasized that it is necessary to conceive adequate measures in order to take into account the changeability and the unpredictability of mental disorders. Indeed, situations of psychiatric disability require flexibility and reactivity more than any other situation of disability. The discrimination experienced by people with a psychiatric disability is likely to continue as long as specific responses are not implemented. In this perspective, ILO highlights a number of best practices addressing the challenges of psychiatric disabled people's employment. That is why a disability network was created to share knowledge. The great added value of this network is the opportunity to share best practices between companies, best practices between countries in order to increase the ability to include people with mental disorders. Focus is put on strategies to combat discrimination in employment, by raising awareness, exploring measures and good practices to improve mental health in the workplace.Conclusion Finally, this study shows similar challenges in the prevention of the mental health and the issue of the psychiatric handicap, including to remedy to the insufficient attention paid to provide reasonable accommodation to persons with mental disorders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência
Transtornos Mentais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Europa (Continente)
Seres Humanos
Agências Internacionais
Pessoas com Deficiência Mental
Políticas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 1444 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27776744
[Au] Autor:Jobjörnsson S; Forster M; Pertile P; Burman CF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Late-stage pharmaceutical R&D and pricing policies under two-stage regulation.
[So] Source:J Health Econ;50:298-311, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1646
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We present a model combining the two regulatory stages relevant to the approval of a new health technology: the authorisation of its commercialisation and the insurer's decision about whether to reimburse its cost. We show that the degree of uncertainty concerning the true value of the insurer's maximum willingness to pay for a unit increase in effectiveness has a non-monotonic impact on the optimal price of the innovation, the firm's expected profit and the optimal sample size of the clinical trial. A key result is that there exists a range of values of the uncertainty parameter over which a reduction in uncertainty benefits the firm, the insurer and patients. We consider how different policy parameters may be used as incentive mechanisms, and the incentives to invest in R&D for marginal projects such as those targeting rare diseases. The model is calibrated using data on a new treatment for cystic fibrosis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Custos de Medicamentos
Indústria Farmacêutica
Pesquisa/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comércio
Análise Custo-Benefício
Seres Humanos
Políticas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:H
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 1444 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28450029
[Au] Autor:Drake E; Cadwell K; Dodgson JE
[Ad] Endereço:Expert Panel on Breastfeeding. Electronic address: eje@virginia.edu.
[Ti] Título:Call for improved military policy to support breastfeeding among U.S. armed forces.
[So] Source:Nurs Outlook;65(3):343-345, 2017 May - Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1528-3968
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aleitamento Materno
Militares
Políticas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29242336
[Au] Autor:Hoffmann D; Palumbo F; Ravel J; Roghmann MC; Rowthorn V; von Rosenvinge E
[Ad] Endereço:University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. dhoffmann@law.umaryland.edu.
[Ti] Título:Improving regulation of microbiota transplants.
[So] Source:Science;358(6369):1390-1391, 2017 12 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Clostridium/terapia
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/normas
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos
Fezes/microbiologia
Seres Humanos
Políticas
Segurança
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aaq0034


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[PMID]:29266051
[Au] Autor:Howard JT; Kotwal RS; Santos-Lazada AR; Martin MJ; Stockinger ZT
[Ad] Endereço:From the US Army Institute of Surgical Research (J.T.H.), Department of Defense Joint Trauma System (R.S.K., Z.T.S.), Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, Texas; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (R.S.K., M.J.M.), Bethesda, Maryland; Texas A&M Health Science Center, College of Medicine (R.S.K., M.J.M.), Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas; The Pennsylvania State University (A.R.S.), University Park, PA; Department of Surgery (M.J.M.), US Army, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington; and Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (Z.T.S.), US Navy, Falls Church, Virginia.
[Ti] Título:Reexamination of a Battlefield Trauma Golden Hour Policy.
[So] Source:J Trauma Acute Care Surg;84(1):11-18, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:2163-0763
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Most combat casualties who die, do so in the prehospital setting. Efforts directed toward alleviating prehospital combat trauma death, known as killed in action (KIA) mortality, have the greatest opportunity for eliminating preventable death. METHODS: Four thousand five hundred forty-two military casualties injured in Afghanistan from September 11, 2001, to March 31, 2014, were included in this retrospective analysis to evaluate proposed explanations for observed KIA reduction after a mandate by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates that transport of injured service members occur within 60 minutes. Using inverse probability weighting to account for selection bias, data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression and simulation analysis to estimate the effects of (1) gradual improvement, (2) damage control resuscitation, (3) harm from inadequate resources, (4) change in wound pattern, and (5) transport time on KIA mortality. RESULTS: The effect of gradual improvement measured as a time trend was not significant (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.03; p = 0.58). For casualties with military Injury Severity Score of 25 or higher, the odds of KIA mortality were 83% lower for casualties who needed and received prehospital blood transfusion (AOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06-0.51; p = 0.002); 33% lower for casualties receiving initial treatment by forward surgical teams (AOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.78; p < 0.001); 70%, 74%, and 87% lower for casualties with dominant injuries to head (AOR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.23-0.38; p < 0.001), abdomen (AOR, 0.26, 95% CI, 0.19-0.36; p < 0.001) and extremities (AOR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.09-0.17; p < 0.001); 35% lower for casualties categorized with blunt injuries (AOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92; p = 0.01); and 39% lower for casualties transported within one hour (AOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.51-0.74; p < 0.001). Results of simulations in which transport times had not changed after the mandate indicate that KIA mortality would have been 1.4% higher than observed, equating to 135 more KIA deaths (95% CI, 105-164). CONCLUSION: Reduction in KIA mortality is associated with early treatment capabilities, blunt mechanism, select body locations of injury, and rapid transport. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, level III.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Campanha Afegã de 2001-
Serviços Médicos de Emergência
Medicina Militar
Políticas
Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Transfusão de Sangue
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento
Masculino
Estudos Retrospectivos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180102
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180102
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000001727


  7 / 1444 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28922419
[Au] Autor:Collins PY; Pringle B; Alexander C; Darmstadt GL; Heymann J; Huebner G; Kutlesic V; Polk C; Sherr L; Shih A; Sretenov D; Zindel M
[Ad] Endereço:Office for Research on Disparities & Global Mental Health, US National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Global services and support for children with developmental delays and disabilities: Bridging research and policy gaps.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(9):e1002393, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pamela Collins and colleagues explain the research and policy approaches needed globally to ensure children with developmental delays and disabilities are fully included in health and education services.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia
Pessoas com Deficiência
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Pré-Escolar
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia
Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Políticas
Pesquisa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170924
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170924
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170919
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002393


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[PMID]:28818934
[Au] Autor:Roche DG
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, 2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. dominique.roche@mail.mcgill.ca.
[Ti] Título:Evaluating open-data policy.
[So] Source:Science;357(6352):654, 2017 08 18.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Políticas
Ciência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170819
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aan8158


  9 / 1444 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28727842
[Au] Autor:Singh SP; Swanson M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of International Affairs, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:How issue frames shape beliefs about the importance of climate change policy across ideological and partisan groups.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0181401, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We use an experiment to examine whether the way in which climate change is framed affects individuals' beliefs about its importance as a policy issue. We employ frames that emphasize national security, human rights, and environmental importance about the consequences of climate change. We find no evidence that issue frames have an overall effect on opinions about the importance of climate change policy. We do find some evidence that the effect of issue frames varies across ideological and partisan groups. Most notably, issue frames can lead Republicans and those on the political right to view climate change policy as less important. We conclude by discussing our findings relative to extant literature and considering the implications of our findings for those who seek to address the issue of climate change.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude
Mudança Climática
Cultura
Políticas
Política
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Meio Ambiente
Direitos Humanos
Seres Humanos
Modelos Psicológicos
Psicolinguística
Opinião Pública
Medidas de Segurança
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170925
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170925
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170721
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0181401


  10 / 1444 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28715164
[Au] Autor:Griffin J
[Ad] Endereço:National Conference of State Legislatures
[Ti] Título:Sexual Harassment Policies and Training in State Legislatures.
[So] Source:NCSL Legisbrief;25(26):1-2, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1068-2716
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:(1) Sexual harassment is a violation of The Civil Rights Act of 1964. (2) Most states do not require employers to conduct sexual harassment training. (3) Most sexual harassment training for state legislators occurs at their orientation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Empregados do Governo/legislação & jurisprudência
Capacitação em Serviço/legislação & jurisprudência
Assédio Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Empregados do Governo/educação
Seres Humanos
Políticas
Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle
Governo Estadual
Estados Unidos
Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170804
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170804
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:T
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170718
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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